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Full text of "Gettysburg College Catalog"

M Course Catalogue ! 






2001-2002 










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Gettysburg 

y COLLEGE * 



Table of Contents 



GETTYSBURG COLLEGE— THE COMMUNITY 

ADMISSION 

Admission Evaluation, C'-ampiis Visit, 
Admission with Advanced C'redii and 
Placement, International Student 
Admission, Statistical Summary 

EXPENSES/SERVICES 

Comprehensive Fee Plan, VA Benefits, 
Payment Plans, Insurance 

FINANCIAL AID 

Student Financial Aid, Presidential 
Scholars Program, Grants, Loans 

STUDENT SERVICES 

Residence Life, Interculuiral 
Advancement, Dining, Health Center, 
Counseling, Career Planning 

COLLEGE LIFE 

Suident Conduct, Honor Code, (College 
Union, Student Government, Programs 
and Activities, Campus Media, Greek 
Organizations, Chapel Programs, Center 
for Public Ser\ice, Athletics, Campus 
Recreation 

FACILITIES 



ACADEMIC POLICIES AND PROGRAMS 

Academic Purposes, Degree 
Requirements, Special Major, Academic 
Advising, Senior Scholars' Seminar, 
Academic Internships, rhc CHIysburg 
Rmino, Off-{"ampus Study, Dual-Degree 
Programs, Preprofessional Studies 

ACADEMIC REGULATIONS 

Registration, Grading, Residence 
Requirements, Transcripts, Withdrawal 

ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT 

Graduation Honors, Dean's List, Phi Beta 
Kappa, Alpha Lambda Delta 

COURSES OF STUDY 

ANNUAL PRIZES AND AWARDS 

ENDOWMENT FUNDS 



The pmvlsion.'i of this rrilrilogue arc iiol 



lo be regarded as an irrmocahle conlrarl 
between Ihe College and the sliidenl. The 
College reserves Ihe right to change any 
provision or requirement at any time. 
This right lo change provisions and 



to, the right to reduce or eliminate 
course offerings in academic fields and 
to add recfuirements for graduation. 



Trustees, Faculty, Administration 



Gettysburg College 

Course Catalogue 2001-2002 



Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 



Gettysburg College — The Community 



A HERITAGE OF EXCELLENCE 



As lue begin the twenty-Jirst century, higher education faces a new world of change and 
challenge. Revolutionary advances in technology, unprecedented access to information, a rich 
diversity of perspectives, and frequent calls to social action will demand more from a liberal 
arts education than etm before. Leading colleges must respond urith innovative programs, appropriate 
resources, and excef)tional teaching. ♦ At Gettysburg College, ive are committed to preparing our students 
for the opportunities of this changing loorld. Our founding principles embrace a rigorous liberal arts 
education that fosters a global perspective, a spirit of collaboration, a dedication to public service, and 
an enriching campus life. We believe that this approach to education instills in Gettysburg College 
students a life-long desire for learning, a drive for discovery and contribution, and a compassionate 
respect for others and our world. 



Dedicated to Success 

The history of Gettysburg College has 
intersected with events of political, social, and 
global significance. Chartered in 1832, Gettysburg 
(College was born in an era of dramatic change. 
Our young nation faced political and economic 
challenges, pioneers pushed into new frontiers, 
and academic institiuions were established that 
would become today's finest colleges and 
universities. 

In 1863, Union and Confederate soldiers 
clashed on the fields of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania Hall, the first building on campus, 
served as a temporary hospital for the wounded 
from both sides. Today, its name appears on the 
National Register of Historic Places. On 
November 19, 1863, Gettysburg College students 
witnessed the legendary address of Abraham 
Lincoln, which to this day links our country's 
sixteenth president with Gettysburg in the 
minds of Americans. 

Years later, President Dwight D. Eisenhower 
arrived at Gettysburg, sharing his experience 
and insights as a national leader. Following his 
term, Eisenhower returned to Gettysburg to 
write his memoirs in what is now Eisenhower 
House, the college admissions office. Visits by 
Elie Wiesel, General Colin Powell, and leaders 
from the American Civil Liberties Union, the 
civil rights movement, and the Peace Corps 
continue to demonstrate Gettysburg College's 
dedication to issues of global importance. 

Today, Gettysburg College continues to 
champion independent thinking and public 
action by providing students with the abilities to 
reason and commimicate, and the incentive to 
make a difference in our world. A Gett)sburg 
College education blends a rigorous foundation 



in the sciences, the social sciences, and the 
humanities with a highly personal atmosphere 
of challenge and support. The curricular and 
co-curricular opportunities are carefully designed 
to stimulate logical thinking, encourage public 
service, and instill a global perspective in our 
students. 

At Gett)'sburg College, nearly 2,400 young 
women and men learn, explore, discover, and 
create with the challenge and support of 150 
full-time faculty members. Approximately 90 
percent of the teaching faculty hold the doctorate 
or the highest earned degree in their field. 

As devoted as they are to their chosen fields of 
study, Gettysburg College faculty are equally 
dedicated to the success of their students. 
Small classes averaging eighteen students and a 
student/ faculty ratio of 1 1:1 foster an open and 
informal exchange of ideas, a sense of 
community and collaboration, and endless 
opportunities for accomplishment. 

As part of Getty.sburg College's balanced 
undergraduate program in the liberal arts and 
sciences, students may choose from thirty-four 
majors, pursue interdisciplinary and self- 
designed majors, or complete one of several 
cooperadve and dual-degree programs. The 
college also provides a certification in 
elementary and secondary education, and 
preparation for professional schools in law, 
medicine, and the allied health sciences. 
Study abroad, internship, and student/ faculty 
research opportunities are plentiful and 
encouraged. 

We welcome your interest in Gett\'sburg College. 



GETTYSBURG-AT-A-GLANCE 



Type of College: Four-year, coeducational college 
of liberal arts and sciences founded in 1832. 

Enrollment: Nearly 2,400 students (approximately 
one-half are men and one-half are women), 
representing 40 states and 35 foreign coimtries. 
Approximately 90 percent of the students live 
on campus in more than thirt)'-six residence 
halls, including theme halls, the Residential 
College, and special interest houses. 

Location: Beaiuiful 200-acre campus with over 
GO buildings. The College is adjacent to the 
Gettysburg National Park. Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania is 36 miles from Harrisburg, 
55 miles from Baltimore, 80 miles from 
Washington, D.C., 117 miles from Philadelphia, 
and 212 miles from New York City. 

Academic Information: Thirty-four majors, 
special majors, double majors, minors, and an 
extensive area studies program. Student/faculty 
ratio of 1 1:1 with an average class size of 18 
students. More than 150 full-time facult)' with 
approximately 90 percent of the permanent 
faculty holding the doctorate or highest earned 
degree in their fields. One of only 19 chapters 
of Phi Beta Kappa in Pennsylvania. Honorary or 
professional societies in 16 academic areas. 
Academic Honor Code in effect since 1957. 

Special Programs: Extensive study abroad 
programs; internships; Washington Semester 
(government and politics, economic policy, 
ethical issues and public affairs, foreign policy, 
public administration, justice, urban studies, 
journalism, art and architecture, arts and 
humanities); United Nations Semester; dual- 
degree programs in engineering, nursing, 
optometry, and forestry and environmental 
studies; cooperative program in marine biology; 
cerdfication in elementary and secondary 
education; premedical and prelaw counseling. 
Cooperative college consortium with Dickinson 
and Franklin & Marshall Colleges. 

Exceptional Facilities: Musselman Library; 
computing environment, including full network 
capabilities in all campus buildings and each 
residence hall room, high-speed access to the 
Internet, microcomputer laboratories and 
workstations; state-of-the-art science facilides, 



including two electron microscopes 
(transmission and scanning units), Fourier 
Transform Infrared and NMR Spectrometers, 
greenhouse, planetarium, observatory, and 
optics and plasma physics laboratories; the 
Child Study Center; extensive facilities for the 
fine arts, music, and drama; writing center; 
comprehensive physical education complex; 
health center and counseling services; career 
planning and advising office; College Union 
Building, student activities center; center for 
public service. 

Student Activities: Student Senate; Student 
Activities Alliance; FM radio station; yearbook; 
newspaper; literary magazine; full range of 
musical groups, including choirs, marching, 
symphonic, and jazz bands, college/community 
orchestra, and numerous ensembles; black 
student union; international student club; 
theatre groups; special interest groups; more 
than 100 clubs and community service 
organizations; more than 1,000 leadership 
positions. 

Athletics: Division 111 level within the Centennial 
Conference. Twelve sports for men, twelve 
sports for women, and one coeducational sport. 
A wide array of intramural activities to satisfy 
various interests and levels of skill. 

Religious Life: Lutheran related. Programs for 
students of all faiths coordinated through the 
College Chapel, including Newman Association 
and Hillel. 

School Colors: Orange and blue. 



< 



Admission 



ADMISSION 



Getty sburg College students come from a -wide variety of backgrounds and secondary school 
programs. The College encourages applications from students of differing ethnic, religious, 
racial, economic, and geographic backgrounds. ♦ The admission staff encourages applications 
pom students who have demonstrated a capacity for academic achievement, responsiveness to intellectual 
challenge, eagerness to contrilmte their special talents to the College community, and an awareness of 
social responsibility. Such persons give promise of possessing the ability and the motivation that will 
rnabk them to profit from the many opportunities that the Colkge offers. 



Campus Information 

A w ide variety of information about Gettysburg 
( :ollege can be found in the College's various 
|)ublications. 

I'rospective students may request College 
|)ublications and material by contacting: 

Director of Admission 
Eisenhower House 
Gettysburg College 
Gettysburg, PA 17325 

717-337-6100; 800-431-0803 
(Fax) 717-337-6145 
admiss(&)gettysburg.edu 
www.gettysburg.edu 

Admission Evaluation 

Since the competition for admission is highly 
competitive, the admission staff gives careful 
consideration to each application. Its decisions 
are based on three categories of evidence 
described below. 

Evidence of high academic achievement as indicated 
by the secondary school record. 
The College considers grades in academic 
courses, quality and distribution of subjects, and 
rank in class as highly significant parts of the 
applicant's credentials. Participation in 
accelerated, enriched, and advanced placement 
courses is highly desirable. The College regards 
superior facility in the use of the English 
language and an understanding of fundamental 
mathematical processes as essential to a 
successful college experience. It also assumes 
graduation from an approved secondary school. 

Kvidenrc ofahilily to do high quality college work as 
indicated by aptitude and achievement test results. 
The SAT 1 of the College Board t)r the test 
results of the American College Testing (ACT) 
program are required of all candidates. 



Evidence ofpersoncd qualities. 

There is high interest in individuals of character 
who will contribute in positive ways to the C^oUege 
community. Such contributions should be 
appropriate to the talents of each .student, whether 
these be leadership in campus programs, 
involvement in the welfare of others, expression 
of artistic creativity, or the quiet pursuit of 
scholarly excellence. In estimating such qualities, 
the College relies on what students say about 
themselves; the confidential statements from 
secondary school principals, headmasters, and 
guidance counselors; and on personal appraisals 
by its alumni and friends. Essentially, any evidence 
of in-depth involvement in secondary school 
activities and/or participation in community 
affairs (especially volimteer services) is favorably 
considered in the admission process. 

The Campus Visit 

Personal interviews, group sessions, and campus 
tours are strongly recommended: they give 
prospective students a personal look at the 
opportunities and variety offered in the 
academic and extracurricular program. 
Gettysburg students give generously of their 
dme and talents to the College and surrounding 
commimity, and are pleased to share their 
experiences with visiting students. 

Prospective students are welcome to visit the 
campus for a tour and/or a group session at any 
time. Interviews may be scheduled between 
April 1 of the junior year and March 1 of the 
.senior year. Students considering a major in art 
or music should make their interest known when 
requesting an interview, so that arrangements 
can be made for an appointment with a 
member of the department concerned. 

Students can arrange an interview, group 
session, or campus tour by calling the Office of 
Admissions at 717-337-6100 or 800-431-0803. 
During the academic year, the admissions office 
is open from 9:00 to 5:00 on weekdays and from 
9:00 to 12:00 on Satiudays; summer hours are 
between 8:00 and 4:30 weekdays. 



Admission Process 

Early Decision. 

Students for whom Gettysburg College is a first 
choice are strongly encouraged to apply for 
Early Decision admission. The application will 
be considered between November 15 and 
February 1 of the senior year; a non-refundable 
fee of $45 must be sent with the application. 
Those students accepted under this admission 
plan are obligated to enroll at Gettysburg 
College and to withdraw applications submitted 
to other institutions. Notification of the decision 
on admission will be made between December 
15 and February 15. Payment of a nonrefundable 
advance fee of $300 is required to validate this 
offer of acceptance . 

Although the Early Decision applicant should 
take the SAT 1 or the ACT in the junior year, 
scores from the October/November testing date 
of the senior year will also be considered. Those 
students submitting applications for Early 
Decision who are not offered acceptance at that 
time will automatically be considered for 
Regular Decision admission upon receipt of 
subsequent semester grades and test scores from 
the senior year. 

Regular Decision. 

Students applying as a Regular Decision 
candidate to Gettysburg College should submit 
an application during the fall of their senior 
year and by February 15; a nonrefundable fee of 
$45 must be sent with the application. Most 
offers of acceptance will be mailed by early- 
April, after the receipt of November, December, 
or January SAT 1 results and senior year first 
semester grades. Results for the SAT 1 or ACT 
taken prior to the senior year may be used to 
satisfy test requirements. 

Payment of a nonrefundable advance fee of 
$300 is required to validate the offer of 
acceptance. Since Gettysburg College subscribes 
to the principle of the Candidate's Reply Date, 
students have until May 1 to make their decision 
and pay the advance fee. 

All acceptances by Gettysburg College are 
conditional and based upon students 
continuing to do satisfactory work in all 
subjects, avoiding disciplinary circumstances, 
and earning a secondary school diploma. 



Admission with Advanced Credit and Placement 

Students who have taken advanced placement 
courses in secondary school and wish to be 
considered for advanced credit or placement 
must take advanced placement tests of the 
College Board. All entering students who submit 
a score of four or five on these tests shall receive 
one or two course credits for each tested area 
toward the 35-coiuse graduation requirement. 
Students submitting a score of three may 
receive, at the discretion of the appropriate 
department, credit or advanced placement. 
Course credit for advanced placement will be 
lost if a student takes the equivalent course at 
Gettysburg. Students who have completed 
advanced-level or honors courses may be 
considered for advanced placement. 

Those high school students who have taken 
regular courses at the college level in regionally- 
approved junior or four-year colleges may 
receive credit for these courses if there has been 
no duplicatifjn of high school units and college 
credits. This credit must be approved by the 
chaiiperson of the academic department involved. 

Gettysbiug C^ollege recognizes the qualit)' of the 
International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma in the 
admission process. In addition, the College 
awards two course credits in each subject area 
for Higher Level examinadon scores of five or 
higher. Credit for a Higher Level score of four 
will be given at the discretion of the department. 

For students who plan to complete their 
graduation requirements in less than four full 
years, see the section on residence requirements 
and schedule limitations for information about 
planning of the academic program. 

International Student Admission 

The College welcomes applications from 
international students who can read, write, 
speak, and understand the English language 
with considerable proficiency. International 
applicants should send the completed 
application form with official secondary school 
transcripts, and an explanation of grading 
procedures; the SAT of the College Board or 
the test results of the American College Testing 
(ACT) program; the Test of English as a Foreign 
Language (TOEFL) results; the application 
essay; and the certification of the Finances 
Form. International students applying for 
financial aid must also file the Foreign Student 
Financial Aid Form. 



► 



Transfer Student Admission 

Ciettysburg welcomes applications from students 
interested in transferring to the College. Transfer 
students applying for the spring semester should 
submit their application by December 1 , and 
students applying for the fall semester should 
apply by April 15; transfers applying after those 
preferred dates should do so as soon as possible. 

Reactivating the application. 
Students who have previously applied to 
Ciettysburg College and now wish to reactivate 
their application should send a letter requesting 
<i reactivation. In order to update and complete 
the application, send the final secondary school 
transcript, SAT and/or ACT results, college 
transcripts (s), the Dean's Recommendation 
Form, and the financial aid transcript. 

Applying for the first time. 

Transfer students should submit an application 
for admission, the final secondary school 
transcript, SAT and/or ACT results, college 
d-anscript(s) , the Dean's Transfer Recommendation 
Form, and the financial aid transcript. 

Transfer of credits. 

Transfer credits are granted provisionally for 
individual courses passed with a C or better at 
approved institutions, provided that these 
courses fit reasonably well into the Gettysburg 
College curriculum. During the first semester, 
transfer students must review the graduation 
requirements with their academic adviser or 
the registrar. Transfers are required to earn all 
additional credit at Gettysburg College or 
through a regular College-approved program 
of off-campus study. In order to complete the 
transfer of course credits, transfer students are 
required to complete one year of satisfactory 
work at Gettysburg College. All transfer students 
must satisfy the course requirements in their 
major area of interest. 

Admission as a Guest Student 

A high school graduate, not a candidate for a 
degree, may apply for admission as a noninatri- 
culated student. Normally, such a student may 
enroll in a maximum of two courses. Permission 
to take more than two courses must be secured 
from the Academic Standing Committee. 

Taking courses as a guest student requires 
permission of the instructors of the courses 
involved, as well as filing an application for 
guest student status with the admissions office. 



A guest student who may later wish to become a 
candidate for a degree must submit an application 
under regular admission procedures. Guest 
students have the same classroom duties and 
privileges as regular full-time students, but no 
promise is made in advance that the guest 
student will be admitted as a candidate for degree. 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY 

Students in college 

2000 Full-Time Enrollment 

Fall Semester 

M W Total 

Senior 236 276 512 

Junior 246 293 539 

Sophomore 318 309 627 

First Year 336 360 696 

1136 1238 2374 

The above enrollment includes 166 students 
who were studying off campus. In addition, 10 
students were enrolled part-time for a degree. 

Geographic Distribution Matriculated Students 

2000 Fall Semester 

Number 
of 

Students Percent 

Pennsylvania 676 27.9 

New Jersey 450 18.6 

New York 294 12.1 

Maryland 227 9.4 

Connecticut 197 8.1 

Massachusetts 146 6.0 

Virginia 55 2.3 

Maine 40 1.7 

New Hampshire 38 1.6 

30 Other States or territories 232 9.7 

International (28 countries) 64 2.6 

2419 100.0 

STUDENT RETENTION 

Of the students who entered Gettysburg College 
as first-year students in September 1996, 72.6% 
received their degree within four years; an 
additional 3.4% of the class were continuing at 
Gettysburg. Thirty-three students (5.3% of the 
class) were required to withdraw from the 
College. Of the students who entered Getty.sburg 
College as first-year students in September 1994, 
75.1% received their degree within six years. 



Expenses /Services 



COMPREHENSIVE FEE PLAN 



Gettysburg College charges each student, on a semester by semester basis, a comprehensive 
fee, ivhich covers tuition, health service fee, board, and room. Not included in this fee 
are books and supplies, telephone charges, telecommunications fee, some private lessons in 
music, optional off-campus courses, and optional health insurance coverage. 



The comprehensive fee applies to each full-time 
student. A fvill-time student is one registering for 
at least three courses per semester. Part-time 
matriculating students will be charged $2,847 per 
course. 

2000-2001 FEES 



Academic Fee (Tuition) 
Health Service Fee 



$ 25,630 
% 118 



Board 

College Dining Hall 20 meals per week $ 2,970 
(Rates for reduced meal plans are available fiom 
tlie Office of Financial Services) 



Room Rents 

Regulai" Room 

Single Room or Apartment 



3,352 
4,175 



Special Student Fees 

Any student who is not a cimdidate for a degree 
will be charged at the rate of $1,424 per course. 

Board Policy 

First-year students must participate in the full 
board plan (20 meals per week) during the fall 
semester; diey may select their meal plan for the 
spring semester. All students in College residence 
halls must participate in a College meal plan. 

The following exceptions apply: Those in apart- 
ment-style residence halls with appropriate kitchen 
facilities; those liring off-campus or at home; and 
diose who aie roommates of residence coordinators. 

Telecommunications Fee 

Students living in College residence halls or 
fraternities pay an annual $200 Telecommunica- 
tions and Technology fee. The fee covers the 
following services and appropriate support: 
network and internet access, cable TV, local tele- 
phone and voicemail. Non-residential students are 
assessed an annual $50 fee for on-campus network 
and internet access. Limitations of services apply 
as set fordi in the network utilization policy. 

Payment of Bills 

Checks should be made payable to Gettysburg 
College and sent to the Office of Financial 
Services, Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, PA 
17325-1483 by die dates oudined. 

Credit card payments, through PhoneChaige, Inc. 
at 877-206-5356 (toll free), are accepted as a 
means of payment of die College tuition and fees. 
A fee is charged by PhoneCharge, Inc. for this service. 



The College operates on a two-semester calendar. 
An itemized statement of charges for each 
semester is mailed approximately one month 
before the payment due date. First semester 
charges are due on August 1 ; second semester 
charges are due on January 3. The College has an 
optional monthly payment plan, which runs from 
June 1 to March 1 . (See Payment Plans.) 

Delinquent accounts are subject to a late payment charge 
at tli£ rate of 1% per month. This late charge will be 
waived for Student Loan amounts processed by 
the College prior to due dates for payments. 

Students aie required to complete payment of 
dieir tuition and fees by the stated deadlines to 
maintain active enrollment status and their ability 
to register for courses for ftiture semesters. 
Gettysburg College policy requires the 
withholding of all credits, educational services, 
issuance of transcripts, and certification of 
academic records from any person whose financial 
obligations to the College (including delinquent 
accounts, deferred balances, and liability for 
damage) are due and/or unpaid. If any overdue 
obligation is referred eidier to the College 
collection department or to an outside agency or 
attorney for collection efforts and/or legal suit, 
the debt shall be increased to cover all reasonable 
costs of collection, including collection agency 
and attorneys fees and court costs. By registering 
for any class at the College, each student accepts 
and agiees to be bound by the foregoing College 
policy as applied to any preexisting or fuuire 
obligation to the College. 

Reserve/Security Deposit 

The advance payment of $300 made under either 
the early or regular acceptance plans is credited to 
a reserve deposit account. While the student is 
enrolled, this noninterest-beaiing account remains 
inactive. The security deposit is activated after the 
student graduates or wididraws from school. At 
that time security deposit fimds are ti^ansferred to 
the student's account to satisfy any unpaid bills. 
Any remaining amounts will be refunded after this 
process. 

Preregistration Fee 

Every continuing student in the College is 
required to pay $300 by March 1 , which will be 
applied towaid die student's fall semester College 
bill. No refunds of this fee will be made after the 
date of Spring registration. 






Veterans' Administration Benefits 

C^ttysbmg College has made the necessary 
arrangements whereby eligible veterans, depen- 
dents, and members of the military may receive 
monthly payments from the Veterans' Administra- 
tion in accordance with die appropriate laws and 
regulations. Please contact the Office of the 
Registrar for more information. 

Payment Plans 

The College offers an interest-free optional 
monthly payment plan for those who wish to make 
installment payments over an eight- to ten-month 
period. First installment is due June 1. There is a 
tee of $50 to enroll in this plan. Contact tlie Office 
of Financial Services for details. 

Refund Policy 

A student must notify the Registrai's Office in 
writing that he or she intends to withdraw or 
request a leave of absence fiom Gettysburg CoUge. 
(See iiithdrawal and leave of absence policy.) The date 
the wiitten notice is received by the Registrar's 
Office will be die official date of withdrawal or 
leave of absence. 

Financial aid recipients who leave die College 
during a term will have their Tide fV aid 
I ecalculated according to the federal refund 
requirements, which state: "If a recipient of Tide 
IV aid withdraws before completing 60 percent of 
the payment period (app. 9 weeks) , the institution 
must calculate the amount of Tide IV aid the 
student did not earn. The amount of vmearned 
aid equals die difference between the Tide FV aid 
that was disbursed or could have been disbursed 
for the payment period and the amount of Tide IV 
aid that was earned. Schools must return the 
unearned portion of die Tide fV fimds." (Blue 
Book, June 1999, 2-44) 

Tide fV funds include and will be returned in the 
following order: Unsubsidized Federal Stafford 
Loans, Subsidized Federal Stafford Loans, Federal 
PLUS Loans, Unsubsidized Federal Direct Stafford 
Loans, Subsidized Federal Direct Stafford Loans, 
Federal Direct PLLIS Loans, Federal Perkins 
Loans, Federal Pell Grants, and Federal 
Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants 
(FSEOG). 

Students receiving financial assistance may have a 
portion of their original award returned to the 
programs as required by federal regulation and 
the Gettysburg College refund policy, thus 
creating a balance due to the College. For this 
reason, students contemplating withdrawing 
during a term of enrollment are strongly 
encouraged to meet with the Financial Services 
and Financial Aid Office prior to leaving the 
College. 



Refunds for Tuition, Room, and Board 

Refunds for tuition, room, and board are 
calculated as follows: 100 percent, if notice is 
received by the twelfth day of classes; 80 percent, if 
notice is received by die third week of classes; 50 
percent, if notice is received by the fourth week of 
classes; 25 percent, if notice is received by the sixth 
week of classes. 

No refund will be calculated after the end of the 
sixth week of classes. Exceptions to the stated 
policy may be granted for reasons of health or in 
the case of academic dismissal. 

Required Withdrawal: A student who is required to 
withdraw for disciplinary reasons (involuntary 
withdrawal) will forfeit all fees which he or she has 
paid. 

Dewar Insurance: Optional insurance is available 
through A.W.G. Dewar, Inc., which supplements 
the College refund policy for a saident who 
withdraws as a result of a serious illness or 
accident. 

Reduction of flnancial aid obligations and 
advances will receive priority in the payment of 
refunds. Any unused reserve deposit balance will 
be refunded approximately six weeks after the 
student's graduation or withdrawal. 

College Store 

The College Store accepts cash, Master Card/Visa, 
or a College. Students may charge books, supplies, 
and miscellaneous items. A student's charge 
balance may not exceed $750. Charges must be 
paid within 20 days. College Store charges will be 
added to die student's tuition account on a 
monthly basis and will be subject to a late charge. 

Accident insurance 

Upon payment of die comprehen.sive fee, each 
student receives coverage under an accident 
insurance policy. Information concerning the 
coverage provided by this insurance is made 
available at the time of regisuation or in advance if 
requested. 

Health Insurance 

The College requires all students to have adequate 
health insurance coverage. Student Health 
Insurance is billed to each student on the fall bill. 
This coverage is optional for those who already 
have an existing health plan. The College will waive 
the charge for those with an existing healdi plan 
upon receipt of the proof of health insurance 
waiver card. The card must be remrned by SepL 15. 

Personal Property Insurance 

The College does not carry insui'ance on personal 
propert)' of students and is not responsible for the 
loss or damage of such property. Students are 
encouraged to provide their own personal 
property insurance. 



Financial Aid 



Although charges made by colleges and universities have risen sharply in recent years, the fact 
remains that at most institutions the fees paid by a student or a student 's parents cover only a 
portion of the total cost of a student's education. In private institutions the remainder comes 
from endowment income and gifts from various sources, such as alumni, businesses, foundations, and 
churches. ♦♦♦ Gettysburg College recognizes the primary responsibility of the student and his or her parents 
to provide as much as possible toward the total cost of the student 's college education. Since an education 
is an investment luhich should yield lifelong dividends, a student should be prepared to contribute to it 
from his or her oiun earnings, both before entering and while in college. 



Gettysburg College has a program of financial 
aid for worthy and promising students who are 
unable to finance their education from personal 
and/or family resources. Access to such aid is 
considered a privilege, not a right. The 
qualifications for assistance, in addition to need, 
are academic ability, academic achievement, and 
promise of contribution as a student and citizen. 
The amount of aid in any particular case is 
based upon the financial need of the student. 

The College participates in the College 
Scholarship Service (CSS) and requires all 
applicants to file the Financial Aid PROFILE 
and the Free Application for Federal Student 
Aid (FAFSA) to receive full consideration for 
financial aid. Each form should be sent to the 
appropriate, separate mailing address in the 
preaddressed envelope that is provided with 
the form. 

The College also requires that enrolled siuAenis 
submit notarized copies of the parents' and 
student's most recent U.S. Individual Income 
Tax Returns (Form 1040) directly to the Office 
of Financial Aid to verify income data. Applicants 
for admission must submit tax forms when the 
$200 admissions deposit is paid, or by May 1 . 

A prospective student seeking financial aid 
should mail the completed PROFILE and 
FAFSA as soon as possible after Jan uarv 1 and 
before February 15. Both forms should be 
completed in their entirety (including 
Gettysburg College in the colleges to receive 
results) and forwarded in the envelopes 
provided. There is nofeeior the Free Federal 
Application (which determines eligibility for 
Pell Grant and other federal programs of 
student financial assistance), but there is a 
processing fee for the PROFILE. 

A student already enrolled who has previously 
had some form of aid should secure a renewal 
application from the Office of Financial Aid and 
should request his or her parents to help 
complete these forms. The renewal application 
packet should be completed, with the FAFSA 



and PROFILE being forwarded by April 15 and 
the other forms being forwarded to the Office 
of Financial Aid by May 1. 

The Gettysburg College federal code number 
for the FAFSA is 003268 and the PROFILE code 
number is 2275. 

Financial aid is awarded in the form of grants, 
loans, work-study, or a combination of these. All 
financial aid awards are made for one year only. 
The director of financial aid will consider a 
request for renewal and will act on the basis of 
the applicant's record as a student and campus 
citizen, as well as his or her continuing 
financial need. 

Satisfactory Progress Guidelines 
for Renewal of Financial Aid 

A student is expected to maintain an academic 
record that will enable him or her to complete 
the requirements for graduation in the normal 
eight semesters. Any student who falls below the 
2.00 minimum accumulative average needed for 
graduation will be warned, placed on academic 
probadon, placed on dismissal alert, or dismissed. 
Additionally, it is expected that each student 
will continue to make normal or satisfactory 
progress toward the completion of degree 
requirements. The student who falls below the 
following minimum standard is considered to 
not be making satisfactory progress and is 
normally advised or required to withdraw: 

For first-year students: 1.50 GPA and 6 courses 
completed 

For sophomores: 1.80 GPA and 15 courses 
completed 

For juniors: 1.90 CiPA and 25 coiuses 
completed. 

In addition to these minimum standards, a 
student on probation must show significant 
improvement during the following semester in 
order to remain at the College. Normally, a 
student may not remain at the College with 
three consecutive semester averages below 2.00. 



> 



The Academic Standing Committee interprets 
and applies these standards on a case-by-case 
basis at the end of each semester. Following the 
decision of that committee, the Office of 
Financial Aid may be required to review the 
student's progress as it relates to the renewal of 
financial assistance for subsequent terms. 

Students who are not maintaining satisfactory 
.icademic progress will be required to resume 
normal progress before additional financial aid 
can be awarded. That may require completion 
of coursework without the benefit of financial 
aid. Any appeals regarding satisfactory progress 
must be filed through the Academic Standing 
Committee. 

The recipients of Federal Stafford Loans and 
other programs of financial assistance through 
federally subsidized Title FV Programs are also 
subject to minimum progress standards. In 
addition, students who are recipients of grant 
funds from their home states are typically 
required to successfully complete a minimum 
of 24 credits per year to maintain continued 
eligibility for those grants. Conditions of those 
grants are included in the notice to the student. 

The Presidential Scholars Program 

Gettysbing College believes that intelligent, 
highly-motivated and high-achieving secondary 
school students should be recognized for their 
accomplishments. With this in mind, the 
Presidential Scholars Program was established 
to reward prospective students for academic 
excellence. 

The Presidential Scholars selection process is 
a competitive one: benchmark qualifications 
include SAT scores that fall within the top ten 
percentile nationally and a class rank within the 
top ten percent of the high school graduating 
class. All selections are made (without any 
special application on the part of those students 
selected) as the Admissions Staff reads the 
application forms of all applicants for an 
incoming first-year class. 

Students selected for the Presidential 
Scholarship will be awarded an amoimt that is 
not based upon financial need. Eligible 
applicants applying for need-based financial aid 
as listed below could receive additional financial 
aid without jeopardizing the Presidential 
Scholarship amount. 

Need-Based Financial Aid 

Applications from all students who apply for 
financial aid and demonstrate financial need 



will automatically be reviewed to determine 
eligibility for the following forms of assistance 
available from Gettysburg College. 

Gettysburg College Gra«^.- Awarded to students 
who, in addition to financial need, show 
evidence of good academic ability and academic 
achievement. These grants are renewable as 
long as the recipient continues to demonstrate 
need, and maintains a sound academic record. 
Normally, such grants are combined with loans 
and/or student employment in order to meet 
the student's financial need. 

In cases of students who demonstrate exceptional 
talent, skills, and abilities, need may be satisfied 
entirely with grant funds. 

Federal Supplemental Educalional Opportunity 
Grant: A. grant program funded by the Federal 
Government and administered by the College. 
The program is designed to assist students from 
low-income families. 

Gettysburg College Loan: A loan program made 
available by Gettysburg College. 

Federal Perkins Loan: A loan program funded by 
the Federal Government and administered by 
the College. 

Federal Work-Study Program: Employment program 
funded by the Federal Government and the 
College. 

Grants need not be repaid, but the College 
hopes that recipients will recognize that they 
have incurred an obligation and will therefore 
subsequently contribute as they can to help 
insure that the benefits which they enjoyed will 
be available to others. 

Approximately fifty percent of Gettysburg 
College students receive financial assistance in 
some form from the College. About sixty percent 
of the Gettysburg College student body receives 
aid from the College or other sources. 

Rules governing all types of financial aid are 
stated in the Financial Aid Agreement that is 
enclosed with the Notification of Financial Aid. 

State and Federal Guidelines 

To be eligible for federal and state programs of 
financial assistance, a full-time student must 
meet minimum academic requirements for the 
academic year. The Gettysburg College academic 
year is 30 weeks in length of instructional time. 
In addition to being enrolled for all of those 



weeks, a student must complete at least 24 
credits (seven coinses) dining the enrollment 
peiiod to maintain continued eligibilit)' for 
financial assistance. 

Some recipients of federal financial assistance 
through Title FV programs (Perkins Loan, 
Stafford Loan, Federal Work-Study, and SEOG) 
may be subject to verification of the income and 
family information data provided on the FAFSA. 
Those selected for verification will be asked to 
follow some prescribed procedures, and 
additional instructions will be provided by the 
Office of Financial Aid for those asked to 
comply. 

State and Federal Grant Programs 

Students must apply for the following grants and 
loans through the Free Application for Federal 
Student Aid (FAFSA). Further information may 
be acquired from the secondary school guidance 
office. 

Federal Pell Grant: A federal grant program to 
enable students to attend colleges and universities; 
and is available to students with the highest 
levels of need. 

Pennsylvania Higher Education Grant: An award 
given to students who are residents of 
Penns)i\'ania, selected on the basis of financial 
need. 

Other states also have scholarships and/or grant 
programs. The states that have most recently 
made grant awards to students attending 
Gettysburg College are Connecticut, Delaware, 
Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Ohio, Rliode 
Island, Vermont, West Virginia, and the District 
of Columbia. 

State and Federal Loan Programs 

Federal Stafford Loan: Allows a student to borrow 
direcdy from a bank, savings and loan association 
or other participating lender. First-year students 
may borrow |2,625; that increases to $3,500 
during the second year, and third- and fourth- 
year students are eligible to borrow up to 
$5,500; maximimi total borrowing for all 
imdergraduate study is $23,000. The rate of 
interest for these loans is set at the bank 
equivalent rate for 91-day Treasiuy bills plus 
3.10%. New rates will be announced each July 1 
for the entire year, and rates of interest cannot 
exceed 8.25%. The rate of interest until July 1, 
2001 is 7.59%. 



Federal Parent Loan for Undergraduate Study: 
Parents of dependent imdergraduate students 
may borrow through the PLUS Loan Program 
to help finance educational costs. Maximum 
loan per year is limited to the cost of education 
minus other aid that the student has received. 
Repayment begins within 60 days of loan funds 
being advanced and the maximum repayment 
period is 10 years. Interest rates will be set on 
July I on the basis of Treasury bills plus 3.10%, 
but not to exceed 9%. Applications for the 
PLUS Loan are made through any participating 
bank or other lending agency. The interest rate 
until July 1, of 2001 is 8.99%. PLUS Loans are 
disbursed on a co-payable basis to the borrower 
and the College. 

Other student/parent loan plans for education 
are also available. One such option is EXCEL 
through Nellie Mae and the Education 
Resources Institute. EXCEL offers loans of up to 
$20,000 per year, with a maximum twenty-year 
repayment period. 

A similar plan is offered through TERI Loans. 
Both programs are based in Massachusetts, but 
are national in scope. More information is 
available through the Office of Financial Aid. 

Financial Aid for Off-Campus Study 

Financial aid is available for programs of off- 
campus study (both domestic and study abroad) 
which are approved by the Academic Standing 
Committee. College Grant and Loan funds will 
normally be awarded for a maximum of two 
semesters of off-campus study through College- 
affiliated programs only. 

International students may have College-funded 
financial aid applied to off-campus study 
programs on a case-by-case basis. Written 
application must be made to the President, 
explaining the program's relevance to the 
individual's academic program as a whole. 

Financial Aid for Off-Campus Study 

For all Dual-Degree programs, once Gettysburg 
students apply for and are accepted to an 
affiliated university, they become students of 
that university. Students who qualify for 
financial aid at Gettysburg College are not 
guaranteed a similar financial aid package at 
our affiliated universities. Financial aid at the 
affiliated university must be applied for directly 
through that university. All other services will 
also be provided by that imiversity. 



Student Services 



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G 



ettysburg College offers a wide variety of services to assist students inside and outside the 
classroom. Faculty, deans, and staff members are readily available to talk with individuals or 
groups. Their goal is to lielp students make tlie best use oftlie College's resources and opportunities. 



RESIDENCE LIFE 



Residence Life at Gettysburg College is a major 
influence on the total development of the 
student. The residential environment (persons, 
policies, and facilities) promotes the formation 
of a community and encourages a style of life 
that is conducive to the development of respect 
for both the individual and the society in which 
one lives. During a student's experience at 
Gettysburg College, decisions are made 
concerning personal values, occupational 
choices, one's identity, personal responsibility, 
and a philosophy of life. The residential 
program provides opportunities for examining 
these areas of development. 

Recognizing the influence of the environment 
on development, Gettysburg College requires all 
students (unless married or residing with their 
families) to live on campus. Exemptions from 
this requirement are granted only by the director 
of Residence Life. 

Area coordinators of Residence Life are 
professional, live-in staff members who directly 
select and supervise the student staff of residence 
coordinators and resident assistants. Student 
staff members participate in an ongoing training 
program, which enables them to help other 
students adjust to the college environment. 
The residence hall staff provide a variety of 
educational and social programs that enhance 
the educational and social development of all 
residence hall students. Residence hall 
governments exist to provide residents with the 
opportunity to work with members of the 
administration in shaping policies that apply to 
all College residences and establish an 
enxironment that supports student needs. 

Gettysburg College offers a variety of options in 
living environments. Upperclass students may 
choose to live in one of twelve residence halls, 
varying in occupancy from 35 students to 219 
students. There are coeducational and a small 
number of single sex options. 

Another living opportunity' exists in the area of 
Theme Housing. This option is for students who 
wish to live together in a group of 4 to 20 
residents and work on a project of mutual 
interest throughout the academic year. 



Also included as an optional living environment 
is the opportunit}' for sophomore, junior, and 
senior men to live in a fraternity house on or 
near the campus. 

Student cumulative grade point averages are 
considered as part of the upperclass lottery 
system utilized to obtain housing during the 
spring semester for the following academic year. 

Most of the student rooms are double occupancy; 
however, a few single rooms are available and 
some rooms are large enough for three or four 
people. (There is some cost difference between regular 
and apartment-style housing.) Each student is 
pro\ided witli a bed and matUess, a dresser, and a 
desk and chair. Students provide their own 
pillows, bedding, spreads, study lamps, and 
window curtains. Card-operated washers and 
dryers are available on the campus for student 
use. Each student room in residence halls is 
equipped with network access, a telephone, and 
cable TV service. Microfridge combination 
microwave refrigerators are available for rent 
from Campus Vending Services. Because of its 
particular energy efficiency, this is the only 
microwave or refrigerator permitted in the 
regular residence halls. 

INTERCULTURAL ADVANCEMENT 

The Office of Intercultural Advancement, 
located in the Intercultural Resource Center, is 
committed to supporting and promoting the 
value of a diverse and culturally enlightened 
community based on mutual respect and 
understanding. The staff is dedicated to raising 
awareness and committed to celebrating cultural 
pluralism and diversity. 

The Office provides a warm affirming 
atmosphere for people of diverse cultural 
backgrounds. We particularly focus on the 
needs and concerns of students of color 
(African American, Latino, Asian American, and 
American Indian). The staff provides academic 
and personal enrichment services for students 
by offering educational and cultural programs, 
activities, workshops, and events that inspire and 
inform students. In addition, the Office sponsors 



and cosponsors programs, lectures, and events 
on campus and beyond, which enrich our 
imderstanding and appreciation of cultures 
and peoples. 

Located in the Center are a library/conference 
room, study area, lounge, and small computer 
lab. In the Center, we celebrate and value the 
rich mosaic of different cultures, which 
continue to contribute to the advancement of 
world civilization. All are welcome to share in 
this supportive, intercultural environment. 

DINING ACCOMMODATIONS 

The Gettysburg College Dining Service offers 
a variety of dining options for every student. 
Students can select from five plans: 20 meals per 
week, any 14 meals per week, any 10 meals per 
week, or any 7 meals per week. The College also 
offers a declining-point plan for those wanting 
flexibility in meals. All first-year students are 
required to enroll in the 20-meal plan for their 
first semester. Transfer students may enroll in 
any of the five meal plans. All students living on 
campus in nonapartment-style residence halls are 
required to enroll in at least the minimum 
dining plan each semester (any 7 meals per 
week). Cooking is not allowed in the residence 
hall rooms, so students are urged to select a plan 
that enables them to eat the majority of their 
meals in the dining hall. Dining hall hoius of 
service are as follows: Breakfast, 7:15 AM-10:15 
AM; Condnental Breakfast, 10:15 AM-1 1 :00 AM; 
Lunch, 11:15 AM-2:00 PM; Dinner, 4:30 
PM-7:15 PM. Cafe 101 (the College snack bar) 
offers a cash equivalency program daily from 
7:30 AM to 9:00 PM for students who prefer that 
alternative. (Hours subject to change.) Initiated 
members of fraternities living in nonapartment- 
st)'le College residence halls must enroll in at 
least the minimum dining plan. Off-campus 
students can also purchase a meal plan to 
accommodate their schedule. 

HEALTH CENTER 

The Gettysburg College Health Center is 
dedicated to the delivery of personalized primary 
health care. The health center contains both 
health and counseling services in order to 
maintain both physical and emotional well-being. 

The health center maintains a stiict policy of 
confidentiality. Only with the patient's consent 
can any health record or health-related 



information be shared outside of the health 
center. The contents of the health/coimseling 
record are not incorporated into the official 
college record. 

Gettysburg College has an HFV/AIDS policy, the 
purpose of which is to support the confidential 
needs of individuals with HIV/ AIDS, as well as 
maintain the safety of the campus community. 

Health Services 

The student health services component of the 
health center offers a variety of illness, wellness, 
and health educational services for students. 
The professional staff includes nurse 
practitioners, family physicians, registered 
nurses, medical assistants, and an administrative 
assistant. All of these individuals specialize in 
college health-related issues. 

A limited number of in-house laboratory 
evaluations can be performed during a health 
visit. The cost of the visit to the health services 
for evaluation and some lab work is covered by 
the health service fee. Any additional lab work, 
immunizations, x-rays, medications, ER visits, or 
physician referrals are the financial 
responsibility of the student. All students are 
required to have health insurance coverage. 
(Further information regarding insurance may be 
obtained from the Office of Human Resources.) 

Health history and physical examination forms 
are required for each new student prior to 
registration. All students must have the 
following immunizations: 1 ) tetanus 
immunization within 10 years; 2) tuberculin 
skin test within one year; 3) measles, mumps, 
and rubella (MMR) at 15 months and .second 
booster after age 5 years or documented 
immune titre. Hepatitis B immunization is 
recommended. 

All patients are seen in the health service by 
appointment only. Walk-in services are for 
minor emergencies. For after-hours health care 
emergencies, students may go directly to the 
Gettysburg Hospital Emergency Department, 
located one mile from campus. 

Counseling Services 

The (>oimseling Service's professional staff 
works with individual students in a confidential 
relationship, exploring personal issues and 
possible resolutions. Some areas of concern that 



► 



students talk to counselors about are: feelings of 
anxiety and/or depression, relationships issues, 
drug and alcohol related issues, self-esteem 
issues, problems with family, friends, or 
roommates, goals and plans, values, 
performance pressures, sexuality concerns, 
difficulties at home, and how to reach their full 
potential. While much of counseling involves 
specific problem solving experiences, the focus 
is often simply helping a student to better 
understand himself or herself 

The College, through counseling services, 
provides the campus community with a program 
of alcohol and drug education that includes 
prevention programming, help for problem 
users, various support groups, and awareness 
presentations. Campus health education is also 
provided by student peer educators through 
CHEERS (Communicating for a Healthy 
Environment by Educating Responsible 
Students) . The drug education coordinator is 
available to the campus community to develop 
and maintain appropriate educational programs 
and to counsel with individuals. 

Counseling services also offers a number of 
topic-oriented group experiences, which are 
designed to help students with adjustment issues 
and to assist them when they move beyond 
Gettysburg College. 

Counseling Service activities are free, 
confidential, and available to all Gettysburg 
College students. It is the desire of counseling 
staff members that their services complement 
the College academic program. 

CAREER PLANNING AND ADVISING 

The Office of Career Planning and Advising at 
Gettysburg College helps students and alumni 
make informed career decisions and assists 
them with turning those decisions into actions. 

Students are encouraged to take advantage of 
Career Planning and Advising's resources and 
services throughout their time at Gettysburg 
College. First-year students and sophomores 
may seek assistance in considering and selecting 
majors or learning about summer employment 
opportunities. Self-assessment exercises and 
activities are available and can be discussed with 



the career counselors on staff. Sophomores and 
juniors who are considering career options or 
career-enhancing extracurricular activities can 
learn more by speaking with the career 
counselors and utilizing the extensive career 
exploration library and computer resources. 
Juniors and seniors often utilize the Center 
when considering graduate school options. 
Up-to-date resources on graduate school 
opportunities, testing requirements, and 
application procedures can be found in Career 
Planning 8c Advising. Juniors and seniors also 
seek assistance from Career Planning and 
Advising when they are making decisions about 
career direction and developing job search 
plans. Career counselors are available to assist 
students with writing resumes and cover letters, 
preparing for job interviews, developing 
networking skills, connecting with alumni, 
targeting companies for employment, 
evaluating job offers, and other aspects of the 
career planning and job search process. Alumni 
are also able to access services at any stage of 
their careers, whether they are new graduates 
seeking their first positions, or seasoned 
professionals planning a career change. 

Special programs and services of Career 
Planning and Advising include job and graduate 
school fairs, workshops, an extensive on-campus 
recruiting program, an active off-campus 
resume referral network, special interest 
sessions on career choices and topics, transition 
issues, graduate school choices, and more. 
Specially trained student career-outreach 
assistants offer programs and outreach efforts to 
clubs, organizations, residence hall groups, and 
others. 

Career Planning and Advising also maintains an 
excellent web site with information and links to 
a variety of career-related issues for all users at 
any stage in their career planning. 



College Life 



An important element of the education at Gettysburg College is the opportunity to exchange ideas 
and share interests outside the classroom. When students live together in a residential setting, 
these opportunities are greatly enhanced, not only by daily contacts in living quarters and the 
dining center, but also l/y ready access to campus activities. After becoming accustomed to the rigorous 
demands of their academic schedules, most students decide to become involved in other aspects of campus 
life. With entertainment, cultural events, and a constant calendar of student activities available on 
campus, students can soon choose to fill their time to whatever extent they wish. 



The Office of the Dean of the College, an 
administrative division within the College, 
has as its central purpose the provision of an 
environment, programs, and services that 
enhance the students" education. The diverse 
interests and needs of Gettysburg College 
students are reflected in the wide-ranging and 
continuously evolving selection of activities. 

STUDENT CONDUCT 

Gettysburg College seeks to establish and 
maintain an environment that provides for the 
development of the young adult as a whole 
person with an emphasis on inquiry, integrity, 
and mutual respect. 

The College expects its students to conduct 
themselves in all places and at all times in such 
a manner as to show respect for order, morality, 
personal honor, and the rights of others as 
demanded of good citizens. The Gettysburg 
College community fosters respect for the 
rights and dignity of all residents, including 
members of both majority and minority groups. 
Membership in the Gettysburg College 
community is a privilege that may be rescinded 
with cause. 

Believing that it is sensible and proper for all 
students to be fully aware of their obligations 
and opportunities as Gettysburg College students, 
the College publishes a statement entitled "The 
Student Judicial System." This document is the 
result of discussions and conclusions reached by 
the student-faculty-administrative committee. It 
deals with such questions as the academic, 
citizenship, and governance rights and 
responsibilities of students. It is published 
annually in both the electronic and printed 
versions of the Student Handbook. 



Before a student decides to apply for entrance 
into Gettysburg College, he or she should be 
aware of the rules governing student conduct. 
A complete copy of the rules and regulations 
may be obtained by writing to the Dean of the 
College. 

THE HONOR CODE 

An academic honor system was instituted at 
Gettysburg College in 1957 and was strongly 
reaffirmed in 1976 and 1992. It is based upon 
the belief that undergraduates are mature 
enough to act honorably in academic matters 
without faculty surveillance and that they should 
be encouraged to conduct themselves accordingly. 
At the same time the College clearly recognizes 
the obligation placed upon each student to 
assist in maintaining the atmosphere required 
for an honor system to succeed. 

The Honor Pledge, reaffirmed on all academic 
work submitted, states that the student has 
neither given nor received unauthorized aid 
and that he or she has witnessed no such 
violation. The preservation of the atmosphere 
of trust and freedom promoted by the Honor 
Code is the responsibilitv' of the community as a 
whole. Students must comply with the Honor 
Code both in presenting their own work and in 
reporting violations by others. Facultv' will not 
evaluate students' academic work unless they 
have signed the Pledge. Students who would 
sign the Pledge with reservation should not 
apply for admission. 

Alleged violations of the Honor Code are 
handled by an Honor Commission elected by 
the students. 



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FIRST-YEAR RESIDENTIAL COLLEGE 

The Residential College Program offers students 
the opportunity to learn and work with other 
first-year students, faculty, peer tutors, and 
upperclass student teaching associates on 
common educational interests and goals, and 
deliberately fosters connections that support 
first-year transition and learning. Academic 
courses are coordinated with housing in the 
first-year residence halls. The program provides 
a singular opportunity for students with similar 
interests to experience an especially powerful 
first-year educational program. 

Small course sections provide an opportunity 
for conversation and discussion, centered on 
course themes, for the development of ideas 
and for lively debate on issues raised, both in 
and outside the classroom. First- Year Seminars 
are designed to employ and develop a variety of 
learning skills. Although some are 
interdisciplinary, most are likely to provide a 
window on the approaches and methods of a 
jjarticular discipline. English Composition 
courses, for example, develop the students' 
abilities to express themselves in clear, accurate, 
and thoughtful English prose. 

Extending the classroom into residence halls 
provides a natural channel for combining 
formal teaching, informal learning, and 
personal support, and promotes an atmosphere 
of mutual concern and active exchange of views. 
.Seminar rooms are available in residential halls 
for seminar and study group meetings. This 
residential arrangement complements the 
academic curriculum and promotes an exciting 
living and learning environment. 

Special programming opportunities may 
include field trips, film series, guests from 
within and outside the college community, 
special meals, coffee breaks, library/electronic 
media workshops, academic advising/career 
|jlanning tips, and commimity .service projects. 
Some courses may choose to combine for joint 
meetings or special events. The Residence Life 
staff of each hall will provide opportunities for 
student residents to initiate and develop other 
social and cocurricular programs. 

DEAN OF FIRST-YEAR STUDENTS 

Gettysburg College has a number of programs 
to help students have a successful first year. 
Among these are special preorientation 
programs held prior to the formal orientation 
program, an orientation program before the 



beginning of the first year, the First-Year 
Seminar, and the Residential College Program. 
The dean of first-year students works with these 
various programs and offers general academic 
advice and other assistance to first-year students. 
The dean monitors the academic performance 
of first-year students to determine when special 
assistance is desirable. In determining when and 
how special assistance is provided, the dean 
works closely with the faculty advisers of first- 
year students and other members of the College 
Life Division. The dean's office is located on the 
second floor of the College Union. 

COLLEGE UNION 

The College Union is the community center of 
the college, serving students, faculty, staff, 
alumni, and guests. Through a myriad of 
services and activities, the Office of Student 
Activities supports many opportunities for 
students to become involved in planning and 
participating in student-initiated campus 
activities and campus traditions, as well as 
assisting students with the development of 
interpersonal and leadership skills. They 
provide support to students and the general 
campus community in offering a well-balanced 
program of cultural, educational, recreational, 
and social activities. The College Union 
Information center is among the many services 
provided by the professional and student staff. 

The Plank center is an informal gathering place 
for students to meet with their student 
organizaUons. A games room with billiards and 
table tennis is located here. 

The Plank Center is al.so home to the Plank 
Fimess Room. Many pieces of cardiovascular and 
selectorized weight equipment are available to the 
Gettysburg (College community. A full array of ft"ee 
weight dumbbells also complements this area. 

Hours of Operation 
College Union 
Monday-Friday 

8:00 a.m. -midnight 
Saturday 

9:00 a.m.-midnight 
Sunday 

noon-midnight 



The Junction 
Monday-Thursday 

8:00 a.m. -midnight 
Friday 

8:00 a.m.-2:00 a.m. 
Saturday 

9:00 a.m.-2:00 a.m. 
Sunday 

noon-midnight 

Plank Fitness Room 
Monday-Friday 

7:00 a.m.-l 1:00 p.m. 
Saturday 

noon-8:00 p.m. 
Sunday 

noon-1 1:00 p.m. 

STUDENT GOVERNMENT 



Students participate in College governance by 
serving on various College, class, and faculty 
committees; as well as in the Student Senate, 
residence hall associations, and Greek organizations. 

Student Senate 

The Gettysburg College Student Senate works in 
cooperation with the trustees, administration, 
and faculty to bring to the campus community a 
well organized, democratic form of student 
government. It represents the student view in 
formulating policies, while working to promote 
cooperation among all constituencies of the 
College. 

The Student Senate is composed of four executive 
officers, twenty class senators, residence hall 
senators, and many dedicated committee 
members. The standing committees of the 
Senate are Academic Policy, Budget Management, 
Public Relations, Student Ckmcerns, Spirit, 
Siifet)' and Security', and College Life Advisory. 
Students can also serve on various faculty and 
trustee committees. 

Student Life Council 

The Student Life Council is an organization 
composed of members of the student body, 
faculty, and College administration. This Council 
has responsibility for studying matters and 
developing policies pertaining to student life 
and student conduct. Business may be brought 
to the Council or legislation proposed by any 
member of the College community. Major issues 
are debated in Student Senate and in faculty 
meetings before resolution by the (x)imcil. The 
t]ouncil makes recommendations to the President, 



who accepts, rejects, or refers them to the Board 
of Trustees prior to implementation. 

Inter-Residen ce A ssociation 
Since life outside the classroom is a vital part 
of a student's education, the Inter-Residence 
Association has been established to address 
related issues and concerns of Gettysburg 
College students. The Inter-Residence Association 
encourages leadership development, greater 
student involvement, recognition of student 
leaders, and growth through change in order 
to optimize the college environment. 

77?^' Honor Commission 

The Honor Commission is a student organization 
authorized by the constitution of the Honor 
Code. The Commission is composed of sixteen 
students, aided by case investigators, eight 
faculty advisers, and four advisers from the 
College administration. Its function is to 
promote and enforce the Honor Code at 
Gettysbiug College, to secure the cooperation of 
students and faculty to these ends, and to 
adjudicate allegations of Honor Code violations. 

Interfraternity Council 

The Interfraternit)' Council (IFC)is responsible 
for governing fraternities at Gettysburg College. 
It is composed of an executive board, the 
president, and a representative from each social 
fi'aternity. The Council formulates and administers 
general regulatory policies by which fraternities 
must abide. 

Panhelknic Council 

Important responsibility for governing the 
sorority system at Gettysburg College is 
assimied by the Panhellenic Council, to which 
each sorority elects a delegate. This Council 
establishes and enforces the Panhellenic "rush" 
regulations and functions as a policy-making 
body in matters involving sororities and 
intersorority relations. 

Student Activities and Organizations 
The Plank Center serves as the primary location 
for the offices of many student organizations 
have offices — i.e.. Student Senate, Student 
Activities Council, Black Student Union, 
Panhellenic and Interfraternity Council, GECO, 
Hillel, Circle K, International Club, Getty sburgi an. 
Spectrum, and WZBT Radio). The games area, 
student lounges, and meeting spaces are also 
available. 



PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES 



> 



rhe Office of Student Activities supports many 
opportunities for students to become involved 
in planning and participating in student- 
initiated campus activities and campus 
traditions, as well as assisting students with the 
development of interpersonal and leadership 
skills. They provide support to students and the 
general campus community in offering a well- 
balanced program of cultural, educational, 
recreational, and social activities. 

Programs 

The Alliance is a collaboration of various 
independent, student, social programming 
organizations that unite with a purpose to 
provide exceptional social programming for 
Gettysburg College. It promotes an active 
student voice around social life issues and works 
in partnership with Student Senate and the 
Office of Student Activities to help enhance the 
social life of students. Some of the current 
independent groups that make up the Alliance 
are Concerts, Coffeehouse, Traditions, LIVE 
Bands and Dance Parties, Special Events, 
Greeks, and the classes. 

The Common Hour Program: A regularly scheduled 
time during the academic year when the campus 
community can come together for information, 
discussion, and reflection on issues of community 
importance. 

Challenge Course: The Challenge Course — a 
imique structure of cables, pulleys, and ropes — 
is used to assist groups with development and 
cohesion. Course workshops enable groups to 
gain insight on leadership, followership, 
communication and trust. 

GRAB:The Gettysbiug Recreational Adventure 
Board (GRAB) offers outdoor-based activities to 
all members of the College community to 
participate in hiking, backpacking, rock climbing, 
caving, biking, skiing, and Whitewater adventures. 
For the novice, as well as the experienced 
participant. 

Leadership Development: Each year, three 
leadership programs, Project Lead, BASE 
(Building an Active Student Environment), and 
the Sophomore Leadership Series, provide 
opportunities for student leaders to discuss 
common issues and to help prepare them to 
develop a more active role on campus. 



Student Organizations 

There are approximately 100 student organiza- 
tions on campus. They provide opportunities for 
students to pursue their special interests in 
campus clubs, special-interest organizations, 
Greek-affiliations, club sports, honorary 
societies, and professional or departmental 
affiliated associations. Many of the student 
organizations are recognized and funded by 
Student Senate, the student governing board. 
The Office of Student Activities/College Union 
registers all student organizations, maintains an 
updated list of student organizations, and 
provides general support to them. 

Lectures 

Robert Forteyibaugh Memorial Lectures: An 
endowment provided by Clyde E. (Class of 
1913) and Sara A. Gerberich supports a series of 
lectures and other programs in the Department 
of History. 

Musselman Visiting Scientist: A fund provided by 

the Musselman Foundation in honor of 

Dr. John B. Zinn, former chair of the chemistry 

department, supports an annual three-day visit 

by a renowned scientist to the chemistry 

department. 

Stuckenberg Lecture: A bequest from Mary G. 
Stuckenberg in memory of her husband, the 
Rev. J. H. W. Stuckenberg, enables the College 
to sponsor a lecture in the area of social ethics. 

Bell Lecture: A fund from the estate of the Rev. 
Peter G. Bell (Class of 1860) established a 
lectureship on the claims of the gospel ministry 
on college men. The fund strives "to keep 
before the students of the College the demand 
for men of the Christian ministry and the 
condition of the age qualifying that demand." 

Norman E. Richardson Memorial Lectureship Fund: 
A fund established to commemorate the 
outstanding contributions made to the College 
by Norman E. Richardson, professor of 
philosophy, from 1945 to 1979, supports each 
year an event that stimulates reflection on inter- 
disciplinary studies, world civilization, the 
philosophy of religion, values, and culture. 

Henry M. Scharf Lecture on Current Affairs: A fund 
provided by Dr. F. William Sunderman (Class of 
1919) in memory of Henry M. Scharf, alumnus 
and member of the College's Board of Trustees 
from 1969 to 1975, is used to bring a recognized 



authority or scholar to the campus each year to 
speak on a subject of timely interest. 

Performing Arts 

Perform iiig Arts Committee: Each year recognized 
professional groups and individuals present to 
the campus performances of dance and drama, 
as well as vocal and instrumental music. 

The Gettysburg College Choir: Appears at special 
services and concerts on campus. Each year it 
makes a concert tour, presenting concerts in 
churches and schools. Choir members are 
selected on the basis of ability, interest, and 
choral balance. 

Chapel Choir: Performs during the year at chapel 
services, special services, and concerts. Members 
are selected on the basis of ability and willingness 
to meet the rehearsal and service requirements. 

Bands:The "Bullet" Marching Band begins its 
season with a band camp in preparation for 
performances at football games, festivals, and 
parades. At the conclusion of the marching 
band season, the College Symphonic Band 
begins its rehearsals. In addition to home 
concerts, there is an annual tour through 
Pennsylvania and neighboring states. 

Small Ensembles: A vital segment of the overall 
instrumental program. Clarinet choir, brass 
ensemble, jazz ensemble and others are open 
for membership to band members. 

Gettysburg College /Community Chamber Orchestra: 
Performs concerts throughout the academic 
year. Membership is open to all students who 
have the necessary proficiency. Auditions are 
held at the beginning of each .school year. 

Sunderman Chamber Music Concerts: lihc 
Sunderman Chamber Music Foundation, 
established by Dr. F. William Sunderman (Class 
of 1919) to "stimulate and further the interest 
of chamber music at Gett)'sburg College," each 
year sponsors important campus performances 
by distinguished and internationally recognized 
chamber music groups. 

Oxul &' Nightingale Players: Each year this 
distinguished group of performers stage three 
major productions under the leadership of the 
College's theatre faculty. The program is a 
varied, and all productions are offered in the 
handsome 245-seat Kline Theatre, which features 
a thrust stage. 

Laboratory Theatre: Lab Theatre produces a 
dozen one-act plays each year, many of which 



are new and some of which are the work of 
campus playwrights. 

Olherstage: Troupe performs short plays on 
campus and in the commimity. Their work 
encompasses lunchtime theatre, street theatre, 
and children's theatre. 

Artist-in-Residence: During the year, the College 
invites professional performing artists to the 
campus for one-month residencies. 

CAMPUS MEDIA 

Every community needs to keep its members in 
contact with each other and with the rest of the 
world. On the Gettysburg College campus, 
student communication media not only inform 
the members of the community, but also afford 
students an opportunity to express their ideas 
effectively and to learn the practical necessities 
of producing newspapers, radio broadcasts, 
magazines, and yearbooks. 

The Gettysburgian: The College newspaper is 
staffed completely by students who are responsible 
for editing, feature writing, news vsriting, layout, 
personnel management, subscription 
management, and circulation. 

The Mercury: Poems, short stories, and illustrations 
published in The Mercury are contributed by 
students. 

The Spectrum: A pictorial essay of life on campus 
is featured in the College yearbook. Staffed by 
students, the yearbook offers the opportunity 
for creativity in design, layout, photography, and 
waiting. 

WZBT:The College radio station (9L1 megacycles) 
has been the voice of the campus for many 
years. WZBT operates as a noncommercial, 
educadonal EM radio station over the public 
airwaves and under FCC regulations. The 
station is student staffed and broadcasts a variety 
of programs from its fully-equipped studio. 

GREEK ORGANIZATIONS 

Greek organizations have a long and rich 
Uadition at Gettysburg College. The first nadonal 
organization was formed for men on camptis in 
1852. National sororities were first formed on 
campus in 1937. Currently, there are ten social 
fraternities and four social sororities. 



The fraternities, which have individual chapter 
houses owned by ahimni corporations on or 
near campus, offer an akernative Hving option 
to their members. The sororities do not have 
houses, but each has a chapter room in the Ice 
House Complex, which serves as a meeting and 
socializing place for the group. 

In addition to providing a social outlet for their 
members, Gettysburg College's fraternities and 
sororities serve the campus and community with 
philanthropic activities. The goals of the Greek 
system are to instill in its individual members 
the qualities of good citizenship, scholarship, 
service, and respect for oneself and others. 

In order to join a social Greek organization at 
Gettysburg College, a student must earn a 
minimum of 5 credits at the College (excludes 
transfer and advance placement credits). Men 
must earn a minimum 2.0 Grade Point Average. 
By vote of the Panhellenic Council women must 
earn a minimum 2.2 GPA. Effective with the fall 
semester 2003, the minimum required GPA for 
men will rise to 2.1, and increase to a 2.2 GPA 
minimum in fall 2004. Some individual Greek 
Organizations have higher minimum grade 
requirements. In addition a student may not be 
on Conduct Probadon at the time of Formal 
Rush. 

RELIGIOUS SPIRITUAL LIFE 

We protect time and space for worship at 
Gettysburg College so that this community may 
integrate the deep resources of faith, wisdom, 
and reason with the ever-expanding knowledge 
gained in the classroom, laboratory, and life. 
Our mission is to assist this community of 
learning in exercising and contemplating life 
with God. 

Every Sunday morning (while classes are in 
session) we celebrate Holy Commimion. As an 
institution of the Evangelical Lutheran Church 
in America (ELCA), we practice Eucharisdc 
hospitality. Ecumenically, ELCA Lutherans have 
inter-commimion agreements with the 
Presbyterians, United Church of (Christ, 
Disciples of Christ, Church of the Brethren, 
Moravians, Methodists, Episcopal, and .\nglican 
communions. All baptized Christians are 
welcome to receive Holy Commimion at the 
1 1:00 a.m. Sunday morning worship. 

As a college affiliated with the ELCA, we cherish 
faith and freedom of enquiry. We welcome 
students of all beliefs and provide them 
opportunities to explore religious and spiritual 



issues as part of their formation in faith We do 
this with a spirit of openness, reason, and 
tolerance, while at the same time remaining 
faithful to the lived confessional practices, 
worship, and mission of the Lutheran 
confessions. 

Highlighted each spring is the celebradon of 
Religious Emphasis Week. During this week we 
strive to involve the endre college community in 
dialogue aimed at knowledge of their own faith 
traditions and practice, as well as increased 
imderstanding, respect, and tolerance of other 
major world religions. A key component of this 
week has been an Interfaith Dialogue led by 
informed representatives of the world's major 
religions. 

Students exercise leadership in the campus 
commimity through the Interfaith Council. 
Comprised of at least one representadve from 
each registered student religious group, this 
Council promotes religious freedom for all by 
advocating religious tolerance, understanding 
and respect. The Council assists in planning 
and programming Religious Emphasis Week 
and assists the Chaplain in monitoring and 
nurturing religious and spiritual life on campus. 

In addidon to the Chaplain of the College, an 
ordained (ELCA) Evangelical Lutheran Church 
in America pastor, ministry is provided to the 
college through a Roman Catholic priest and a 
Catholic laywoman Campus Minister. Quaker 
services are held every Svmday morning in 
Gladfelter Lodge. Hillel schedules Shabbat 
meals and Holy Day remembrances and is 
available to advise and coun.sel Jewish students. 

Students exercise leadership in the campus 
communitv' through the Interfaith Coimcil. 
C^omprised of at least one representative from 
each registered student religious group, this 
Council promotes religious freedom for all by 
advocating religious tolerance, understanding, 
and respect. The Council assists in planning and 
programming Religious Emphasis Week and 
assists the Chaplain in monitoring and 
nurturing religious and spiritual life on campus. 



CENTER FOR PUBLIC SERVICE 



Men 



Women 



Coed 



The (Jenter for Public Service promotes, 
organizes, and supports public and community 
service by members of the Gettysburg College 
community and seeks to develop in students the 
knowledge, skills, and commitment for a lifetime 
of engagement with social issues. Fifteen student 
coordinators administer the program. 

More than 1,000 members of the Gettysburg 
College communit)' participate in some form of 
community action sponsored by the Center. The 
Center maintains relations with more than 35 
local agencies. 

Each year the Center also organizes up to 15 
service learning immersion projects during 
winter and spring breaks. Recent trips have 
included two Native American sites, one with 
AIDS populations, one with the homeless, one 
with the African American commimity in the 
South, and one each in Jamaica, Mexico, 
Russia, and Nicaragua. 

ATHLETICS 

The College has an extensive program of 
intercollegiate and intramural athletics for men 
and women. It is possible for all students to 
participate in some supervised sport; for those 
with particular athletic skills and interests, a full 
array of varsity teams are available. Gettysburg 
College maintains membership in the National 
Collegiate Athletic Association, the Eastern 
Collegiate Athletic Conference, and the 
Centennial Conference, which includes Bryn 
Mawr College, Dickinson College, Franklin &r 
Marshall College, Haverford College, Johns 
Hopkins University, Muhlenberg College, 
Swarthmore College, Ursinus College, 
Washington College, and Western Maryland 
College. 

Gettysburg College teams consistently win 
athletic contests at the conference, regional, 
and national levels. In 1998, the College 
finished 25th nationally in the Sears Cup 
standings and won the Centennial Conference 
all-sports trophy for the fifth year in a row. 

The intercollegiate program includes teams for 
men, teams for women, and one athletic team 
for which men and women are eligible. 
Gettysburg also has a varsity cheerleading squad, 
in which both men and women are eligible to 
participate. The various teams are: 



Fall CJ OSS C^ountry Cross Country Cheerleading 

Football Field Hockey 

Soccer Soccer 

Golf Volleyball 

Golf 



Winter 


Basketball 


Basketball 


Cheerleading 




Swimming 


Swimming 






Wrestling 


Indoor Track 






Indoor Track 






Spring 


Baseball 


Lacrosse 






Lacrosse 


Softball 






Tennis 


Tennis 






Track and 


Track and 






Field 


Field 






Golf 


Golf 





CAMPUS RECREATION 



The Office of Campus Recreation is dedicated 
to complementing the academic goals of 
Gettysburg College by providing a variety of 
recreational activities for all students, facidtv', 
administrators, and staff. Programs include 
intrainural sports, aerobics/fitness, sports clubs, 
and informal recreation. 

Intramural sports include a wide range of team, 
individual, and dual sports. Team sports include 
Softball, flag football, basketball, floor hockey, 
indoor soccer, outdoor soccer, and volleyball. 
Special events include tennis, table tennis, 
wrestling, golf, billiards, 4x4 volleyball, 3-on-3 
basketball, and ultimate frisbee. Fitness activities 
are the fastest growing portion of the campus 
recreation program. Aerobics classes held daily 
are designed to meet the needs of all students 
by offering high impact and low impact classes. 
Tone and stretch classes, aqua aerobics, and step 
aerobics are also offered. 

The sport club program is another growing 
segment of the campus recreation program. 
These clubs are designed so that anyone of any 
skill level may participate. Sport clubs currently 
active on campus include tae kwon do, cuong 
nhu, men's volleyball, men and women's rugby, 
and equestrian. 

The campus recreation office provides time for 
informal recreation. Activity areas include a 
swimming pool, basketball courts, tennis courts, 
weight room with Nautilus and free weights, a 
fitness room with stationary bikes, stairclimbers, 
treadmills, rowers and selecterized weight 
equipment, and a multipurpose area within the 
Bream/Wright/Hauser Athletic Complex for a 
variety of recreational activities. 



< 



Facilities 



► 



Set amidst the southern Pennsylvania countryside, the Gettysburg campus is exceptionally beautiful. 
Many of the 60 buildings enjoy a rich history. Although most buildings have been restored to 
include advanced technology, their exteriors maintain their architecture charm and historical 
integrity. ♦ Gettysburg is a "walk-around" campus and while cars are permitted, they are not necessary. 
You can easily get anyiohere on campus or lualk into town in minutes. 



In the center of Gettysburg College's campus is 
Musselman Library, housed in an architectural 
award-winning building constructed in 1981. 
The library, which contains more than 303,000 
volumes, microforms, recordings, audiovisual 
media, archival materials, and selected 
government documents, is the hub of research 
activity on campus. A computerized library 
catalog is accessible through fully networked 
public access terminals, offering access to 
thousands of databases and full-text journal 
and newspaper articles online. Electronically 
delivered course reserve readings are available 
through the College's Curriculum Navigation 
network. The library is open 24-hours a day 
and reference librarians are on-hand to assist 
students v^dth research papers and other 
assignments. Individual and group study spaces, 
a theatre, a media production center, an 
electronic classroom and computer laboratory 
are all located in the library. 

Gettysburg College has exceptional computing 
power. Every building is fully networked, 
including each residence hall room. This allows 
each student access to electronic mail, the 
Internet, and Gettysburg's sophisticated College 
Navigation System. Gettysburg's micro- 
environment includes over 1 300 microcomputers 
and a complex system of Sun workstations and 
laboratories. Facilities in biology, chemistry, and 
physics include large departmental laboratories, 
microcomputer laboratories, student/facility 
research areas, and extensive departmental 
libraries. Students and faculty use oiUstanding 
instriunentation to enhance instruction and 
research on a daily basis. As a result, Gettysburg 
students enjoy "hand-on" use of advanced 
science equipment that most institutions reserve 
for graduate students. This includes a Zeiss EM 
109 transmission electron microscope (TEM), 
JOELTS20 scanning election microscope (SEM), 
a Fourier Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 
Spectrometer, a herbariiun, a plasma physics 
laboratory, an optics laboratory, a planetarium, 
an observatory, the Child Study Center, and 
psychology laboratories equipped with 
observation desks. 



Student life facilities include a College Union 
Building, Student Activities Center, well- 
maintained and varied residence hall space, 
including theme houses, a center for public 
service, a women's center, the Intercultural 
Resource Center, a health center, the Chapel, 
Safety and Security office, a Career Planning 
and Advising office, and an Outdoor Challenge 
course. 

For students with an interest in theatre, Brua 
Hall features the Kline Theatre, a 250-seat 
playhouse with a thrust stage and state-of-the-art 
sound and lighting; and the Stevens Laboratory 
Theatre, a studio/classroom with TV recording 
and monitoring equipment. 

Schmucker Hall supports the music and art 
departments with interactive lecture rooms, 
music practice rooms, the 196-seat Paul Recital 
Hall, art studios, a metals coating foimdry, and 
the College's art gallery. 

An extensive program of intercollegiate and 
intramural athletics encourages students of all 
abilities to extend their education to the playing 
field. Gettysburg views athletics and recreation 
as important components of a well-rounded 
undergraduate experience. 

The Bream-Wright-Hauser Athletic Complex 
and the Eddie Plank Student Activities Center 
house the College's impressive indoor sports 
facilities. These include four indoor tennis 
courts, an indoor track, a first-class weight room, 
a fitness room, state-of-the-art training 
equipment, and a 3,000-seat basketball, 
wrestling, and volleyball arena. A six-lane, 25- 
yard pool is located in the College Union 
Building. Outdoor facilities include a sand 
volleyball court, a 6, 1 76-seat stadium for 
football, lacrosse, and track-and-field; 14 tennis 
courts; baseball and softball diamonds; and 
playing fields for soccer, Iacro.sse, and field 
hockey. A challenging cross-country course 
extends over the campus and throughout the 
adjacent National Park. 



Academic Policies and Programs 



ACADEMIC PURPOSES OF GETTYSBURG COLLEGE 



The faculty of Gettysburg College has adopted the following statement of the College's academic 
purposes. ♦ Gettysburg College believes that liberal education liberates the human mind from 
many of the constraints and limitations of its finiteness. In order to accomplish its liberating 
function, Gettysburg College believes that it owes its students a coherent curriculum that emphasizes the 
follmving elements: 



1. Logical, precise thinking and clear use of 
language, both spoken and written. These 
inseparable abilities are essential to all the 
liberal arts. They are not only the practical skills 
on which liberal education depends biu also, in 
their fullest possible development, the liberating 
goals toward which liberal education is directed. 

2. Broad, diverse subject matter The curriculimi 
of the liberal arts college should acquaint 
students with the range and diversity of human 
customs, pursuits, ideas, values, and longings. 
This broad range of subject matter must be 
carefully planned to include emphasis on those 
landmarks of human achievement which have 
shaped the intellectual life of the present. 

?>. Rigorous introduction to the assumptions 
and methods of a representative variety of the 
academic disciplines in the sciences, the social 
sciences, and the himianities. The curriculum 
must encourage students to recognize that the 
disciplines are traditions of systematic inquiry, 
each not only addressing itself to a particular 
area of subject matter but also embod)'ing an 
explicit set of assumptions about the world and 
employing particular methods of investigation. 
Students should recognize that the disciplines 
are best seen as sets of carefully constructed 
questions, continually interacting with each 
other, rather than as stable bodies of truth. 
The questions that most preoccupy academic 
disciplines involve interpretation and evaluation 
more often than fact. Students should learn that 
interpretation and evaluation are different from 
willful and arbitrary opinion while at the same 
time recognizing that interpretations and 
evaluations of the same body of facts may differ 
drastically given different assimiptions, methods, 
and purposes for inquiry. Human thought is not 
often capable of reaching imiversal certitude. 

This necessary emphasis of the College's 
curricidum is liberating in that it frees students 
from narrow provincialism and allows them to 
experience the joys and benefits of conscious 
intellectual strength and creativity. 



Liberal education should free students from 
gross and imsophisticated blimders of thought. 
Once exposed to the diversity of reality and 
the complexit)' and arduousness of disciplined 
modes of inquiry, students will be less likely 
than before to engage in rash generalization, 
dogmatic assertion, and intolerant condemnation 
of the strange, the new, and the foreign. 
Students will tend to have a sense of human 
limitations, for no human mind can be a match 
for the world's immensity. Promoters of 
universal panaceas will be suspected as the gap 
between human professions and human 
performance becomes apparent. Students will 
tend less than before to enshrine the values and 
customs of their own day as necessarily the 
finest fruits of human progress or to lament 
the failings of their time as the world's most 
intolerable evils. 

But wise skepticism and a sense of human 
fallibility are not the only liberating effects of 
the liberal arts. With effort and, in all likelihood, 
some pain, students master difficult skills and 
broad areas of knowledge. They acquire, 
perhaps with unexpected joy, new interests and 
orientations, hi short, they experience change 
and growth. Perhaps this experience is the most 
basic way the liberal arts liberate: through 
providing the experience of change and growth, 
they prepare students for lives of effective 
management of new situations and demands. 

The liberal arts provide a basis for creative work. 
Creativity is rarely if ever the work of a mind 
imfamiliar with past achievements. Instead, 
creativity is almost always the reformulation of, 
or conscious addition to, past achievement with 
which the creative mind is profoundly familiar. 
By encouraging students to become responsibly 
and articulately concerned with existing human 
achievement and existing means for extending 
and deepening human awareness, Gettysburg 
College believes that it can best ensure the 
persistence of creativity. 



The intellectual liberation made possible 
through liberal education, though immensely 
desirable, does not in itself guarantee the 
development of humane values and is therefore 
not the final purpose of a liberal education. If 
permitted to become an end in itself, it may 
indeed become destructive. A major 
responsibility of those committed to liberal 
education, therefore, is to help students 
appreciate our common humanity in terms of 
such positive values as open-mindedness, 
personal responsibilit)', mutual respect, 
empathic imderstanding, aesthetic sensibility, 
and playfulness. Through the expanding and 
diverse intellectual activities offered in liberal 
education, students may develop greater 
freedom of choice among attitudes based on a 
fuller appreciation of our common humanity, 
and based on clearer recognition of our 
immersion in a vast, enigmatic enterprise. 

CREDIT SYSTEM 

The course unit is the basic measure of 
academic credit. For transfer of credit to other 
institutions, the College recommends equating 
one course unit with 3.5 semester hours. 
Because of the extra contact hours involved, 
some laboratory science courses earn 1.25 imits 
of credit. These courses, identified with the 
symbol "LL" (Lecture/Lab) on the course title 
line, equate to 4.0 semester hours. Half imit 
courses equate to 2.0 semester hours. The 
College offers a small number of quarter course 
units in music and health & exercise sciences. 
Except for the quarter-imit courses in major 
music ensembles, these courses may not be 
accumulated to qualify as course units for 
graduation. Quarter course units equate to 1.0 
semester hour. 

Beginning with the fall 2000 semester, to insure 
that a full load under another credit system 
equates to a full load at Gett)sbing College, the 
following conversion scheme applies to students 
presenting more than three transfer course 
credits for evaluation: 

Sem. Hrs. G'burg Units Qtr. Hrs. G'burg Units 

4 1.15 6 1.15 

3 .85 5 1.00 

2 .50 4 .75 

3 .50 



REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE 

The College confers three imdergraduate 
degrees: Bachelor of Arts (BA), Bachelor of 
Science (BS), and Bachelor of Science in Music 
Education (BSME). The general graduation 
requirements are the same for all degree programs: 

1) 35 course units in some combination of 
1.25, 1.00, or .50-unit courses, or up to four .25- 
unit credits in music ensemble. The 35 course 
unit requirement must include a minimum of 
32 full-unit coiuses. For this purpose, transfer 
courses equivalent to .75 or .85 units count as 
full-unit courses. 

2) One half-unit course in Wellness, and one 
quarter-unit course in Health and Exercise 
Sciences. 

Please note: The half-unit course in Wellness and 
quarter course credits do not count toward the 35 
course unit graduation requirement. 
(The Wellness course has been discontinued. An 
equivalent requirement will be in place for the Class 
of 2005.) 

3) Minimum accimiulative GPA of 2.00 and a 
GPA of 2.00 in the major field 

4) Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

See the listing at the beginning of the Coiuses of 
Study section far the specific courses that fulfil the 
Liberal Arts Core. Any requirement may be satisfied, 
with or without course credit, by students who can 
qualify fcrr exemption. (".W Exemption from Degree 
Requirements.) 

The Liberal Arts Core is comprised of courses 
which the faculty has deemed central to a liberal 
education. The Core consists of courses in each 
of four academic divisions — arts, humanities, 
social sciences, and natural sciences — and 
courses that enable students to strive for greater 
proficiency in writing, quantitative reasoning, 
and foreign language. 

The Liberal Arts Core prepares students in two 
complementary ways. By taking courses in each 
division, students encounter the perspectives 
and modes of inquiry and analysis that 
characterize academic disciplines. Because a 
liberally educated person should be able to 
reason and communicate effectively, students 
must successfully complete courses in writing, 
quantitative reasoning, and foreign language. 
Together, the Gettysbiug College core courses 
provide the solid foimdation of a liberal 
education. 



Goals of the Liberal Aits Core are met in the 
following way: 

• The Alts: One course in the Division of Arts. 

• Humanities: Three courses in the Division of 
Himianities. 

• Natural Science: Two courses in the Division 
of Natural Sciences. 

• Social Sciences: Two courses in the Division of 
Social Sciences. 

• Foreign Language: Attainment of competency 
through the intermediate level (equivalent of 
202). 

• Quantitative Reasoning: One course with 
major emphasis on mathematical problem- 
solving and the presentation and interpretation 
of quantitative information. 

• English Composition: One course, to be taken 
in the first year of enrollment. 

• Non-Western Culture: One course with 
primary emphasis on African, Asian, or non- 
European American cultures. This may be one 
that also fulfills one of the other Liberal Arts 
Core requirements. 

5) Concentration requirement in a major 
field of study 

(See Major Requirements yo/toz/'/??g' this section.) 

6) Minimum of the last year of academic work as 
a full-time student in residence at Gettysburg 
College or in an approved College program 

7) Discharge of all financial obligations to the 
College 

No course used to obtain a bachelor's degree 
may be counted toward the requirements for a 
Gettysburg College degree. 

Each student is responsible for being sure that 
graduation requirements are fulfilled by the 
anticipated date of graduation. The College 
normally requires students to complete degree 
requirements in effect at the time of their 
original enrollment and the major requirements 
in effect at the time that students declare the 
major at the end of the first year or during the 
sophomore year. 



Writing Policy: Since the ability to express oneself 
clearly, correctly, and responsibly is essential for an 
educated person, the College cannot graduate a 
student whose writing abilities are deficient. 
Instructors may reduce grades on poorly written 
papers, regardless of the course, and in extreme cases, 
may assign a failing grade for this reason. 

MAJOR REQUIREMENTS 

Each student must successfully complete the 
requirements in a major field of study. Most 
majors consist of eight to twelve courses and 
may include specific courses from one or more 
departments and/or programs. No more than 
twelve courses may be required from a single 
subject area, with the exception of the B.S. 
degree in Music Education. (Requirements of 
the various majors are listed in the department 
and program introductions in the Courses of 
Study section. 

The following are major fields of study at 
Gettysburg College: 

Bachelor of Arts: 

Alt History 

Art Studio 

Biology 

Chemistry 

Classical Studies 

Computer Science 

Economics 

English 

Environmental Studies 

French 

German 

Greek 

Health and Exercise Sciences 

History 

Latin 

Management 

Mathematics 

Music 

Philosophy 

Physics 

Political Science 

Psychology 

Religion 

Sociology 

Anthropology/Sociology 

Spanish 

Spanish and Latin American Studies 

Theater Arts 

Women's Studies 



Bachelor of Science: 

Biology 

Biochemistry 8c Molecular Biology 

Chemistry 

Physics 

Bachelor of Science in Music Education: 

Music Education 

A student must file a declaration of major with 
the Registrar before registering for the junior 
year. A student may declare a second major as 
late as the beginning of the senior year. 

Optional Minor: Students may declare a minor 
concentration in an academic department or 
area that has an established minor program. 
Not all departments offer minor programs. A 
minor shall consist of six courses, no more than 
two of which shall be 100-level courses. Because 
of the language required, an exception to the 
two 100-level cotirse limitation may occur in 
Classical Studies. Students must maintain a 2.00 
average in the minor field of study. Although a 
certain number of courses constitute a minor 
field of study, all courses in the minor field will 
be considered in determining the minor average. 

SPECIAL MAJOR 

As an alternative to the major fields of study, 
students may declare a special major by 
designing an interdepartmental concentration 
of courses focusing on particular problems or 
areas of investigation which, though not 
adequately included within a single department 
or discipline, are worthy of concentrated study. 

Students intending to pursue a special major 
must submit a proposal for their individual plan 
of study to the Committee on Interdepartmental 
Studies. The proposed program must be an 
integrated plan of study that incorporates 
course work from a minimum of two 
departments or fields. A special major must 
include a total of ten to twelve courses, no fewer 
than eight of which must be above the 100-level; 
three or more courses at the 300-level or above; 
and a 400-level individualized study course 
which is normally taken during the senior year. 
Individualized study allows students to pursue 
independent work in their areas of interest as 
defined by the proposal and should result in a 
senior thesis demonstrating the interrelationships 
among the fields comprising the special major. 



After consulting with and obtaining an application 
from the interdepartmental studies chairperson 
and meeting several times with two prospective 
sponsors/advisers, students should submit their 
proposals during the sophomore year. The latest 
students may submit a proposal is midterm of 
the first semester of their jimior year. It is often 
possible to build into a special major a 
significant component of off-campus study. 

Normally, to be accepted as a special major, a 
student should have a 2.3 overall GPA. Sttidents 
should be aware that a special major program 
may require some departmental methods or 
theory courses particular to each of the fields 
within the program. 

A student may graduate with honors from the 
special major program. Honors designation 
requires a 3.5 GPA in the special major, the 
recommendation of the student's sponsors, the 
satisfactory completion of an interdisciplinary 
individualized study, and the public presentation 
of its results in some academic forum. 

ACADEMIC ADVISING 

The Office of Academic Advising, located on 
the second floor of the College Union, offers 
support in many areas of academic life. Working 
in conjunction with the individual student's 
advisor, associate deans assist students in making 
educational plans and solving academic 
problems. In addition, the first-year student 
faculty advising program is coordinated by this 
office. Deans' Lists, academic deficiencies, 
withdrawals and readmissions, and petitions to 
the Academic Standing Committee are processed 
by this office. Peer tiuoring and learning 
disabilities counseling is also available here. 

The College believes that one of the most 
valuable services it can render to its students 
is careful coimseling. Each first-year student is 
assigned a faculty advisor to assist in dealing 
with academic questions, in explaining college 
regulations, in setting goals, and in making the 
transition from secondary school to college as 
smooth as possible. Faculty advisers are assigned 
a small number of first-year students (usually 
six), so that they can develop strong one-on-one 
relationships with their advisees. 



Sophomores may continue their advising 
relationship with their first-year advisors, or they 
may select another faculty member in a field of 
study they anticipate as their major. Wlien 
students choose a major field of study, which 
must be done no later than the beginning of the 
jimior year, a member of the major department 
becomes their advisor and performs functions 
similar to those of the first-year advisor, including 
the approval of all course schedules. 

Students may confer at any time with their 
advisor, an associate dean of Academic Advising, 
Career Planning and Advising, or faculty 
members as they consider their options for a 
major or special fellowship opportimities during 
or after college, weigh their career objectives, 
choose graduate or professional schools, or 
search for employment after graduation. 

POLICY ON ACCOMMODATION OF 
PHYSICAL AND LEARNING DISABILITIES 

Gettysburg College provides equal opportimities 
to students with disabilities admitted through 
the regular admissions process. The College 
promotes self-disclosure and self-advocacy for 
students with disabilities. Students seeking 
accommodation should contact the Office of 
Academic Advising. 

For students with physical disabilities, the 
College provides accessibility within its facilities 
and programs and will, within the spirit of 
reasonable accommodation, adapt or modify 
those facilities and programs to meet individual 
needs. 

For students with learning disabilities, the 
College accommodates on a case-by-case basis, 
provided the accommodation requested is 
consistent with the data contained in 
documentation that meets the College's 
standards and is reviewed by the College's own 
consultant. Reasonable accommodation for 
students with learning disabilities may involve 
some curricular modifications without 
substantially altering course content or waiving 
requirements essential to the academic program. 
Some examples of reasonable accommodation 
are: 

a) extended time on exams and assignments; 

b) use of auxiliary equipment (tape recorders, 
lap top computers, calculators) ; 



c) modified examinadon formats and/or oral 
examination. 

An associate dean of Academic Advising will 
assist students with di.sabilities with their 
requests for accommodation. 

INDIVIDUALIZED STUDY AND SEMINARS 

There are opportunides in most departments 
for students to engage in seminars and 
individualized tutorials, research or internships. 
These opportunities are primarily for seniors, 
but other students frequently are eligible. In 
some departments pardcipation in this type of 
activity is part of the required program of study; 
in others it is optional. Most of these courses are 
numbered in the 400s under Courses of Study. 

STUDENT ORIGINATED STUDIES (SOS) 

SOS courses are student initiated and run courses, 
with students having the primary responsibility 
for the content, readings, assignments, and 
conduct of the course. A faculty member assists 
in the development of the proposal, advises the 
students throughout the semester, attends 
course meetings as appropriate, and assigns the 
final grade. Each SOS course provides a half 
course unit of credit toward the 35 courses 
graduation requirement and is graded S/U. 

SENIOR SCHOLARS' SEMINAR 

The College offers a unique and valuable 
opportunity for its outstanding senior students. 
Senior Scholars' Seminar, composed of selected 
seniors, undertakes a study of a contemporary 
issue that affects the future of humanity. The 
issues are always timely and often controversial. 
Past topics have included genetic engineering, 
conflict resolution, global disparities, computer 
and human communication, aging and the 
aged, dissent and nonconformity, the concept of 
the hero, the media and presidential campaigns, 
creative leadership in groups, the impact of 
television on conscience and consciousness, 
immigration in America, and the Holocaust. 

Authorities of national stature are invited to 
serve as resource persons for the Senior Scholars' 
Seminar. Experts who have visited past seminars 
include John Sununii, Colin Powell, David 



► 



Broder, Stuart Udall, David Freeman, Thomas 
Szasz, Daniel Eilsberg, Jonathan Schell, Daniel 
Bell, James Gould, and Elie Wiesel. Student 
participants in the seminar present a final 
report based on their findings and 
recommendations. 

The issues explored in the seminar are always 
interdisciplinary in scope, and the students 
selected for this seminar represent a wide variety 
of majors. The seminar is team-taught by two 
professors of different departments. 

Early in the second term of thejimior year, 
qualified students are invited to apply for 
admission to the course. After the members of 
the class have been selected through a process 
of interviews, they begin to plan the course with 
two faculty' directors and become active 
participants in the entire academic process. 
The Senior Scholars' Seminar is assigned one 
course credit. 

ACADEMIC INTERNSHIPS 

Through the Center for Internships and 
Prelaw/Premed Advising, students at Gettysburg 
College have the opportunity to participate in 
several internships during their four years of 
study. All students who wish to participate in an 
internship should register with the Internship 
Office, which is the repository for all internship 
information on campus. The Internship Office 
maintains information on thousands of 
internship sites located in both the U.S. and 
abroad. The Internship Office staff will also 
assist students in looking for an internship site 
close to a student's home. Internships taken for 
academic credit are carefully designed to 
provide a program with a substantial academic 
component, as well as practical value. These 
internships are generally advised by a faculty 
member within a student's major field of study. 
Academic credit is awarded by the appropriate 
department once the student completes the 
requirements of the department. Internships 
provide students with a valuable opportunit} to 
apply academic theory to the daily task of 
business, nonprofit, and government settings. 
This experience also helps students identify 



career interests and gain valuable work 
experience. Students are encouraged to begin 
the process of finding an internship early in 
their sophomore year. 

THE CIVIL WAR INSTITUTE 

The Cixdl War Institute provides opportimities 
for students to assist programs under the 
direction of Gabor Boritt, Fluhrer Professor of 
Civil War Studies. Activities range from an 
internationally known summer session 
coinciding with the anniversary of the Battle of 
Gettysburg, to sponsoring battlefield tours, 
visiting lecturers (from PBS's Ken Binns and 
Princeton's James McPherson to Nobel 
Laureate Robert Fogel and bestselling novelist 
Jeff Shaara), dramatic and musical 
performances (the opera The Death of Lincoln) , 
film {Gettysburg, the director's cut before public 
release), and exhibits ("Free at Last: The 
Abolition of Slav ery in .America") . The CWT 
cosponsors the commemoration of the 
anniversary of the Gettysburg Address, with 
speakers such as Justice Sandra Day O'Connor 
and Colin Powell. It oversees the annual 
$100,000 Lincoln Prizes, supported by Richard 
Gilder and Lewis Lehrman and awarded for the 
best books, Web site, CD-ROM, or D'VD on the 
history of the Civil War era. Oxford University 
Press publishes the CWT lectures, four of which 
have been selections of the History Book Club 
and three of the Book-of-the-Month Club. 
Students assist in creating these books that are 
used in Civil War classes at colleges and 
imiversities all over the United States. The CWI 
offers scholarships to high school juniors and 
high school teachers for its summer program. 

THE GETTYSBURG REVIEW 

The Gettysburg Review, published by Gettysburg 
College and edited by English Professor Peter 
Stitt, is a quarterly journal vsith a strong national 
following. Among its advisory and contributing 
editors are author and humorist Garrison 
Keillor; poets Richard Wilbur, Donald Hall and 



Rita Dove; and novelist Ann Beattie. The 
Gettysburg Review has received many 
distinguished awards, including regular 
reprinting of some of its materials in Harper's 
magazine and in the anthologies Best American 
Fiction, Best American Poetry, and Best Americati 
Essay. In 1993, Stitt was selected as the first 
winner of the prestigious Nora Magid Award 
from the international organization PEN (Poets, 
Essayists, and Novelists). Students serve the 
journal in a number of ways through 
internships, work-study, and volunteerism. 

OFF-CAMPUS STUDY 

If you are thinking about making off-campus 
studies a part of your education, you will be 
joining almost 300 of your peers who study off 
campus each year (44% of the class of 2000) . 
Gettysburg College considers off-campus study 
to be a vital part of its academic programs. 

Students study off camptis for many different 
reasons. Whether you want to learn a new 
language, improve your skills in a language you 
have been studying, make yoiu" resume stand 
out from the crowd, or to add a special facet to 
your degree, you will find that off-campus 
studies gives you these advantages — and many 
more. 

Office of Off-Campus Studies 

The Office of Off-Campus Studies, located in 
the College Union Building, is the main source 
of information about off-campus program 
opportunities. The office houses an extensive 
Resource Library, where students can find 
informafional brochures on various programs. 
The director of off-campus studies and the rest 
of the office staff can assist students in making a 
personalized off-campus study plan. 

Students work with their academic advisors to 
preapprove the academic program prior to 
departure from Gettysburg. Financial Aid 
recipients will also find that the Office of 
Financial Aid is knowledgeable about off- 
campus studies and is willing to advise students 
about financial questions. 

Finally, all students participate in a mandatory 
Pre-Departure Orientation, where they receive 
literature to help prepare them for their 
overseas experience. 

Off-Campus Programs 

Gettysburg College offers Study Abroad 
Programs all over the world, as well as Domestic 



Programs within the United States. Some 
programs are Integrated Programs, where 
students study with students from the host 
coimtry. Others are Group Programs, which are 
specially designed for Gettysburg students. All 
programs offer students the opportunity to take 
a variety of courses, which can be used toward 
the Gettysburg degree. Some programs offer 
Field Experience or Internships. 

Gettysburg College Affiliated Progiams: Gettysburg 
currently sponsors more than 20 Affiliated 
Programs, chosen by the College to meet the 
special needs of its students. Most of these 
programs are sponsored by an academic 
department, and in some cases, the programs 
are actually led by a Gettysburg College faculty 
member. Students participating in Affiliated 
Programs earn credit toward their major, minor, 
or Liberal Aits Core requirements. Students are 
billed Gettysburg's regular comprehensive fee, 
so families can continue with their regular 
payment schedule. Gettysburg pays for tuition, 
room, full board, and in some cases airfare for 
the off-campus program. In addition, students 
can continue to use financial aid that they 
receive to pay for the off-campus program. This 
means that federal aid, state aid, and Gettysburg 
institutional grants and loans continue to be 
given, just as if you were on campus. 

Gettysburg College Suggested Programs: There are 
over 150 Suggested Programs available, chosen 
to offer Gettysburg students the most diverse 
program sites possible. These programs differ 
from Affiliated Programs in that students earn 
credit only, and pay all program costs directly to 
the sponsoring program. Getty.sburg students 
can continue to use federal financial aid to pay 
for the Suggested Program. Gettysburg 
institutional grants and loans cannot be used, 
however. Once the student returns to 
Gettysburg College, these grants and loans will 
be reinstated. 

Gettysburg College Summer Programs 

Gettysburg offers a number of summer off- 
campus programs for students who prefer a 
short- term experience. Affiliated study-abroad 
programs include month-long programs in 
Zimbabwe and Indonesia, and a domestic 
environmental studies program in Maine. Other 



Affiliated Programs include opportunities in 
Cameroon, England, France, Germany, Greece, 
Israel, Italy, Mexico, Russia, Spain, and 
Washington, D.C. 

Off-Campus Studies Policies 

Gettysburg College is pleased to offer the 
Eisenhower/Hilton Scholarship for Study 
Abroad in the amount of $10,000. This 
scholarship is awarded to one outstanding 
Gettysburg junior or senior each year. 

Students can study off campus during their 
sophomore year, junior year, or in the first 
semester of senior year. 

Students with special needs are encouraged to 
discuss their off-campus studies plans with the 
director of off-campus studies. Many programs 
can accommodate students with special learning 
needs or physical needs. 

All students must have a minimum 2.0 
cimiulative grade point average and be in good 
disciplinary standing in order to apply for off- 
campus studies. Accepted students must 
maintain their good standing in order to 
participate. Permission to study off campus will 
be rescinded for any student placed on 
probation for an academic or social reason prior 
to departing for off-canipiis studies. 

Gettysburg College Affiliated Programs 

Geliyshurg Progmms in Au.slidlia: This academic 
year or semester program allows students to 
enroll directly in one of four Australian 
universities: James Cook University, the 
University of Melbourne, the University of 
Queensland, and the University of WoUongong. 
Students usually live in shared rooms in 
residence halls. 

Gettysburg in Denmark through Denmark s 
International Studies Program: This fall or spring 
semester program in Copenhagen offers 
students the opportunity to take courses in their 
major (most majors available), or in a wide 
variety of Liberal Aits Core and elective subjects 
that focus on Scandinavian and European 
issues. All courses are taught in English. 
Students live in a homestay and take their meals 
with their host family. 

Gettysburg in England: London and Lancaster 
University: This fall semester or academic year 
interdisciplinary studies program begins with a 
four-week seminar in London taught by a 



Gettysburg faculty member. (Students may 
choose to attend a .seminar in Lancaster instead 
of the London option.) After the seminar, all 
students enroll at Lancaster University, where 
they study subjects of their choice for the fall 
term or academic year. Lancaster University is a 
top-ranked British University, and many faculty 
members are recognized internationally in their 
fields. Students attending the London seminar 
are housed in shared rooms in a student hotel 
in central London. At Lancaster, students live in 
single-study bedrooms in residence halls. 

Gettysburg in Aix-en-Provence, France: This 
semester program at Le Centre d'Aix is 
designed for students who wish to complete the 
Gettysburg College requirement in language; it 
also serves students who wish to pursue a minor 
in French. The Institute of American 
Universities (lAU) sponsors the program, which 
is located in Aix-en-Provence near the 
Mediterranean coast. All students live in a 
homestay that is arranged by lAU. In the 
intermediate program (fall only), students fulfill 
the French 201-202 language requirement. In 
the advanced program (fall or spring), students 
take classes towards their French minor. 

Gettysburg in Avignon, France: This semester or 
academic year program at Le Centre d'Avignon 
is designed to meet the needs of French majors. 
The Institute of American Universities (lAU) 
sponsors this program located in Avignon. All 
students live in a homestay that is arranged by 
lAU. Students take five courses — one required 
language course and four elective courses. All 
courses are conducted in French. 

Gettysburg in Cologne, Germany: This fall semester 
group program in Cologne offers the 
opportunity for students from any major to 
improve their German language abilities and to 
take a variety of humanities and social science 
courses in English. All students live in a 
homestay and take meals with their family. 
Students take up to three courses in German 
language, literature, and culture, and up to 
three courses in English from the areas of 
polidcal science, history, and art history. 

Gettysburg in Greece: This academic year or 
semester program through College Year in 
Athens offers students in any major the 



opportunity to take courses in humanities and 
social sciences focusing on Greece anci the East 
Mediterranean world. Students live in shared 
rooms in apartments in the Kolonaki 
neighborhood. Students choose either the 
Ancient Greek Civilization track or the East 
Mediterranean Area Studies track. Both tracks 
offer courses in the humanities and social 
sciences, as well as modern Greek language at 
all levels. 

Gettysburg in Hungary: This fall or spring 
semester program offers juniors and seniors 
majoring in Mathematics or Computer Science 
the opportunity to take cotuses in their major 
taught by renowned Hungarian scholars in 
Budapest. Students live in shared rooms in 
apartments or in a homestay with a Hungarian 
family. 

Gettysburg in Italy through Syracuse University: This 
fall semester program is specifically designed to 
give students in studio art and art history a 
living classroom — historic, beautiful Florence. 
Students primarily take courses in the arts, but 
other courses in the humanities and social 
sciences are available as well. Students live in a 
homestay and take most meals with their host 
family. All students take Italian language courses 
and three or four other courses in the arts, 
humanities or social sciences. 

Gettysburg in Italy through Duke University: This 
academic year or semester program at the 
Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies 
(ICCS) in Rome, sponsored by Duke University, 
is designed for Latin or Greek majors, and other 
students interested in classical antiquity. 
Students live in the ICCS Center in shared 
rooms and take their meals there. Students take 
coinses in Roman Archaeolog)'/History, Latin 
Language and Literature, Art History, Greek 
Language and Italian Language. 

Gettysburg in Japan: This semester or academic 
year program at Kansai Gaidai University offers 
students in all majors the opportimity to take 
Japanese language and a variety of other courses 
taught in English. Kansai Gaidai University is 
located between Osaka and Kyoto. Students can 
choose to live in a homestay or in a residence 
hall. All students take one or two Japanese 
language courses and two or three additional 
courses in English. Japanese language is taught 
at all levels, including beginning courses for 



students with no prior language study. 

Gettysburg in Mexico through Augsburg College: 
Students can choose between Augsburg's fall 
semester program. Crossing Borders: Gender 
and Social Change in Mesoamerica, and their 
spring program. Gender & the Environment: 
Latin American Perspectives, both based in 
Cuernavaca, Mexico. Students live in shared 
rooms in a house where they take their meals. 
Students also spend three weeks living with a 
local family in Cuernavaca or in a nearby village. 
Students in both the fall and spring semester 
take a set four-course program, which includes 
intensive Spanish language study. 

Gettysburg in Cuernavaca, Mexico {Intermediate 
Program): This fall semester program in 
Cuernavaca is specifically de.signed for students 
who have completed Spanish 101-102 (or 
103-104) and enables them to complete 
intermediate level Spanish (201-202) in one 
semester. A Gettysburg College professor of 
Spanish accompanies the group and teaches two 
of the courses. All students live in a homestay 
where they take their meals. All students take a 
set fotu-coinse program, which includes two 
Spanish Language classes, literatine, and 
Mexican civilization. Offered during odd- 
numbered years. 

Gettysburg in Guadalajara, Mexico: This academic- 
year or semester program in Guadalajara offers 
students who have completed Spanish 301 the 
opportimity to take a variety of humanities and 
social science courses taught in Spanish at the 
Foreign Student Study Center of the University 
of Guadalajara. All students live in a homestay 
where they take their meals. 

Gettysburg in Spain {Advanced Program): This 
academic year or semester program in Seville 
offers students who have completed Spanish 301 
the chance to take a variety of humanities and 
social science courses taught in Spanish. The 
lUS Center, where the program is based, is 
located in the city center. All students live in a 
homestay where they take their meals. Courses 
are available in language, literature, 
conversation, grammar, history, ciNalization, 
economics, politics, and other humanities and 
social sciences. 

Gettysburg in Spain {Intermediate Program): This 
fall semester program is specifically designed for 
students who have completed Spanish 101-102 
(or 103-104) and enables them to complete 



intermediate level Spanish (201-202) in one 
semester. A Gettysburg College professor of 
Spanish accompanies the group and teaches two 
of the courses. Also located at the IDS Center in 
Seville, this program is popular with Gettysburg 
students. All students live in a homestay where 
they take their meals. All students take a set 
four-course program, which includes two 
Spanish language classes, literature, and 
Spanish civilization. Offered during even- 
numbered years. 

Gettysburg in Washington, D.C. through Lutheran 
College Washington Consortium: Students earn a 
full semester of academic credit by participating 
in an internship in Washington (four days per 
week), two academic courses, community 
service projects, and program excursions in 
virtually any field of study. Students live in fully 
furnished condominiums located across the 
Potomac River from Washington — a two-minute 
ride on the metro system into the city center. 
Internships are available in virtually any field. A 
variety of interdisciplinary courses are offered, 
from which students choose two. 

Gettysburg in Washington, D.C. through American 
University: Students earn a full semester of 
academic credit by participating in an 
internship in Washington, (two days per week) 
and two academic courses in virtually any field 
of study. All students live in a double room on 
the Tenley campus of American University, and 
take their meals at the Tenley cafeteria. All 
students take a seminar associated with their 
program (2 course units), and an internship 
(1 course unit). Most students write a research 
paper associated with their internship (1 course 
unit). Some students opt to take a night course 
at American University in lieu of the research 
paper ( 1 coiuse unit) . 

Gettysburg at the United Nations through Drew 
University: This program offers students the 
opportunity to learn about the UN by being 
there. Students spend Tuesdays and Thursdays 
in New York attending presentations. In 
addition, students take two elective courses at 
the Drew campus in Madison, New Jersey, and 
have the option of doing an internship as well. 
All students live in Drew University residence 
halls, and take meals on the Drew campus. 
Students take two required courses (PolSci 170: 
The United Nations System and the 
International Community, and PolSci 172: 
Research Seminar on the United Nations) , plus 
two electives from Drew's regular course 
offerings. 



Gettysburg at the Marine Biological Laboratory in 
Woods Hole Massachusetts: This Semester in 
Environmental Science program at the Marine 
Biological Laboratory (MBL) in Woods Hole, 
Massachusetts emphasizes inquiry-based 
learning through student participation in 
laboratory and research projects. Woods Hole is 
located on Cape Cod, near Falmouth. All 
students live at the MBL in shared rooms. 
Students take their meals at the MBL restaurant. 
All students take a Terrestrial Core Lecture and 
Lab (1 course unit), an Aquatic Core Lecture 
and Lab (1 course unit), an elective course (.75 
course unit), a Science Writers Seminar (.25 
course unit) , and an independent research 
project (1 course unit). 

Gettysburg at Duke Marine Laboratory: This fall or 
spring semester program allows students to 
study and conduct research at the Marine 
Laboratory, which is a campus of Duke 
University (near Beaufort) that focuses on the 
marine sciences, coastal environmental 
management, and marine bio-medicine. 
Students can also participate in the spring 
semester program, which spends one half of the 
semester at the Marine Laboratory and the 
other half at the Bermuda Biological Station for 
Research in Ferry Reach, Bermuda. Students 
live in shared rooms in a residence hall at the 
Marine Laboratory, and take their meals at the 
dining hall. 

London Student Teaching Program: This fall or 
spring program is available for students with a 
minor in Education (elementary or secondary). 
It includes a half-semester of classes at 
Gettysburg College and student teaching in a 
Gettysburg-area school, followed by a half- 
semester (7 weeks) of student teaching in 
London, England. A variety of schools are used 
for placement in London private schools, 
public schools, city schools and suburban 
schools. Students live in shared apartments in 
London city center, and prepare their own 
meals. 

Gettysburg College Suggested Programs 

Gettysbiug (k)llege students have also 
participated in many programs in Argentina, 
Austria, Belgiiun, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, 
Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Czech 
Republic, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, 
Ghana, Himgary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, 
Israel, Jamaica, Kenya, Korea, Morocco, 



Namibia, Nepal, New Zealand, Niger, Norway, 
Poland, Scodand, SoiUh Africa, Sweden, 
Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Venezuela, 
Vietnam, Wales, and Zimbabwe. 

Other Off-Campus Opportunities 

Consortium Exchange Progmm: This program is 
enriched by the College's membership in the 
Central Pennsylvania Consortium (CPC), 
consisting of Dickinson, Franklin and Marshall, 
and Gett)'sbing Colleges. The Consortium 
provides opportimities for exchanges by 
students and faculty, and for off-campus study. 
Students may take a single course or enroll at a 
Consortium College for a semester, or a full 
year. A course taken at any Consortium College 
is considered as in-residence credit. Interested 
students should consult the registrar. 

Lutheran Theological Seminary Exchange: 
Gettysburg College students are eligible to take 
up to four courses at the Lutheran Theological 
Seminary, also located in Gettysburg. The 
Seminary offers coursework in biblical studies, 
historical theological studies, and studies in 
ministry. Interested students should consult 
the registrar. 

Wilson College Exchange: Gettysburg College offers 
an exchange opportunity with Wilson College, an 
are- college for women, witli course offerings diat 
supplement Gettysbiug's offerings in 
commimications, women's studies, dance, and 
other creative arts. Students may take a single 
cotirse or enroll as a guest student for a 
semester or a full year. 

SPECIAL INTEREST PROGRAMS 

Students may petition the Academic Standing 
Committee for permission to take courses at 
another college, university or study site that 
offers a program in a special interest area not 
fully developed at Gettysburg College. Examples 
of special interest areas are urban studies, Asian 
studies, studio arts, and African American 
studies. Interested students should consult the 
Office of the Registrar. 

DUAL-DEGREE PROGRAMS 

For all of our Dual-Degree programs, once 
Gettysburg students apply for and are accepted 
to an affiliated university, they become students 
of that university. Students who qualify for 
financial aid at Gettysbvirg College are not 
guaranteed a similar financial aid package at 



our affiliated imiversities. Financial aid at the 
affiliated university must be applied for directly 
through that university. All other services will 
also be provided by that university. 

Engineering 

This program is offered jointly with Colimibia 
University, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 
(RPI), and Washington University in St. Louis. 
Students spend either three or four years at 
Gettysburg College, followed by two years at one 
of these imiversities. Upon successful 
completion of this program, the student is 
awarded the bachelor of arts degree from 
Gettysburg and the bachelor of science degree 
in an engineering discipline from one of the 
three affiliated universities. Each of these 
universities offers an opportunity for a master's 
degree through this affiliation. Gettysburg 
College students, on their own initiative, have 
also completed dual-degree programs at non- 
affiliated universities. Students who qualify for 
financial aid at Gettysburg College will usually 
be eligible for similar aid at the engineering 
affiliate universities. 

Candidates for this program have an adviser in 
the physics department. Normally, a student 
will be recommended to Columbia, RPI, or 
Washington University during the fall semester 
of the junior year. Students must have a 
minimum of a 3.0 grade point average in order 
to be recommended, except for students 
interested in electrical engineering, who are 
required to have a 3.3 average for 
recommendation. 

The specific courses required for admission by 
each affiliated institution vary and students 
should schedule courses in close cooperation 
with the Engineering Adviser at Gettysburg. In 
general, dual-degree engineering students can 
expect to take Physics 111, 112, 213, 255, 319, 
330; Mathematics 111, 112, 211, 212, 363; 
Chemistry 111, 112, and a computer science 
course. All dual-degree engineering students 
must complete the distribution requirements of 

Nursing 

The C.oUege has a five-year program under 
which students spend three years at Gettysburg 
and two at Johns Hopkins LIniversity School of 
Nursing in Baltimore. At the end of the fourth 
year of study, students complete requirements 
for a B.A. degree from Gettysburg College; at 
the end of the fifth vear, students receive a 



> 



B.S.N, degree from Johns Hopkins University. 
Students interested in this program should 
contact the Coordinator of Advising for Medicine 
and the Allied Healdi Professions. 

Optometry 

Pennsylvania College of Optometry (PCO) and 
the State University of New York (SUNY) 
College of Optometry offer admission into the 
program leading to the Doctor of Optometry to 
students from Gettysburg at the end of the 
junior year, provided that all prerequisites are 
met. At the conclusion of the first year at PCO 
or SUNY, students receive the baccalaureate 
degree from Gettysburg College and, after seven 
years of undergraduate and professional study, 
the Doctor of Optometry from the Pennsylvania 
College of Optometry or the State University of 
New York College of Optometry. Students who 
qualify for early admission to one of these 
programs will be recommended by the Medicine 
and Allied Health Professions Committee at 
Gettysburg College and will be required to 
interview at the Pennsylvania College of 
Optometry or the State University of New York 
College of Optometry during the spring term of 
the jtmior year. 

Forestry and Environmental Studies 

In addition to its own Department of 
En\dronmental Studies, the College offers a 
dual-degree program with Duke University 
leading to graduate study in natural resources 
and the environment. Students earn a bachelor's 
and master's degree in five years, spending 
three years at Gettysburg College and two years 
at Duke University's School of the Environment. 
Students must fulfill all distribution 
requirements by the end of the jtmior year. 
The first year's work at Duke will complete the 
imdergraduate degree requirements and the 
B.A. will be awarded by Gettysburg College at 
the end of the first year at Duke. Duke will 
award the professional degree of master of 
forestry or master of environmental 
management to qualified candidates at the 
end of the second year. 



Candidates for the program should indicate to 
the Admissions Office that they wish to apply for 
the forestry and environmental studies 
curriculum and plan their three-year course 
schedule with their advisor. During the first 
semester of the junior year at Gettysburg 
College, the student must notify the 
Environmental Studies chairperson and file with 
the Registrar a petition for off-campus study 
during the senior year. All applicants are urged 
to take the verbal and quantitative aptitude tests 
of the Graduate Record Examination in 
October or December of their junior year. The 
student should apply to Duke's School of the 
Environment and upon acceptance send the 
Environmental Studies department a written 
request for permission to substitute the Duke 
courses for the student's remaining 
requirements. 

The major program emphases at Duke are 

1) ecotoxicolog)' and environmental chemistry; 

2) resource ecology; 3) water and air resources; 
and 4) resoiuce economics and policy. 
Programs, however, can be tailored with other 
individual emphases. An undergraduate major 
in one of the natural or social sciences, 
management, or preengineering is good 
preparation for the programs at Duke, but 
students with other undergraduate 
concentrations will be considered for admission. 
All students contemplating this cooperative 
program should take at least one year of courses 
in each of the following: biology, mathematics 
(including calculus), economics, statistics, and 
computer science. In addition, organic chemistry 
is a prerequisite for the ecotoxicology program 
and ecology for the resource ecolog)' program. 
Please note that this is a competitive program 
and students are expected to have good 
quantitative analysis and writing skills. 

Students begin the program at Duke in late 
August and must complete a total of 48 units, 
including a master's degree project, which 
generally takes four semesters. 

Some students may prefer to complete the 
bachelor's degree before undertaking graduate 
study at Duke. The master's degree requirements 



for these students are the same as those for 
students entering after the jtmior year. All credit 
reductions are determined individually and 
consider both the student's educational 
background and objectives. 

PREPROFESSIONAL STUDIES 

Prelaw Preparation 

Students planning a career in law should 
develop the ability to think logically, analyze 
critically, and to express verbal and written ideas 
clearly. In addition, the prospective law student 
needs a wide range of critical understanding of 
hiunan institutions. These qualities are not 
found exclusively in any one field of study. They 
can be developed in a broad variety of academic 
majors. It should be noted that a strong academic 
record is required for admission to law school. 

Students are encouraged to contact the College 
Prelaw advisor, Professor Kenneth Mott, and to 
visit the Internship and Prelaw Center located 
on the second floor of Penn Hall. The Center 
maintains a library of resources, including LSAT 
and prep coiuse materials, computerized 
programs, videos, and law school catalogues. 
Further, the College maintains a Prelaw Web 
Page with much halpful information and links 
to additional resources. A brochure that 
describes prelaw preparation at Gettysburg 
College is also available in the Center and in the 
Office of Admissions. Students interested in 
planning a career in law are encoiuaged to 
obtain a copy of this brochure and to take 
advantage of the materials and advising process. 

Preparation for Health Professions 

The Gettysbiug College ciuricuhun provides 
the opportimity, within a liberal arts framework, 
for students to complete the requirements for 
admission to professional schools of medicine, 
dentistry, and veterinary medicine, as well as 
several allied health schools. Students 
considering a career in one of these fields are 
advised to schedule their courses carefully, not 
only to meet the admission requirements for the 
professional schools, but also to provide for 
other career options in the event that their 
original choices are altered. The following 
courses will meet the minimal entrance 



requirements for most medical, dental, or 
veterinary schools: Biology 111 (or 101), 112; 
Chemistry 107, 108; Chemistry 203, 204; Physics 
103, 104 (or 111, 112). Most schools require or 
strongly recommend courses in mathematics 
(calculus, statistics, and/or computer science) 
and English (composition and literature), but 
few specify course sequences. Since completion 
of these courses will also give the student 
minimum preparation for taking the national 
admissions examinations for entrance to medical, 
dental, or veterinary school, it is essential to 
have completed or be enrolled in these courses 
by the spring of the year when the tests are 
taken. While most students who seek 
recommendation for admission to health 
professions schools major in biology, chemistry, 
or biochemistry and molecular biology, the 
requirements can be met by majors in most 
other subjects with careful planning of a 
student's program. Students are encouraged to 
choose solid electives in the humanities and 
social sciences and to plan their programs in 
consultation with their major advisers or a 
member of the Medicine and Allied Health 
Professions Committee. 

Recommendations for admission to health 
profession schools are made by the Medicine 
and Allied Health Professions Committee. For 
students planning to enter medical school 
immediately after graduation from college, this 
occurs in the spring of the junior year. Students 
seeking admission to these professional schools 
must also take one of the following national 
admissions examinations: MCAT (medical), 
DAT (dental), VMAT or GRE (veterinary) or 
OAT (optometry). The Medicine and the Allied 
Health Professions is composed of five faculty 
members with the Coordinator of Advising for 
Medicine and the Allied Health professions 
acting as chairperson. Admission to medical 
school is very competitive and is based on 
several criteria: cumulative grade point average, 
scores on standardized tests, demonstrated 
leadership skills, evidence of a willingness to 
help others, work or volunteer experience in a 
medical setting, the letter of recommendation 
from the committee, and an interview at the 
medical school. 

If a student chooses not to attend medical 
school immediately after college or is not 



> 



accepted to medical school on first try, it is not 
uncommon to apply successfully a few years 
after graduation. These intervening years must, 
however, be spent in meaningful activity — work 
in a hospital, additional course work, or the 
Peace Corps, for example — in order to retain or 
improve one's competitive standing. 

MCT Hahnemann University's Graduate School 
of Physical Therapy offers early acceptance to 
students from Gettysburg College who meet the 
criteria for admission into the doctoral degree 
program. Students may major in any 
department, although a major in biology or 
health and exercise sciences is most common. 
Regardless of major, eight science courses in 
three different departments (biology, chemistry 
and physics) , two courses in psychology, one 
course in statistics and five courses in the 
humanities and social sciences are required. 
Also required are a minimum cumulative grade 
point average, a minimimi score on the 
(Graduate Record Exam, and significant work or 
volunteer experience in physical therapy. 
Students who are eligible for early admission to 
the program will be recommended by the Pre- 
Health Professions Committee at Gettysburg 
College and are required to interview at MCP 
Hahnemann University prior to acceptance. 

Gettysburg College also has Cooperative 
Programs in Nursing with the Johns Hopkins 
University and in Optometry with Pennsylvania 
College of Optometry and the State University 
of New York College of Optometry. 

The Medicine and Allied Health Professions 
Committee holds periodic meetings to explain 
requirements for admission to health 
professions schools, to bring representatives of 
these schools to campus to talk to students, and 
to explore issues of interest to the medical 
professions. In the office of the Coordinator of 
Advising for Medicine and the Allied Health 
Professions is a collection of materials about the 
health professions. It includes information 
about admissions requirements, guidebooks on 
preparing for national admissions examinations, 
catalogues from many health professions 
schools, and reference materials on fields such 
as medicine, dentistry, veterinary science. 



optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, physical therapy, 
public health, and health care administration. 

Teacher Education Programs 

Gettysburg College has education programs in 
secondary school subjects, elementary 
education, music education, and health and 
physical education. All are competency based 
and have received accreditation from the 
Pennsylvania Department of Education. (See 
Education under the Courses of Studies listings.) 
The education department also maintains a 
Teacher Placement Bureau to assist seniors and 
graduates in securing positions and to aid 
school officials in locating qualified teachers. 

Employment prospects in teaching continue to 
be good, and the projected annual demand for 
hiring of all teachers is expected to rise. 
According to the National Center for Education 
Statistics, the number of secondary school 
teachers is projected to increase at a greater rate 
than the number of elementary teachers. 
Between 1997 and 2007, an increase of 5% is 
projected at the elementary level, while an 
increase of 14% is projected at the secondary 
level, a rise from 1.2 million to 1.4 million 
teachers. Of the reporting Class of 1999 
certified Gettysburg College graduates who 
sought teaching positions in elementary 
education, 98% were teaching or in education- 
related occupations during the following 
academic year. Of the reporting certified 
secondary education graduates, 99% were so 
employed. The reported average salary for those 
certified through the program at Gettysbiug 
College was $29,000. 



Academic Regulations 



REGISTRATION 



Students must be re^stered officially for a course in order to earn academic credit. The registrar 
announces the time and place of formal registration. By formally completing registration, the 
student pledges to abide by College regulations. ♦ Students may also enroll in a course for credit 
during the first twelve days after the beginning of the semester. Students may not enroll in a course after 
the twelve-day enrollment period. 



Many departments establish limits to class 
enrollments in particular courses to insure the 
greatest opportunity for students to interact 
with their instructors and other students. As a 
result, students cannot be assiued of enrollment 
in all of their first choice courses within a given 
semester. 

The College may withdraw a student from classes 
and withhold transcripts and diplomas for 
failiue to pay college charges. The College may 
deny future enrollments for a student with a 
delinquent accoimt. 

THE GRADING SYSTEM 

Courses are normally graded A through F, with 
these grades having the following significance: 
A (excellent); B (good); C (fair); D (poor); and 
F (failing). Instructors may modify their letter 
grades with plus and minus signs. 

In successfully completing a course under this 
grading system, a student earns a number of 
quality points according to the following scale. 



A+ 4.33 



A- 3.67 

B+ 3.33 

B 3 

B- 2.67 

C+ 2.33 



C 



2 



C- 1.67 



D+ 1.33 



D 



1 



D- 0.67 
F 



A student's accumulative average is compiued 
by summing his or her quality points and 
dividing by the number of course imits taken. 
The average is rounded to the second decimal 
place. 

The College reserves the right to make changes 
and adjustments in the grading system even 
after a student enrolls. 

The College offers a satisfactory /unsatisfactory grading 
option. This option is intended to encourage 
students to be adventurous intellectually in 



courses with subject matter or approaches 
substantially different from their prior academic 
experience or attainment. An S signifies 
satisfactory work, and is given if a student 
performs at the C- level or higher; a U signifies 
unsatisfactory work, and is given for work below 
the C- level. Coiuses graded S/U do not affect a 
student's quality point average, but 
a course completed with an S grade will count 
toward the total number of courses needed for 
graduation. A student may elect to take a total 
of six courses on an S/U basis during his or her 
four years at Gettysburg College; however, no 
more than two S/U courses may be taken in 
any one year. This grading option may not be 
selected for Liberal Aits Core requirements for 
graduation, or for courses taken in a student's 
major field. Exceptions may be made with 
regard to the major in cases where a department 
specifies that a particular course is available 
imder the S/U grading system only, and in cases 
where the student declares the major after 
taking the course. A student must choose the 
S/U grading option during the first twelve class 
days of the semester. 

The basic skill courses in health and exercise 
sciences (all of which are graded S/U) shall not 
count in determining the maximum number of 
S/U courses a student may take. Students who 
enroll in Education 476: Student Teaching may 
take an additional course under the S/U option 
during the senior year, provided that their total 
number of S/U courses does not exceed six. 

Wlien a student registers for and completes a course 
which he or she has already taken at Gettysburg 
College, both the credit and tlie grade previously earned 
are canceled, but they are not removed from the 
permanent record. The credit and grade earned in 
repeating the course are coimted toward the 
student's requirements. 

A grade ofinc (Incomplete) is issued through the 
Academic Advising Office when emergency 
situations, such as illness, prevent a student 
from completing the cotuse requirements on 
time. The missing work must be completed by 



the end of the add/drop deadHne of the 
semester following the one in which the 
incomplete was incurred. 

A student who withdraws officially from a course 
after the twelve-day add/drop period, but within 
the first eleven weeks of the term, receives a W 
(withdrew) grade. If a student withdraws from a 
coiuse during the last five weeks of the semester, 
he or she will receive an F (failure) in the 
course. A student who withdraws officially for 
medical reasons receives a W regardless of the 
time of withdrawal. The W grade is not used in 
computing averages. 

ACADEMIC LEVEL 

A student's academic level or class year is 
determined on the basis of the number of units 
completed for the degree according to the 
following listing: 



Class Year 


Unit Range 


First Year 


0-5 


Sophomore 


6-14 


Junior 


15-24 


Senior 


25-35 


TRANSFER CREDIT 





After enrolling at Gettysburg College, students 
may use a maximum of three course credits 
toward the degree for work taken at other 
colleges if such courses have first been approved 
by the registrar. Course credit, but not the 
grade, transfers to Gettysburg College if the 
grade earned is a C- or better. This transfer 
option is not available to those who receive three 
or more transfer course credits at the time of 
admission or readmission to the College. 

This course credit limitation does not apply to 
Central Pennsylvania Consortium courses or 
off-campus study programs approved by the 
Academic Standing Committee. 

EXEMPTION FROM DEGREE REQUIREMENTS 

The College may recognize work on the college- 
level completed elsewhere by a student. This 
recognition may take the form of exemption 
from degree requirements and may carry 
academic credit. Students should present their 
requests for exemption to the registrar. They 
should be prepared to demonstrate their 
competence on the basis of their academic 
record. Advanced Placement Examination 
results of the College Board, or examinations 
administered by the department concerned. 



Decisions on exemption and credit rest with 
the department and the registrar. 

Students may satisfy the foreign language 
requirement in a language not regularly offered 
at Gettysburg College by demonstrating 
achievement at the intermediate-level through 
transfer credit, by examination, through 
independent study with a Gettysburg College 
faculty member, or through an approved 
exchange program with the Central Pennsylvania 
Consortium. International students who have 
learned English as a second language may sadsfy 
the requirement with their primary language. 

ACADEMIC STANDING 

Students are expected to maintain an academic 
record that will enable them to complete the 
requirements for graduation in the normal 
eight semesters. To be in good academic 
standing a student must have at least a 2.00 
accumulative average, a 2.00 average for the 
semester, a 2.00 average in the major field of 
study by the end of the junior year and during 
the senior year, and be making appropriate 
progress in acquiring the credits and 
completing the various requirements for 
graduation. Students who do not meet these 
standards will be given a warning, placed on 
academic probation, placed on suspension alert, 
or be suspended or permanently dismissed 
from the College. 

The student who falls below the following 
minimum standard is considered to be making 
imsatisfactory progress and is either placed on 
suspension alert, suspended, or permanently 
dismissed. For first-year students — 1.50 GPA and 
six courses completed; for sophomores — 1.80 
GPA and fifteen courses completed; for 
juniors — 1.90 GPA and twenty-five courses 
completed. First-year students may be 
suspended after one semester if their GPA is 1.0 
or below. 

In addiuon to these minimum standards, a 
student on probation must show significant 
improvement during the followng semester in 
order to remain at the College. Normally, a 
student may not remain at the College with 
three consecutive semester averages below 2.00. 

Students receiving some forms of financial aid 
must maintain minimum progress toward 
achieving a degree in order to remain eligible 
for such aid. (See the Financial Aid section of 
this catalogue for a more complete discussion of 
appropriate progress.) 



Students on academic probation or suspenson 
alert are permitted to participate in extra- 
curricular activities at the College. Students in 
academic difficulty, however, are reminded that 
their first priority is the academic program and 
that they must therefore give careful considera- 
tion to time commitments and responsibilities 
associated with extracurricular activities. 
Students on academic Probation or Suspension 
Alert are urged to consult with their faculty 
advisors and the deans of Academic Advising 
about ciuricular and extracinricular choices. 

RESIDENCE REQUIREMENTS AND 
SCHEDULE LIMITATIONS 

The normal program consists of nine courses 
per year, with five courses in one semester and 
four in the other. (Thus, a student will complete 
graduation requirements in four years of full- 
time academic work in the September-through- 
May academic year.) The last full year of 
academic work must be in residence at 
Gettysburg College or in an approved College 
program. Unless given approval, students may 
not complete requirements as part-time 
students during their last semester of residence. 

Students proposing to complete graduation 
requirements in less than four full years must 
have their programs approved by the Academic 
Standing Committee through the Office of the 
Registrar. Such approval should be sought at 
least a year before the proposed completion of 
requirements. 

A full-time student for academic purposes is one 
carrying a minimum of three courses during a 
semester. No student who is a candidate for a 
degree may take fewer courses than this without 
permission of the Academic Standing 
Committee. 

Students may not enroll in the equivalent of six 
or more full unit courses per semester without 
die approval of tlie Academic Standing Committee. 
In granting approval to take six courses, the 
Committee requires evidence that the student is 
in good academic standing and will be able to 
perform at an above average academic level 
during the semester of heavy enrollment. For 
the purpose of determining an extra course 
load, 1.25 unit courses count only as a full 
course. 

The required courses in health and exercise 
sciences, generally taken dining the first year, 
are in addition to the full course load in each 



semester. These courses do not count toward 
the 35-coiuse graduation requirement. 

Majors and minors in music and majors in 
health and exercise sciences must take quarter 
courses, in addition to the normal course load. 
Other students may take quarter courses in 
applied music, with the approval of the music 
department at an additional charge. 

A student may audit informally any College 
course with the permission of the instructor. No 
charge will be made for such an audit and no 
record of auditing will appear on the student's 
transcript. 

The College offers a limited opportunity for 
students to register for and complete a coinse of 
study during the summer. Primarily these are 
individualized study or internship courses and 
are arranged through academic departments. 

TRANSCRIPTS 

The College supports students in their 
candidacy for graduate or professional school 
admission or in their search for appropriate 
employment by providing a responsive transcript 
service. Requests for transcripts must be in 
writing and should be directed to the Office of 
the Registrar. This office prepares transcripts 
twice a week. There is no charge for this service 
unless the request requires special handling. 
The College reserves the right to deny a 
student's request for a transcript when there is a 
debt or obligation owed to the College or when 
there is an unresolved disciplinary or honor 
code action pending against the student. 

WITHDRAWAL. LEAVE OF ABSENCE. AND 
READMISSION 

Students may withdraw from the College for 
medical or personal reasons if they anticipate an 
absence of more than one semester. Students 
who withdraw voluntarily should arrange for an 
exit interview with a member of the Office of 
Academic Advising prior to leaving the College. 

Students who wish to take a semester off for 
medical or personal reasons may request a one- 
semester Leave of Absence. A Leave of Absence 
for personal reasons must be approved by the 
Academic Standing Committee. Students should 
contact the Office of Academic Advising for 
information and application forms. 



> 



A student whose physical or mental health is too 
impaired to complete all courses during a 
semester may seek a medical withdrawal from 
some courses and finish the semester with less 
than a regular full load, may take a fidl 
withdrawal from the College, or may be granted 
a Leave of Absence. The director of Academic 
Advising oversees these requests, and students 
should confer with a dean in the Office of 
Academic Advising in developing them. 
Students whose requests for medical withdrawal 
or leave are approved will be granted grades of 
"W" for courses from which they are 
withdrawing. 

All requests for medical withdrawal or leave 
require the recommendation of the College's 
Health or Counseling care providers. In 
addition, before a student who has been 
granted a partial or fidl medical withdrawal or 
leave retinns to full-time study, the College's 
health care providers must be satisfied, through 
commimication with the student's attending 
physician, psychiatrist, or therapist, that the 
student is ready to resume a full academic 
program by the designated time for return. If, 
based on medical considerations, there is reason 
to limit a student's course load or physical 
activity, a recommendation for such shoidd be 
noted in the communications to the College's 
health care providers from the student's 
attending physician, psychiatrist, or 
psychologist. A personal interview with a 
member of the College's health care providers 
may also be required. 

Students who have been granted a Leave of 
Absence should notify the Office of Academic 
Advising of their desire to return by November 
15 for the spring semester and by June 15 for 
the fall semester. 

Conditions for applying for readmission after 
withdrawal are set out in the letter sent to 
students establishing their withdrawal. 
Statements of these conditions, as well as forms 
for those seeking readmi.ssion, are available 
from the Office of Academic Advising. 
Normally, application and all supporting 
materials should be submitted to the Office of 
Academic Advising for review by the Academic 
Standing Committee by November 15 for the 
spring semester and by June 15 for the fall 
semester. 



Required Withdrawal for Academic or 
Disciplinary Reasons 

Students who are suspended for academic 
reasons normally are not eligible to return until 
one academic year has elapsed. Students who 
are suspended for disciplinary reasons are 
eligible to apply for readmission at the end of 
the time period specified in the suspension. 
The conditions for applying for readmission 
after suspension are set out in the letter sent to 
the student establishing the required 
suspension. Statements of these conditions, as 
well as forms for those seeking readmission, are 
available from the Office of Academic Adxdsing. 
Applications should ordinarily be submitted by 
April 15 for the fall semester or by November 15 
for the spring semester. Students who have been 
suspended from the College for academic 
reasons for a second time are not eligible for 
readmission. 

Financial Aid Upon Readmission 

Students who ha\e withdrawn, have been 
suspended, or have taken a Leave of Absence 
and who desire Financial Aid upon their return 
must complete all financial aid applications by 
the normal financial aid deadlines. 

Academic Status Upon Return or Readmission 

Students who withdraw or take a Leave of 
Absence will return to the College with the same 
academic standing status as when they left — 
except those who have been suspended for 
academic rea.sons, who will return on academic 
probation. 



Academic Achievement 



GRADUATION HONORS AND COMMENCEMENT 



T 



he College awards the following honors to members of the graduating class. These senior honors 
are intended for students with four years of residence at Gettysburg College; grade point average 
computations are based on four years' performance. 



• Valedictorian — to the senior with tlie highest 
accumulative average. 

• Salutatorian — to the senior with the second 
highest accumulative average. 

• Sinnma Cum Laude — to those seniors who 
have an accimiulative average of 3.75 or higher. 

• Magna Cum Laude — to those seniors who 
have an accumulative average of 3. .50 through 
3.74. 

• Cum Laude — to those seniors who have an 
accumulative average of 3.30 through 3.49. 

The Academic Standing Committee may grant 
the above honors to students with transfer 
credit if they have satisfied the conditions of the 
honor during at least two years in residence at 
Gettysburg College and have presented excellent 
transfer grades. To arrive at a decision, the 
Committee will factor in all grades earned at 
other institutions and during off-campus study 
programs. 

hi addition to the above, departments may 
award Departmental Honors for graduating 
seniors based upon their academic performance 
in a major field of study. Departmental Honors 
are awarded to transfer students on the same 
terms as to other students, as computation for 
this award is not necessarily based on four years 
in residence at Gettysburg College. 

Participation in the May Commencement 
exercises shall be limited to those students who 
have completed all graduation requirements by 
that Commencement ceremony. 

DEANS' LISTS 

The names of those students who attain an 
average of 3.600 or higher for the semester are 
placed on the Deans' Honor List in recognition 
of their academic achievements. Also, those 
students who attain an average from 3.30 to 3.59 
are placed on the Deans' Commendation List. 
To be eligible for these honors, students must 
take a full course load of at least four courses. 



with no more than one course taken under the 
S/U grading option during that semester 
(except for students taking the Education Term 
or participating in the Lutheran College 
Washington Semester program, who may take 
two courses S/U). First-year students who attain 
an average of 3.00 to 3.29 are placed on a First- 
Year Recognition List for commendable 
academic performance in their first or second 
semester. 

PHI BETA KAPPA 

Phi Beta Kappa, founded in 1776, is the oldest 
Greek-letter society in America and exists to 
promote liberal learning, to recognize academic 
excellence, and to support and encourage 
scholars in their work. The Gettysburg College 
chapter was chartered in 1923 and is today one 
of 255 Phi Beta Kappa chapters in American 
colleges and universities, twenty of which are in 
Pennsylvania. The Gettysburg College chapter 
elects to membership about five to ten percent 
of the senior class who have distinguished 
academic records and exhibit high moral 
character and intellectual curiosity. Election to 
Phi Beta Kappa is perhaps the most widely 
recognized academic distinction in American 
higher education. 

ALPHA LAMBDA DELTA 

Alpha Lambda Delta is a national society that 
honors academic excellence during a student's 
first year in college. It has 214 chapters 
throughoiU the nation. The purposes of Alpha 
Lambda Delta are to encourage superior 
academic achievement among students in their 
first year in college, to promote intelligent living 
and a continued high standard of learning, and 
to assist women and men in recognizing and 
developing meaningful goals for their roles in 
society. Alpha Lambda Delta membership is 
open to Gettysburg College students who attain 
a grade point average of 3.50 or higher during 
their first year. 



OTHER ACADEMIC HONORARY SOCIETIES 

The College promotes excellence in the 
academic program by supporting the following 
honorary societies for students with outstanding 
academic records in a particular major or area 
of study. 

Alpha Kappa Delta: International sociology 
honor society, open to majors who have taken at 
least four courses in the department and have a 
GPA of 3.0 or better in the major. 

Alpha Psi Omega: Honorary society in theater. 

Delta Phi Alpha: National honorary society that 
recognizes excellence in the study of German, 
provides incentives to higher scholarship, and 
promotes the study of the German language, 
literature, and civilization. 

Eta Sigma Phi: Classics honorary society for 
students who have taken at least two courses in 
the classic department with a B or better 
average and who are enrolled in an additional 
classics course. 

Omecron Delta Epsilon: Honorary societ) for 
majors in economics with proven intellectual 
curiosity and integrity, enthusiasm for the 
discipline, and with a minimum of four courses 
in economics with an average of at least 3.0 in 
the major and overall. 

Phi Alpha Theta: Honorary society that 
recognizes academic achievement in history and 
that actively carries on dialogue about history 
related issues outside the classroom. 

Phi Sigma lota: Romance Languages honorary 
society, for juniors and senior majors in French 
and/or Spanish with at least a B average in the 
major and overall. 

Pi Lambda Sigma: National honorary society for 
majors in management, economics, and 
political science with at least five courses in their 
major with a GPA of 3.1 or better. 



Pi Sigma Alpha: Nu Psi chapter of the national 
political science honor society for junior and 
senior majors in political science. To qualify for 
membership, a student must meet the following 
criteria: a 3.0 grade point average overall, a 
3.2 grade point average in the major, 
completion of four coinses in the major, and 
rank in the top third of his or her class. Student 
officers administer the organization and plan 
programs as well as social events. 

Psi Chi: Honorary society in psychology that 
serves to advance the science of psychology; for 
students who have completed a minimum of 
three courses and are enrolled in their fourth 
and who have achieved an average of at least 
3.0 in the major and overall. 

Sigma Alpha lota: International society for 
women in music, advocating and encouraging 
excellence in scholarship, advancement of the 
ideals and aims of the Alma Mater, and adhering 
to the highest standards of citizenship and 
democracy. 



Courses of Study 



Each year the registrar's office issues a hsting of 
courses to be taught during the fall and spring 
semesters and the times they will be taught. 
Students should consult this announcement of 
courses to obtain the most current information 
about course offerings, as the College does not 
offer every course listed in the following pages 
each year. 

Courses numbered 100-199 are usually at a 
beginning level. Intermediate courses are 
numbered 200-299. Courses numbered 300-399 
are at an upperclass level. Courses nimibered 
400 and above are advanced seminars, 
internships, and individualized study. 

Courses with two numbers, e.g.. Ait 111,112, 
span two semesters. For courses separated by a 
hyphen, the first nimibered course must be 
taken as a prerequisite for the second. Where 
the two numbers are separated by a comma, 
either of the semesters of the course may be 
taken independently of the other. 

Liberal Arts Core requirements for the BA and 
BS degrees are listed in the section. Academic 
Regulations. Requirements for a BSME are given 
imder the Department of Music. 

LIBERAL ARTS CORE REQUIREMENTS 

Following is a listing of the courses that satisfy 
each of the Liberal Aits Core requirements. For 
more information, refer to the department 
introductions and course listings on the 
following pages. 

Requirements and Courses That Fulfill 
the Requirements 

The Arts 



African American Studies 247; English 205; 
IDS 267; Music 101-112, 141, 244, 313, 314, or, 
with departmental permission, four semesters of 
applied music instruction with a capstone 
research project or paper. Theatre Arts, all 
courses, excef)t 214, 328, 329; Visual Arts, all 
courses. 

Humanities 



African American Studies 130, 217, 224, 230, 
233, 331; Civil War Era Studies 205; Classics, all 
100- Sc 200-level courses; all French, German, 
Japanese, and Spanish literature and civilization 
courses. English, all courses, exceptEng 101, 201, 
203, 205, 207, 299, 300-307; History, all courses; 
IDS 103, 104, 161, 211, 216, 229, 235, 239, 241, 



243, 244, 246, 247, 249, 260, 272; Italian 222; 
Japanese Studies 238, 247; Latin American 
Studies 140, 147, 220-229, 261; Philosophy, all 
courses except Phil 103 and 211; Religion, all 
courses; Theatre Arts 214, 328, 329; Women's 
Studies 216, 217, 219, 220, 221, 251. 

Natural Sciences 



All 100-level courses in Astronomy, Biology, 
Chemistry, Environmental Studies, and Physics. 

Social Sciences 



African American Studies 245, 265, 266; 
Anthropology, all courses, except 300-level 
methods course; Economics 103, 104; Japanese 
Studies 150, 225; Latin American Studies 262, 
267; Political Science, all courses, exce^Jt Po\ 215; 
Psychology, all 100- & 200-leveI courses, except 
Psych 205; Sociology, all courses at the 100- or 
200-leveI; Spanish 303, 351; Women's Studies 
222, 226. 

Foreign Laiiguage 

French 202; German 202, 204; Greek 202; 
Italian 202; Japanese 202; Latin 202; Spanish 
202, 204. 

Quantitative Reasoning 

Biology 260; Computer Science 103, 104; 
HES 332, 342; Mathematics, all courses; 
Philosophy 211; Political Science 215; 
Psychology 205; Sociology 303. 

Writing Proficiency 
English 101. 

Non-Western Culture 

African American Studies 130, 230, 233, 331; 
Anthropology, 103, 220, 228, 232, 234-237, 301; 
Economics 212, 213, 250, 253; History 104, 
221-224, 271, 272, 373; IDS 229, 239, 268; 
Japanese Studies 150, 225, 238, 247; Music 102; 
Political Science 270, 271, 362, 363; Religion 
248, 249, 250-252, 256, 340, 350; Visual Arts 
227, 228, 247, 248; Women's Studies 219, 226. 

Health & Exercise Sciences 

HES 107 and any HES quarter course. 



FIRST-YEAR SEMINARS 



First-Year Seminars are an array of specially 
designed courses offered only to first-year 
students. Participation in these seminars is not 
required, nor is enrollment in them guaranteed. 
All seminars have small enrollment, focus on a 
special or narrow topic, emphasize active and 
collaborative learning, and are usually conducted 
in a residential college setting. They may fulfill a 
general education requirement; serve as an 
alternative introduction to the methods and 
problems of a discipline and count toward a 
major; or be an interdisciplinary elective. While 
the focus of each seminar is different, all 
seminars require students to analyze and discuss 
course content. Among the skills taught are 
writing, speaking, research methods, and 
quantitative reasoning. 

Instructors from a wide variety of disciplines 
teach First-Year Seminars in sections of no more 
than 16 students each. Most First- Year Seminars 
are offered in the fall semester 

AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDIES 

Cecil Gray, Cuordinntor 

Overview 

African American Studies is the systemadc study 
of African life — both diasporan and continental. 
As a structured discipline, African American 
Studies focuses on the myriad expressions of 
African cultures, incorporating several 
fimdamental paradigms and methodological 
approaches that inform its inquiry into the 
history and contemporary dimensions of African 
traditions. 

The objective of the African American Studies 
Program is to contribute to the intellectual 
depth and breadth of a well-rounded liberal arts 
education. It endeavors to provide a solid 
grounding in alternative philosophical Uaditions 
— an essential orientation in an increasingly 
globalized world. The African American Studies 
Program seeks to familiarize students with 
alternative epistemological approaches, theories, 
and paradigms that better conceptualize, explain, 
and incorporate the contemporary interests and 
concerns of the majority of the world's peoples 
and their societies. African American Studies 
provides a more profound understanding of the 
social realities, experiences, and continuing 
contributions to human civilization of the 
peoples of African descent and heritage. 



The African American Studies Program 
emphasizes the social sciences and humanities, 
and may include a range of courses, as well as 
opportunities for independent and off-campus 
study in Africa. 

Requirements and Recommendations 
Special Major in African American Studies 

Students intending to pursue a special major in 
African American Studies must submit a 
proposal for their individual plan of study to 
African American Studies and the Committee 
on Interdepartmental Studies. The proposed 
program must be an integrated plan of study 
that incorporates course work from a minimum 
of two departments or fields. A special major 
must include a total of ten to twelve courses, no 
fewer than eight of which must be above the 
100-level; three or more courses at the 3()0-level 
or above; and a 4()()-Ievel individualized study 
course, which is normally taken during the 
senior year. Students should consult with Prof 
Grav in the first or second year of studies. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

AAS 130, 217, 224, 230, 233, and 331 fulfill the 
Liberal Arts Core requirement in humanities. 
AAS 247 satisfies the Liberal Arts Core 
requirement in the arts. AAS 245, 265, and 266 
fulfill the liberal arts requirement in social 
sciences. AAS 130, 230, 233, and 331 fulfill the 
non-Western culture requirement. 

African American Studies Minor 

Students wishing to minor in the program are 
required to complete six courses: AAS 130, 
AAS 331, an AAS Individualized Study course, 
and three other core-affiliated coiuses. Students 
wishing to minor in African American Studies 
should consult with Mr Gray. 

CORE COURSES 

1 30 Introduction to African American Studies 

(Consideration of African Americans within the 
broader context of the African diaspora. 
Students are introduced to a broad range of 
themes in their historical context, from the 
African origin of world civilization to the 
formation of African American societies and 
cultures. Other themes include the enslavement 
of Africans, rise and fall of slavocracy. Civil 
Rights and Black Power struggles, and the 
emergence of African Centered .scholarship and 
praxis. 
Ms. Barnes, Mr. Chiteji, Ms. Glascoe, Mr. Gray 



2 1 7 Slavery and the Literary Imagination Study 
of various forms of discourse on American 
chattel slavery — emancipatory narratives written 
by ex-slaves; slave narratives recorded by WPA 
writers; socio-historical essays; neo-slave 
narrative written by contemporary novelists; 
poetry, ballads, spirituals and folklore. Students 
examine the experiences of the middle passage, 
chattel slavery, and emancipation, as described 
by African American writers. 
Ms. Barnes 

224 Religions of African Americans Examination 
of the religious traditions of black Americans 
from "slave religion" to the present. Course 
focuses on the religious beliefs of African 
Americans and the ways those beliefs have been 
used to develop strategies to achieve freedom 
and justice. Subjects covered include the 
influence of African religion, African American 
religious nationalism, Pentecostalism, spirituals 
and gospel music, and the Civil Rights 
movement. Offered in alternate years. 
Staff 

230 Introduction to Africa Study of the various 
regions and cultures of Africa, with emphasis on 
the historical and cultural forces that have shaped 
modern Africa. Course examines African kinship 
systems, African religious and philosophical 
beliefs, political tiaditions, agiicultural production 
and trade, and the effects of powerful external 
forces on African societies. 
Staff 

233 Southern African: History, Conflict, and 
Change Introduction to a dynamic, yet conflict- 
ridden part of the African continent. Cotnse 
focuses on characteristics of the precolonial 
societies and the nature of their early contact 
with the European settlers in the seventeenth 
centviry, the triumph of the white immigrants 
over indigenous Africans, the emergence of 
South Africa as a regional economic power, and 
the social contradictions that have come to 
characterize what is now called the Republic of 
South Africa. A subject of special attention will 
be the internal and external opposition to racial 
oppression. 
Mr. Chiteji 

245 Slavery in the Southern United States 

Study of slavery in the U.S. South, both as a 
sociocultural and an economic institution. 
Focus is on the origins of slavery and racism, 
mechanisms of enslavement, African American 
responses to slave status, imique burdens of the 



female slaves, and institutional structures of the 
slave community. Course examines several 
major controversies involving historical 
interpretation and plantation reality, as well as 
economic cost and benefits of the emancipation 
to the African Americans. 
Mr. Chiteji 

247 African American Traditional Music Study 
of the history of Airican American musical 
traditions. Course begins with a brief survey of 
African antecedents and covers both spirituals 
and secular music of the slavery period, work 
songs, ballads, blues, ragtime and jazz, gospel 
music, rhythm and blues, and beginnings of 
rock 'n roll. Primary focus is on musical 
elements of these traditions, their meaning in a 
cultural context, the ways in which this music 
differs from white music and reflects an 
Afrocentric consciousness, and the influence 
this music has had on American music. 
Previous musical knowledge is not required. 
Mr. Win an s 

250-260 Topics in African American Studies 

Rigorous, detailed examination of the 
philosophical and intellectual traditions that 
shape a common social heritage shared by 
Africans and African Americans. Course assumes 
a cultural perspective toward human organization 
to understand the social dimensions of the 
historical and contemporary ordering and 
governance of African life by systems of 
religious, economic, and educational thought. 
Staff 

252 The Civil Rights Movement: Mississippi, A 
Case Study (bourse focuses on the C^ivil Rights 
Movement in the South. Social and historical 
origins of the movement are reviewed. Topics of 
interest include the philosophy of non-violence, 
the role of students and young people, the 
ideological differences of the major ciNdl rights 
organizations, and the contribiUions of local 
leaders and communit)' people. Significance of 
the civil rights movement is considered in the 
context of its relevance to the contemporary 
situation of African Americans. 

Ms. Glascoe 

253 West Africa to Southeastern U.S. Study of 
historical, linguistic, social and cultiual 
connections that exist between the Mano River 
Tri-Union States of Sierra Leone, Guinea, and 
Liberia, and West Africa and African Americans 
who inhabit the Southeastern region of the 



> 



United States, particularly the sea islands and 
coastal plains regions of South Carolina and 
Georgia. Course examines linkages that exist 
between West African languages and the Gullah- 
Geechee language patterns of Georgia and 
South Carolina as well as West-African family 
and folk traditions still in practice in this area. 
A/5. Glascoe 

265 African American Social Movements Study 
of political movements that have developed 
within African American communities of the 
U.S., and, in some instances, spread throughout 
the African diaspora. Students examine such 
movements from the colonial era through the 
twentieth century in an effort to trace both 
change and continuities in thought and 
methods of action. 

Mr. Chiteji 

266 The Sociology of African Americans Critical 
introduction to the study of the organization 
and functioning of African American society — 
its development, the endogenous structures that 
compose and define it, and its relationship and 
interaction with the people and social forces 
external to it. Course takes a sociological 
approach to the epistemological orientation of 
concepts, methodologies, and theories basic to 
understanding African American reality. Course 
is organized primarily as a seminar and devotes 
considerable time to discussions of various 
issues and problems raised by the readings. 

331 African and African American Intellectual 
History Exploration of thought and action over 
millennia, and how the same have shaped 
African people. Course considers noteworthy 
thought systems, documents, thinkers and 
theories, practitioners and products; examines 
such ancient contributions as The Book of 
Ptahhotep; and identifies sources of Greek 
philosophy, contributions toJewish-Christian- 
Islamic philosophies, and medieval sources. 
Students also examine the contributions of such 
figures as Douglass, Delany, DuBois, Garvey, 
Cesaire, Diop, Wright, Malcolm, Baldwin, King, 
Fannie Lou Hamer, Morrison, West, Tupac 
Shakur, Lauryn Hill, and others. No prerequisite. 
Mr. Gray 

332 Seminar: Focus on W.E.B. DuBois Course 
surveys life and writings of William Edward 
Bmghardt DuBois, the foremost African 
American intellectual of his time and cofounder 
of the National Association for the Advance- 



ment of Colored People. DuBois' work in 
history, sociology, creative wiiting, and 
journalism are reviewed, as well as his efforts to 
give leadership to the struggles of African and 
African American people. Attention will be 
given to the leadership role DuBois assimied in 
African American education, along with his 
work for Pan Africanism and world peace. 
Ms. Glascoe 

40 1 African American Studies Seminar 

Topics vary each year. 
Mr. Chiteji, Mr. Gray 

Independent Study Individual tutorial, research 
project, or internship. Reqtiires permission of 
an instructor who will supervise the project. 
Instructor can supply a copy of a statement of 
departmental policy regarding grading and 
major credit for different types of projects. 
Either semester. 
Staff 

Cross-Listed Course 

(See appropriate departmental listings for 
descriptions of the following courses.) 

Eng 235 Survery of African American Literature 
Eng 252 African American Literature Since 1955 
Eng 254 African American Literature 

Before 1955 
Eng 349 Contemporary African American 

Women Writers 
Eng 353 Discourses of Resistance 
Hist 238 .African .\merican History: A Survey 
Hist 27 1 .African History and Society to 

the 1800s 
Hist 272 African History and Society from 

the 18()0s 
Rel 225 Religion in the Civil Rights Movement 
Rel 256 Introduction to African Religion 

Affiliated Courses 
Econ 250 Economic Development 
Econ 253 Introduction to Polifical Economy 

and the African Diaspora 
Fren 331 LaFrancophonie 
Hist 236 Urbanism in Ainerican History 
IDS 235 Introduction to African Literature 
Mus 102 World Music Survey 
Mus 1 10 Survey of Jazz 

Pol Sci 263 Politics of the Development Areas 
Pol Sci 252 North-South dialogue 



BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 

She) man Hendrix and Joseph Grzybowski, C.oordinators 

Biochemistry and molecular biology is an 
interdisciplinary program diat studies the biology 
and chemistry of the structines and chemical 
reacdons within cells by using contemporary 
methods of biochemical analysis, recombinant 
DNA technology, and molecular biology. 

Students may earn a B.S. degree in biochemistry 
and molecular biology by completing the 
following courses: 

Biology 1 1 1 Introductory Biologv' 
Biology 1 12 Form and Fimction in Living 

Organisms 
Biology 2 1 1 Genetics 
Biology 2 1 2 Cell Biology 
Biology 351 Molecular Genetics 
Chemistry 107 Chemical Structure and 

Bonding 
Chemistry 108 Chemical Reactivity 
Chemistry 203 Organic Chemistry 
Chemistry 204 Organic Chemistry 
Chemistry 305 Physical Chemistry 
Chemistry 317 Instriunental Analysis 
Chemistry 333 Biochemistry 
Chemistry (or Biology) 334 Biochemistry 
Mathematics I 1 1 Calculus I 
Mathematics 1 1 2 Calculus II 
Physics I 1 1 Mechanics and Heat 
Physics I 12 Wa\es, Electricit)', and Magnetism 
Biology 460 or Chemistry 460 Individualized 

Study/ Research 

The program is directed by a Biochemistry and 
Molecular Biology Committee (BMBC), consisting 
of biolog}' and chemistry facidty members. 
Individualized Study projects (Biology 460, 
Biology 461, Chemistry 460, or Chemistry 465) 
may be directed by any member of the BMBC. 
Otherwise, the project requires the approval of 
the BMBC. 

BIOLOGY 

Professors Cavaliere, Commito, Hendrix (Chairperson), 

Mikesell, and Sorensen 
Associate Professors Delesalle, Elheridge, Fong, 

Hiraizumi, fames, and J. Winkelmann 
Assistant Professor Cleveland and Urcuyo 
Laboratory Instrurtors Huhether, Price, Reese, 

H. Winkelmann, and Zeman 

Overview 

Courses in the department are designed to 
proxdde a foimdation in basic biological 
concepts and principles, and the backgroimd 



necessary for graduate study in biology, forestry, 
medicine, veterinary medicine, dentistry, 
optometry, and other professional fields. Most 
courses in the department include laboratory 
work. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The biology department offers both a Bachelor 
of Arts (B.A.) and a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) 
degree for the major. 

B.A. Requirements: A minimum of eight biology 
courses, including Biology 111, 112, 211, and 
212, are required of all majors. Internships are 
excluded. Beyond these four, no specific biology 
courses are required. Every program must 
include at least one course from each of two 
areas: plant biolog)' (Biology 200, 202, 204, 217, 
or 218) and animal biology (Biology 220, 223, 
224, 225, 227, or 340). No single course may 
satisfy more than one area. Biology 111, (or 
101) and 112 are prerequisites for all upper- 
level biology courses. Enrollment in Biolog)' 112 
requires a grade of C or better in Biolog)' 101, or 
a grade of C or better in Biology 111. 
Continuation in the biology major reqixires a 
grade of C or better in Biology 112. 

Chemistry 107, 108 is required of all majors. It is 
strongly suggested, but not mandatory, that 
Chemistry 107, 108 be taken in the first year. 
Physics 103, 104 (or Physics 111, 112), and Math 
1 1 1 (or Math 105, 106) are also required. 

B.S. Retpiirements: In addition to the courses 
noted above, the B.S. degree requires 
Individualized Study (Biology 460 or 461) and 
Chemistry 203-204. 

A minor in biology includes Biolog)' 111 (or 
101), 112, and any other foiu' courses in the 
department (proxided that all prerequisites are 
met) that would count toward the major. 

All courses taken to satisfy the requirements for 
the B.A. or B.S. degree or for the minor must be 
taken using the A-F grading system. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

The Liberal Arts Core requirement in the 
natural sciences may be satisfied by Biology 101 
(or 1 1 1) and Biology 102 (or 112), or Biolog)' 
103. 

Special Facilities 

Two greenhouses, herbarium, en\ironmental 
chambers, animal quarters, aquariimi room, 
electron microscopy laboratory housing both 
scanning and transmission electron microscopes, 
research laboratories, and computing facility. 



> 



Special Programs 

Dual-degree programs in forestry and 
environmental studies with Duke University, 
musing with the Johns Hopkins University, and 
optometry with Pennsylvania College of 
Optometry. Cooperative programs in marine 
l)iology with Duke University and the Bermuda 
Biological Station for Research. 

101 Molecules, Cells, and Genes Introduction to 
cell biolog)', bioenergetics, gene expression, and 
patterns of inheritance with a focus on 
important topical issues. Laboratory emphasizes 
the experimental nature of biological 
investigation. Designed (along with Biology 102 
or 103) for completion of the Liberal Arts Core 
requirement in the natural sciences. Students 
not majoring in biology but who are interested 
in the health professions may, with a grade of C 
or better in Biologv' 101, enroll in Biolog}' 112. 
Three class hours and laboratory. 

Staff 

1 02 Contemporary Topics in Biology: The 
Biological Basis of Disease Designed for 
nonscience manors. Course covers selected 
biological topics related to himian diseases and 
focuses on contemporary problems and their 
possible solutions. Three class hours and 
laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 101. 

Staff 

103 Contemporary Topics in Biology: Evolution 
of Life Designed for nonscience manors. 
Course covers selected biological topics related 
to the evolution of life and human evolution. 
Three class hours and laboratory. I\erequisite: 
Biolog\' 101. 

Staff" 

I 1 1 Introductory Biology: Introduction to 
Ecology and Evolution Dcsigm-d to imroduce 
students to general biological principles, with a 
locus on ecology and evolution. Topics include 
adaptation, nutrient cycling and energy flow, 
population growth and species interactions, 
Mendelian and population genetics, speciation, 
and the history of life. Laboratory emphasizes 
the experimental nature of biological 
investigation. Designed for science majors with a 
liigh school backgroimd in biology, chemistry, 
and mathematics. Three class hours and 
laboratory, plus one hour discusssion. 
Staff 

1 12 Form and Function in Living Organisms 

Designed for science majors. Functional design 
of plants and animals is emphasized. Aspects of 



evolution, phylogeny, and ecology are also 
covered. Three class hours and laboratory. 
Prerequisite: Biology 111 (or 101 ) . 
Staff 

200 Physiology of Plant Adaptations Major 
structiual systems, physiological processes, and 
adaptations of plants to their environment. 
Topics include growth regulatory substances, 
photoperiodic responses, water balance, 
nutrition, plant defense mechanisms, and the 
responses of plants to environmental changes. 
Three hours lectine. 
Mr Cavaliei'c 

202 Structural Plant Development Anatomical 
approach to the study of higher plant structures. 
The origin and differentiation of tissues and 
organs, environmental aspects of development, 
and plant anomalies are studied. Six hours in 
class-laboratory work. 
Mr. Mikesell 

204 Biology of Flowering Plants Identification, 
classification, structural diversity, ecology, and 
evolutionary relation.ships of the angiosperms. 
Course includes field work for collection and 
identification of local flora. Three class hours 
and laboratory-field work. Alternate years. 
Ms. Delesalle 

205 Ecology Principles of ecology, with emphasis 
on three levels of the biological hierarchy — 
organisms, populations, and communities — that 
are needed to understand the factors that 
determine the abundance and distribution of 
any species. Course includes a number of field 
trips. Three class hours and laboratory-field 
work. Credit cannot be received for both this 
course and Environmental Studies 211. Students 
can substitute Environmental Studies 211 for 
Biolog)' 20.5. 

Ms. Delesalle 

2 1 1 Genetics Overview of principles of genetics. 
Topics include chemical nature of genes, 
Mendelian and non-Mendelian inheritance, 
gene regulation, genetic engineering, molecular 
evolution, and population genetics. Three 
class hours and laboratory. Prerequisite: Chemisuy 
107, 108. 

Mr Hiraizumi 

212 Cell Biology Structure and function of 
eukaryotic cells. Protein structure, enzyme 
function, membrane structure and transport, 
protein sorting, energ)' transduction by 
mitochondria and chloroplasts, chromosome 



structure, cell division and cell-cycle control, cell 
communication, cell motility, and the behavior 
of selected differentiated cells. Three class 
hours and laboratory. Prerequisite: Chemistry 
107, 108, and Biology 211. 
Ah: Sorensen 

1 1 5 Electron Microscopy Introduction to basic 
theory and practice of transmission and 
scanning electron microscopy, techniques of 
tissue preparation, and introduction to 
interpretation of animal and plant 
ultrastructure. Each student is required to 
complete an independent project. Six hours 
in class-laboratory work. Prerequisite: Permission 
of instructor. 
Mr Cavaliere and Mr Hendrix 

217 An Evolutionary Survey of the Plant 
Kingdom Synopsis of embryo-producing plants, 
primarily liverworts, mosses, fern allies, ferns, 
and seed plants. Emphasis is on comparative 
morpholog)' of vegetative and reproductive 
characters, unique features, and evolutionary 
trends in plants. Six hours in class-laboratory 
work. 

Mr Mikesell 

2 1 8 Biology of Algae and Fungi Study of algae 
(phycology) and ftmgi (mycology) in aquatic and 
terrestrial ecosystems with emphasis on their 
role in primary production and decomposition. 
Topics include identification, morphology, 
reproduction, ecology, and phylogeny of tliese 
organisms. Culture techniques and principles of 
plant patholog)' and medical mycology are also 
considered. Six hoius in class-laboratory work. 
Mr Cavaliere 

223 Parasitology Introduction to the general 
principles of parasitism, with emphasis on the 
epidemiology, taxonomy, morphology, and 
physiology of the major groups of protozoan, 
helminth, and arthropod parasites of humans 
and other animals. Three class hours and 
laboratory. 

Mr Hendrix 

224 Vertebrate Zoology Introduction to 
SNstematics, distribiuion, reproduction, and 
population dynamics of vertebrates. Field and 
laboratory emphasis on natural history, 
collection, and identification. Optional trip lo 
North Carolina. Six hours in class, laboratory, 
and field work. 

Mr Winkelmann 



225 Animal Behavior Study of animal behavior 
through readings, discussions, and field and 
laboratory observations. A wide range of 
phenomena are considered, from simple reflex 
responses to complex social organizations. Role 
of behavioral adaptations in the biology of 
animal species is emphasized. Three class hours 
and laboratory. 
Mr Winkelmann 

227 Invertebrate Zoology Biology of the major 
metazoan invertebrate groups, with emphasis on 
adaptive morphology and physiology and on 
evolution. Six hours in class-laboratory work. 

Mr Fong 

230 Microbiology Biology of viruses and bacteria, 
with emphasis on morphology, metabolism, 
taxonomy, reproduction, and ecology. 
Laboratory includes isolation, culture, 
environmental influences, identification, and 
biochemical characterization of bacteria and 
their viruses. Three class hours and laboratory. 
Air Hendrix 

260 Biostatistics Designed for students in 
biology who plan to engage in individualized 
study and/or research. Topics include the 
nature of biological data and the statistical 
procedures to analyze them. Special attention 
given to experimental design and hypothesis 
testing. Three class hours and one hour 
discussion. Credit cannot be received for both 
this course and Mathematics 107, Psychology 
205, Sociology 303, or Economics 241. 
Ms. Cleveland 

306 Marine Ecology Analysis of the ecology of 
marine systems. The open ocean, estuaries, salt 
marshes, beaches, mud and sand flats, seagrass 
beds, rocky shores, coral reefs, and deep sea are 
examined. Problems of pollution, beach 
erosion, and the management of declining 
fisheries is also presented. Quantitative field 
work in a variety of coastal habitats is conducted 
on a required field trip to Duke Universit)' 
Marine Laboratory and the Outer Banks barrier 
island chain. Three class hours and laboratory- 
field work. Prerequisite: Environmental Studies 
211 or Biology 205. Alternate years. 

Ms. Clei'elaud, Mr Urcuyo 

307 Limnology Study of the physical, chemical, 
and biological characteristics t)f inland waters. 
Topics include nutrient cycling, biological 
interactions, and effects of himian activities. 
Course includes individual research projects 
and a number of field trips. Six hours in class, 




laboratory, and field work. Prerequisite: 
En\'ironmental Studies 211 or Biology 205 or 
consent of instructor. 
Mr. Fong 

314 Evolution Study of the transformation and 
diversification of populations through time. 
Topics include history of life, adaptation, 
selection and population genetics, speciation 
and extinction, evolutionary innovations, and 
patterns of diversity. Three class hoius and one 
hour discussion. Prerequisite: Biology 211. 
Alternate years. 
Ms. Deksalle 

320 Developmental Biology Survey of the 
phenomena and principles of animal 
development. Major attention is given to 
embryonic development in multicellular 
animals. Vertebrates are emphasized in the study 
of organ development. Three class hours and 
laboratory. Alternate years. Prerequisite: Biology 
211,212 
Mr Sore risen 

332 Immunobiology Inuoduction to the vertebrate 
immune system at the molecular, cellular, and 
organismal levels. Antibody structure, antigen- 
antibody interaction, the genetics of antibody 
diversity, the immune response, and the bases of 
self/non-self discrimination are emphasized. 
Three class hours. Prerequisites: Biolog)' 21 1, 212. 
Alternate years. 
Mr. Sorensen 

334 Biochemistry Detailed examination of 
primary and secondary metabolic pathways in 
microbes, plants, and animals. Application to 
metabolic disorders, infections, and medical 
advances in the treatment of the above 
conditions are incorporated into course. 
Laboratory work includes an independent 
research project. Prerequisite: Biology 212. 
Course is cross-listed as Chemistry 334. 
Ms. Holland 

340 Comparative Animal Physiology Regulation 
of basic physiological processes in animals. 
Uniting principles aie studied using a comparative 
approach. Lecture and laboratory are combined 
in two three-hour sessions. Prerequisite: Biology 
212. Credit cannot be received for both this 
course and HES 210. 
Ms. Ethetidge 

35 1 Molecular Genetics Study of the basic 
mechanisms of information storage and 
retrieval from DNA and RNA. Topics include 
genome organization and the regulation of 



gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; 
DNA replication and repair; molecular genetics 
of cancer and human-inherited disorders; and 
recombinant DNA technology. Three class hours 
and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biolog)' 211,212. 
Mr James 

453 Individualized Study: Tutorial Independent 
investigation of a topic of special interest, 
directed by a faculty member familiar with the 
general field of study. May be used as preparation 
for enrollment in Biology 460. Prerequisite: 
Approval of directing faculty member. 
Staff 

460 Individualized Study: Research Independent 
investigation of a topic of special interest, 
normally including both literature and 
laboratory research. Directed by a facult\' 
member familiar with the general field of study. 
Results of investigation are presented to the 
department. Open to juniors and seniors. A 
grade of B- or higher must be earned to receive 
a B.S. degree. A single Indixadualized Study may 
be used toward one of the eight courses 
required for the B.A. degree. Prerequisite: 
Approval of both the directing faculty member 
and department. 
Staff 

473 Individualized Study: Internship 

Independent internship experience under the 
direct supervision of professional personnel in a 
variety of biology-related areas. Internship may 
be arranged by the department or the student. 
Must combine practical work experience with 
an academic dimension. Library research paper 
on a subject related to the experience is required. 
Prerequisite: Approval of both supervisor and 
department. Contact internship office for 
application and further assistance. 
Mr Cavaliere 

CHEMISTRY 

Professors Qrzybowski (Chairperson), Jameson, 

Parker, and Rowland 
Associate Professor Holland 
Assistant Professor Wedlock 
Laboratory Instructors Boylan, Gregory, and Jones 

Overview 

Each course offered by the department provides 
an opportunity for a concentrated study of the 
various principles of contemporary chemical 
knowledge. From the introductory to the 
advanced coiuses, application is made of basic 
theories and methods of chemical investigation. 



Courses offered by the department utilize 
lectures, discussions, library work, on-line 
computer literature searching, computer-assisted 
instrucdonal programs, videotapes/films, and 
laboratory investigations in order to emphasize 
the concepts that underlie the topics covered. 
Each course, as well as the major itself, is 
designed for the curious and interested student. 

The chemistry major is approved by the 
American Chemical Society, as is an additional 
major in chemistry/biochemistry. Paths taken 
by majors after graduation are varied; many 
enter graduate work in chemistry or 
biochemistry. Graduates also enter medical and 
dental schools, industrial and government 
research laboratories, secondary school teaching, 
and numerotis other fields. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The eight basic courses required for the 
Bachelor of Arts degree are Chemistry 107, 108, 
203, 204, 221, 305, 306, and 317. Students who 
complete these eight basic courses along with 
Chemistry 373, Research (Chemistry 460 or 
465), and one additional chemistry course may 
choose to receive a Bachelor of Science degree. 
An interdisciplinary major is offered in 
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; the 
complete description is listed under that title. 
Physics 111 and 112 and Mathematics through 
21 1 are required of all chemistry majors. 
Additional coiuses in mathematics (212), 
biolog)', and physics may be recommended for 
those contemplating graduate study in certain 
areas. Junior and senior majors are expected to 
join with staff members in a seminar series that 
is designed to provide an opportimity for 
discussion of student initiated research and 
current developments in chemistry. 

Approved safety goggles must be worn at all 
times in all laboratories. Prescription glasses 
may be worn under safety goggles. 

For the prospective secondary school teacher, 
die department cooperates in offering Educadon 
304, Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of 
Secondary Chemistry. Introductory biology is 
required for certification. 

Individualized study and independent laboratory 
work are available in connection with some 
courses. During the junior or senior year, majors 
may elect Chemistry 460, a research course in 
which a student can utilize his or her knowledge 
and creativity intensively. Summer research. 
Chemistry 465, is encouraged strongly and is 
elected by many majors. 



The optional minor shall consist of Chemistry 
107 and 108, plus four other chemistry courses 
at the 200 level or above. Individualized Study 
courses may not be counted toward the optional 
minor. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

The following combinations of chemistry 
courses may be used to satisfy the Liberal Arts 
Core requirement in the natural sciences: either 
101, 107, or 111, followed by 102, 108, or 112. 
(Course credit will not be given for more than 
two introdtictory chemistry courses. Chemistry 
101-102 and 111-112 are inactive.) 

Special Facilities and Programs 

Breidenbaugh Hall, which houses chemistry and 
biochemistry classrooms and laboratories, was 
renovated in 1985. The department's major 
instrumentation includes a Fourier Transform 
NMR Spectrometer, a Fourier Transform 
Infrared Spectrometer, a diode array UV-visible 
Spectrometer, a Gas Chromatograph-Mass 
Spectrometer, a Waters HPLC with diode array 
detector, a high speed centrifuge, and an 
automatic polarimeter. Chemistry majors 
receive significant hands-on experience with all 
major instrumentation beginning in the 
sophomore year. The department's library is at 
the disposal of all students. Numerous lectures 
and seminars are sponsored by the department 
and the chemistry club. Sceptical Chymists. 
These involve resource persons from 
universities, industries, government agencies, and 
professional schools, and are designed to 
complement the curricular acd\ities of the 
department. An annual highlight is a three-day 
visit by an outstanding scholar in the field of 
chemistry. The program is supported by The 
Musselman Endowment for Visiting Scientists. 
Many qualified upperclass students — chemistry 
majors and others — gain valuable experience 
from serving as laboratory assistants and tutors. 

107 Chemical Structure and Bonding Study of 

fundamental chemical principles, including 
stoichiometric relationships, properties of 
matter, and theories of bonding with a strong 
emphasis on atomic and molecular structure. 
Laboratory experiments are designed to offer a 
hands-on familiarit)' with the principles 
discussed in the lectures. Three lecture hoius 
and one laboratorv. 
Staff 

1 08 Chemical Reactivity Principles covered in 
Chemistiy 107 are applied to broader topics such 
as kinetics, equilibrium, electrochemistry, and 
thermodynamics, with an emphasis on 



► 



interdisciplinary topics. Laboratory work is 
designed to illustrate and complement materials 
discussed in class. Prerequisite: Chemistry 107 or 
111. Three lecture hours and one laboratory. 

SM/f 

203 Organic Chemistry Study of the fimdamental 
concepts of the chemistry of carbon compounds, 
with emphasis on molecular structure, reaction 
mechanisms, stereochemistry, and the application 
of spectroscopy to problems of identification. 
Prerequisite: Chemistry 108 or 112. Three lecture 
hours, one lab discussion hoin; and one 
laboratory afternoon. 

Mr. Rowland 

204 Organic Chemistry Study of the various classes 
of organic compounds, including substitutions 
in the aromatic nucleus, cyclic compounds, 
and natural products such as amino acids, 
carbohydrates and peptides. Prerequisite: 
Chemistry 203. Three lecture hours, one lab 
discussion hour, and one laboratory afternoon. 
Mr. Rowland 

221 Chemical Applications of Spectroscopy 

Study of the theories and applications of 
infrared, IH and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, 
and mass spectroscopy are discussed in 
relation to the importance of the.se 
spectroscopic methods in the analysis of 
chemical systems. Scope and limitations of each 
type of spectroscopy are covered. C^ourse work 
includes lectures, discussions, student oral 
presentations, and laboratory sessions. Lab 
periods involve use of spectrometers in the 
identification of organic compounds. Lecture 
work is supplemented by films, videotapes, and 
computer-assisted instructional programs. 
Prerequisite: Chemistry 203. 
Mr. Roidand 

305 Physical Chemistry Study of the principles of 
statistical thermochnamics and chemical kinetics 
as applied to the states of matter, chemical 
reactions and equilibria, and electrochemistry, 
using lectures, readings, problems, discussions, 
and laboratory exercises. Computers are used as 
a tool for solving problems and for the reduction 
of experimental data. Prerequisites: Chemistry 
108, Physics 112, mathematics through calculus 
(usually Math 211). Three lecture hours, one 
discussion hour, and one laboratory afternoon . 
Mr. Wedlock 

306 Physical Chemistry Introduction to theories 
of fjuantum mechanics, spectroscopy, and 
molecular reaction dynamics and their 
application to chemical systems through the use 



of problems, lectures, readings, discussions, and 
laboratory investigations Prerequisite: Chemistry 
305. Three lecture hours, one discussion hour, 
and one laboratory afternoon. 
Mr Wedlock 

317 Instrumental Analysis Study of chemical 
analysis by use of modern instruments. Topics 
include complex equilibria, electroanalytical 
methods, quantitative spectroscopy, 
chromatography, and Fourier transform 
methods. Analytical techniques will be studied 
from both a chemical and an instrumental point 
of view. The laboratory stresses quantitative 
analytical procedures and includes an 
independent project. Prerequisite: Chemistry 108. 
Three lecture hours and one laboratory afternoon. 
Mr. Crzyhowski 

333 Biochemistry Detailed study of the structure 
and function of macromolecules as they pertain 
to living organisms. Emphasis on bioenergetics, 
metabolic pathways, and current topics. 
Prerequisite: Chemistry 204. Three lecture hours 
and one laboratory afternoon. 

Ms. Holland 

334 Biochemistry Detailed examination of 
primary and secondary metabolic pathways in 
microbes, plants, and animals. Application to 
metabolic disorders, infections, and medical 
advances are incorporated into course. 
Laboratory work includes an independent 
research project. Prerequisite: Chemistry 333 or 
permission of instructor. Three lecture hours 
and one laboratory afternoon. Course is cross- 
listed as Biolog)' 334. 

Ms. Holland 

353 Advanced Organic Chemistry Study of 
synthetic, mechanistic, and theoretical concepts 
in organic chemistry. Particular emphasis is on 
the study of methods used to determine organic 
reaction mechanisms, stereospecific reactions, 
pericyclic reactions, and the design of multistep 
syntheses of complex molecules. Prerecjui sites: 
Chemistry 204 and 221. Three lecture hours. 
Mr Jameson 

373 Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Study of 
valence bond, crystal field, and molecular orbital 
theories; boron chemistry; organometallic 
compounds; structural, kinetic, and mechanistic 
studies of coordination compounds. Group theory 
and symmetry are applied to various systems. 
Preiequisite: Chemistry 305. Three lecture hours. 
Mr. Parker 



390 Advanced Laboratory Techniques in 
Chemistry Designed to combine and expand 
upon the laboratory skills learned in the 
fundamental courses of the first two years. 
Numerous projects are pursued in organic and 
inorganic chemistry, utilizing a combination of 
library skills (e.g., on-line computer searching), 
advanced laboratory skills (e.g. inert atmosphere 
techniques, modern separaticjn methods, and 
advanced spectroscopic characterizations) , and 
scientific wridng skills. Course prepares students 
for independent research in the senior year. 
Prerequisite: Chemistry 22 1 . 
Mr. Jameson 

460 Individualized Study Research Independent 
investigation in an area of mutual interest to the 
student and faculty director. Project normally 
includes both a literature and a laboratory 
study. An oral report to staff and students and a 
final written thesis are required. A student 
wishing to enroll in this cour.se should consult 
with the facult)' director at least two weeks 
before the end of the semester preceding the 
semester in which this course is to be taken. 
Prerequisites: Chemistry 390 and/or permission 
of faculty director and approval by department. 
Open to junior and senior chemistry majors. 
Offered both semesters. 
Staff 

465 Individualized Study Research (Summer) 

Fimded ten-week independent investigation in 
an area of mutual interest to the student and 
research director. Project normally includes 
both a literature and a laboratory study. Oral 
reports to staff and students and a final written 
thesis are required. Students wishing to enroll 
should consult with a chemistry department 
faculty member early in the spring semester. 
Prerequisites: Chemistry 390 and/or permission 
of research director and approval by 
department. 
Staff 

CIVIL WAR ERA STUDIES 

Matt Gallman, Director 

Overview 

Supported by a grant from the Henry R. Luce 
Foimdation, Civil War Era Studies is devoted to 
the establishment and administration of 
interdisciplinary academic programs on the 
Civil War Era. The Office of Civil War Era 
Studies administers two programs: The Civil War 
Era Studies Minor and The Gettysburg Semester. 



The Civil War Era Studies Minor is an 

interdisciplinary program concentrating on 
mid-nineteenth century America and on the 
period's enduring importance for modern 
America. 

Minor Requirements: Six courses are required, 
including Civil War Era Studies 205 and 400. 
The remaining four courses may be selected 
from the CWES cross-listed elective courses. 
The four elective courses are subject to the 
following restrictions: The electives must be in 
at least two different departments. (IDS courses 
and electives with a CWES designation will be 
treated as separate departments.) No more than 
two elective courses can be from the student's 
major field of study; and no more than two 
electives may be taken at the 100 level. Students 
are allowed to fill one elective requirement with 
either an internship or an independent study 
course, subject to the normal College 
requirements. 

The Gettysburg Semester is a semester-long 
immersion in Civil War Era Studies for visiting 
students from other campuses. Each fall 
participants in The Gettysburg Semester attend 
a two-course seminar taught by Professor 
Gallman, take Gettysburg College courses on 
the Civil War Era taught by faculty from various 
disciplines, attend numerous historic field trips 
and battlefield tours, and have the opportunity 
to work on independent projects or internships. 

Details on both Civil War Era Studies programs 
are available on the Gettysburg College Web site 
by selecting "Civil War" from Quick Links on the 
home page. 

Liberals Arts Core Requirements 

Civil War Era Studies 205 satisfies the Liberal 
Arts Core requirement in the humanities. 

CWES Minor Core Courses 
CWES 205 Introduction to the Civil War Era 
CWES 400 Special Topics in the Civil War Era 

CWES Cross-Listed Courses Elective Courses 

(See appropriate departmental listings for 
descriptions of the following courses.) 

FYS 183 First- Year Seminar: Gettysburg 
English 205 Introduction to Creative Writing: 

CWTS Section 
English 217 Slavery and the Literaiy Imaginadon 
English 359 American Literature of the 

C>ivil War Era 
History 245 Gender and the American Civil War 
History 345 Civil War 



History 410 Senior Research Seminar: CLASSICS 

Abraham Lincoln " '"' "" '" 

■nr 1 1 ^ T r- ■ j7 n Associate Pwfessors Cahoon, Snively, and 

IDS 216 Visions or Reconstruction ■' -^ 

IDS 2 1 7 The American Civil War on Film ^«^°"'^'^' (Chairperson) 

Philosophy 105 Contemporary Moral Issues: Overview 

Nineteenth Century Countei-points Courses offered are designed to acquaint the 

Philosophy 340 American Philosophy student with the language, literature, history, 

■>nr • ^ J ^- ^ J.L /" •■ i*> F and civilization of Greece and Rome — societies 
205 Introduction to the Civil War Era 

,. . ,. , . , ,,. ., ,,, that present a microcosm of human experience. 

Interdisciplinary introduction to the Civil War ' ^ 

^ , 1 1 lo^r. ioor.x- K ■ i- Learning how tlic fouiideis of Westcm 
Era (roughly 1840-1880) in American history. ^ 

„ r , X- i_ z-^- -1 Ti7 civilization dealt with such contlicts as the 

Course rocuses on the causes or the Civil War, 

, 11.11 J aspirations of vouth and the compromises of 

the war years themselves, both at home and on ^ ' '^ . 

, , , ^ , , , n • A 1 middle age, the claims of community and 

the batueneld, and Reconstruction. Also ° n i i 

, , ^ ,. . ,. individual rights, the ecstasy of love, and the 

introduces students to a range ot disciplinary ° ' 

, . r^- -1 „, V rr . despair of loss can help us understand our own 

approaches to tne Civil War Lra. History majors '^ r i 

. ,. ^Tjrr-c 1/.C n . ijl: thoughts and cmotions as wc confront thcsc age- 
can count etther LWtS 20^ or History 34? as a , , , , 

old problems and pressures. 
major course. '^ ' 

Mr. Gallman Requirements and Recommendations 

-_• _ ^. ... ••■.■• The department offers majors in Greek, Latin, 

274 Practicum in Archaeological Analysis ^ •' 

_ . , , . Ill and Classical Studies. 

Practical learning experience in archaeological 

data analysis and research. Working with the Latin Major: 

staff of the Gettysburg National Military Park, '^^^n copses in Latin beyond Latin 102 (including 

students carry out labwork, including artifact Latin 312), and Classics 121, 122, 252, 400. 

processing and classification, data entry and 

research. Exact mix of activities varies from Greek Major: 

semester to semester. Prerequisite: Consent of Seven courses in Greek beyond Greek 102, and 

instructor and previous course work in Classics 121, 122, 25L 400. 

archaeology, history or Civil War Era Studies. 

One-half credit course; may be repeated with consent of .^?^^!^.':^.f.^!^f".l^.'!':!..^fZ°^- 

instructor. Same as ANTH 274. Eleven courses (including Greek or Latin 

Ms. Hcndon through at least the 202-level), and Classics 121, 

347 Women in Public: Gender and Cultural 122, and 400. 

Transformation in the United States, 1840-1900 , . i r- i i t • i om 

In both Greek and Latin language courses, 201 
A seminar on American women s history from ■, nnn i • ■ i 

' and 202, or their equivalents, are prerequisites 

before Seneca Falls until the early twentieth ., „ , • , , 

' for all higher language courses, 
century, with an emphasis on the entrance of 

women into the public arena. Theoretical focus A minor in Classical Studies consists of six 

is on the range of ways in which women courses in the department, including a minimum 

challenged popular notions of gendered of two language courses. 

spheres. Designed for students from all majors . . • r ■ • c ■ • t •• 

^ ^ . , . -^ A minor in Latin consists of six courses in Latin 

with some background in women's studies or , irvo i- • t »■ u mo j 

° above 102 or five courses in Latin above f 02 and 

women's history. ^^^^^.^^ ^22 or Classics 252. 
Mr. Cnlbnnn 

A minor in Greek consists of six courses in 

400 Special Topics in the Civil War Era Topical r- i . i no r- ■ r- \ u 

r r f Greek above 102 or five courses in Greek above 

seminar on an aspect of the Cml War Era, with ^^^ and Classics 121 or Classics 251. 
links drawn between the Civil War Era and 

modern America. Specific focus shifts from year Liberals Arts Core Requirements 

to year. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor, Greek 202 or Latin 202 satisfy the foreign 

with preference given to minors in Civil War Era language Liberal Aits Core requirement. All 

Studies. 100- and 200-level classical studies courses count 

Mr. Gallman toward the Liberal Arts Core requirement in 

humanities. 



Classical Studies 251 and 252 may be counted 
toward a major in history; Classical Studies 230 
may be counted toward a major in religion; and 
Classical Studies 264, 266, and 270 may be 
counted toward a major in theatre arts. 

For prospective secondary school teachers the 
department cooperates in offering Education 
304, Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum 
of Secondary Latin. 

Special Programs 

Through a cooperative arrangement under the 
auspices of the Central Pennsylvania Consortium, 
Gettysburg College shares membership in the 
Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies in 
Rome, whose program has been approved as a 
Gettysburg College affiliated program. The 
department encourages majors to spend a 
semester at the Center in Rome. (For details, 
see Off-Campus Study.) 

College Year in Athens, Inc. has also been 
approved as a Gettysburg College affiliated 
program. Students interested in ancient, 
Byzantine, or modern Greece and the 
Mediterranean are encouraged to spend a 
semester or a year at College Year. (For details, 
see Off-Campus Study.) 

Through the Central Pennsylvania Consortium, 
Gettysburg College shares membership in the 
American School of Classical Studies in Athens. 
Students are eligible to apply for its summer 
sessions. 

GREEK 

101, 102 Elementary Greek Introduction to the 
alphabet, inflections, and syntax of Attic Greek. 
Mr. ZabroxL'ski 

20 1 , 202 Intermediate Greek Designed to 
increase the student's skill in reading texts. 
Selections from Thucydides, Xenophon, Plato, 
and other authors are read, with an emphasis on 
grammar. Prerequisites: Greek 101, 102, or their 
equivalent. 
Mr. Zabrowski 

203 Plato The Apology and Crito, with selections 
from other dialogues. 

Mr. Zabrowski 

204 New Testament Greek Introduction to Koine 
Greek. Selections from the New Testament are 
read with attention to language and content. 
Not offered every year. 

Mr Zabrowski 



301 Homer Selections from the Iliad and Odyssey, 
with examination of syntax and style. Not offered 
every year. 

Ms. Cahoon, Ms. Snively 

302 Greek Historians Readings in the text of 
Herodotus or Thucydides. Not offered every year. 
Staff 

303 Greek Comedy An introduction to Greek 
drama. Selected comedies of Aristophanes are 
read with attention to style and metrics. Not 
offered every year. 

Mr. Zabroiuski 

304 Greek Tragedy Selected plays of Aeschylus, 
Sophocles, and Euripides. Various plays are also 
read in English. Oral reports required. Not 
offered every year. 

Staff 

306 Greek Oratory Selected orations of 
Demosthenes and Lysias. Not offered every year. 

Staff 

Individualized Study 

Staff 

LATIN 

101, 102 Elementary Latin Introduction to Latin 

grammar and svntax. 

Ms. Cahoon, Ms. Snively 

201, 202 intermediate Latin Designed to 
increase skill in reading texts. Selections from 
Latin prose and poetry are read, widi continuing 
grammatical review and analysis. Prerequisite: 
Two years of secondary school Latin or Latin 
101, 102. 
Ms. Cahoon, Ms. Snively 

203 Roman Prose Selections from Roman prose 
writers and intensive review of grammar. 
Prerequisite: Three or four years of secondary 
school Latin or Ladn 201, 202. 

Ms. Snively 

204 Roman Poetry Readings in such authors as 
Catullus, Virgil, Horace, and Ovid. Prerequisite: 
Three or four years of secondary school Latin or 
Latin 201, 202. 

Ms. Cahoon 

303 Cicero Selected essays of Cicero, with 
supplemental reading from letters and orations. 
Supplemental reading in English. Not offered 
every year. 
Staff 



F 



306 St. Augustine Selections from Confessions, 
with attention to the differences between Late 
Latin and Classical Latin. Not offered every year. 
Ms. Cahoon 

308 Roman Satire Selections from Horace, Martial, 
and Juvenal, with attention to the changes in 
language and style from the Classical to the Post 
Classical period. Not offered every year. 

Ms. Sfiixiely 

309 Roman Historians Selecdons from Liv)' and 
Tacitus, with attention to their peculiarities of 
language and style. Not offered every year. 
Ms. Snively 

3 1 1 Lucretius Extensive reading in On the Nature 
Of Things, with attendon to Lucretius' metrical 
forms, science, and philosophy. Not offered 
every year. 

Ms. Cahoon 

3 1 2 Prose Composition Designed to increase the 
student's abilitv' to translate from English to 
Latin; includes a thorough grammar review. Not 
offered every year. 

Mr. Zabrowski 

40! Vergil Study of Vergil's Aeneid, with emphasis 
on syntax, metrics, rhetoric, and interpretation. 
Not offered every year. 
Ms. Cahoon 

Individualized Study 

Staff 

CLASSICAL STUDIES 

1 2 1 Survey of Greek Civilization Survey of 
primary texts in literature, history, and philosophy 
from archaic Greece through classical Athens, 
with emphasis on concepts that influenced 
Western thought. 

Ms. Cahoon 

122 Survey of Roman Civilization Survey of 
history, literature, art, architectiue, etc. of Rome 
from its founding to the Coimcil of Nicea, with 
emphasis on the material culture of an empire 
encompassing the whole Mediterranean world. 
Ms. Snively 

125 Introduction to Classical Archaeology 

Examination of the goals and methods of 
classical archaeology through a survey of Greek 
and Roman sites, from the Bronze Age through 
the Late Antique period. Course includes 
discussion of techniques such as survey and 
issues such as the antiquities market. Not 
offered every year. 
Ms. Snively 



230 Classical Mythology Siu vey of classical 
mythologv', with attention to the process of 
myth-making and the development of religion. 
Ms. Snively, Mr Zabrowski 

251 Greek History Siuvey of Hellenic civilization 
from the Bronze Age to the Hellenistic period. 
Papers required. Alternate years. Offered 2002-03. 
Mr. Zabrowski 

252 Roman History History of the Republic and 
Empire. Papers required. Alternate years. 
Offered 2001-02. 

Ms. Syiively 

262 Ancient Epic Study of Homer, Apollonius of 
Rhodes, Vergil, and 0\'id. Offered 2002-03. 
Ms. Cahoon 

264 Ancient Tragedy Study of Aeschylus, Sophocles, 
Eiu ipides, and Seneca. Class culminates in a 
public performance of a tragic play. Offered 
2003-04. 
Ms. Cahoon 

266 Ancient Comedy Study of Aristophanes, 
Plautus, and Terence. Class culminates in a 
public performance of a comic play. Offered 
2001-02. 
Ms. Cahoon 

270 Ancient Drama (Half Unit Course) Study, 
direction, and performance of an ancient Greek 
or Roman play. Coiuse includes the study of 
several other plays by the same author (for 
context and backgroimd) and of recent perdnent 
secondary material. Students interpret, cast, 
direct, choreograph, and rehearse the play. 
Final performance is presented to the entire 
campus commimity. Offered 2002-03. 
Ms. Cahoon 

28 1 Ancient Greek Political Theory and Practice 

Using Plato's Republic dnd Laws and Aiistotle's 
Politics as primary sources, course invesdgates 
the nature of ancient Greek political theory and 
the notion of the Ideal State, whether conceived 
of as timocratic, monarchical, or democratic. 
Greek city-state constitutions are examined, as 
preserved in the wridngs of Aristode, Xenophon, 
and the Oxyrhyncus Historian. Not offered 
every year. 
Mr Zaln-ornski 

400 Senior Seminar Ckmtent determined each 
year in consultation with the staff. Required of 
all majors. 
Staff 

Individualized Study 

Slajf 



COMPUTER SCIENCE 



Professors Fink (Chairperson.) and Leinbach 
Associate Professor Tosten (on leave) 
Assistant Professors Neller and Presser 
Adjunct Instructor Leslie 

Overview 

The computer science curriculum, offered by 
the Department of Computer Science, enables a 
student to study systematic approaches to 
problem solving within the environment of 
hardware. In the course of this study, the 
student develops the practice of clear thinking 
and logical reasoning, while learning to analyze 
information processing tools and systems in 
areas of application. Within this study there is 
an emphasis on the human values associated 
with computing in the modern world. 

The available courses cover a wide area of 
computer science. In addition, upper-division 
students may, in collaboration with faculty 
members, be involved in on-going research 
projects or study topics not covered by the 
regular course offerings. 

The major is designed to give students a broad 
understanding of both the theoretical and 
application areas of the discipline. As such, it 
provides a firm foundation for those intending 
to do graduate work or to pursue a career in 
computer science. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Major Requirements: Requirements for a major in 
computer science are nine courses in computer 
science at the level of Computer Science 103 or 
above. One of these courses may be selected 
from a list of approved courses in other 
departments — Mathemadcs 351 and 366, Physics 
240, Psychology 315 or 316. The nine courses 
must include Computer Science 216 and 221; 
Computer Science 340, taken during the senior 
year; and at least one of the following courses: 
Computer Science 301 or Computer Science 31 1. 
A student will receive credit in the major for 
Computer Science 103, provided the course is 
taken prior to receiving a grade for Computer 
Science 104. 

In addition to the above courses in Computer 
Science, the student must take Mathematics 111 
(or its equivalent) and Mathematics 208. It is 
recommended that Mathematics 1 1 1 be taken 
during the first year, and Mathematics 208 
during the same year as Computer Science 216. 

The normal starting point for a student who 
has not had a background of computer science 
courses in secondary school is Computer 



Science 103. Students who have had a 
background in computer science may, after 
consulting with the faculty, choose to take 
Computer Science 104 as their starting point. 

Students intending to pursue graduate study 
in computer science are advised to take 
Mathematics 112 (Calculus II), Mathematics 212 
(Linear Algebra), Mathematics 351 
(Mathematical Probability), Mathematics 352 
(Mathemadcal Statisdcs), Physics 240 
(Electronics), and include both Computer 
Science 301 and 311 in their choice of courses. 

Department honors in computer science require 
pardcipaUon in the cocurricular activities of the 
department, an overall grade point average of at 
least 3.0, and a computer science grade point 
average of at least 3.5. 

Minor Requirements: A minor in computer 
science consists of six courses, including 
Computer Science 216 and Computer Science 
221. 

Grade Requirements: All courses taken to satisfy 
the requirements for the major or minor must 
be taken using the A-F grading system. To 
advance to a course with prerequisites, a 
minimum grade of C- is required for each 
prerequisite course. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Computer Science 103 and 104 fulfill the 
Liberal Arts Core requirement in quantitative 
reasoning. 

Facilities 

Information Resources maintain a campus-wide 
computing network. Through this network, 
students can access several programming 
languages and applications packages. In addidon, 
the Department of Computer Science has a 
laboratory featuring Sun UltraSPARC 
workstations that are used for introductory 
computer science courses and upper-level 
electives such as operating systems and graphics. 
These machines are connected to a SUN 
UltraSPARC server that is used as a local file 
server and as a connection to the department's 
specialized parallel processing hardware. 

103 Introduction to Computing Liberal arts 
introduction to the discipline of computer 
science and the use of computers in a variet)' 
of fields. Topics include a historical survey of 
technology and the use of computers, computer 
application, software systems design, programming 
with scripts, compiuer hardware and logical 
design, and several implications of computing. 



< 



Course is laboratory-oriented and includes 
several hands-on laboratory projects. 
Staff 

104 introduction to Computer Science 

Introduction to computer science, with an 
emphasis on problem solving, methodology, and 
algorithms. Further topics include computer 
organization, data structiues, and software 
engineering. Student projects using the Java 
programming language are an essential part 
of this course. Prerequisite: Computer Science 
103 or equivalent. 
Staff 

216 Data Structures Introduction to major data 
structures and some of their applications. Topics 
include linear lists, sets, queues, stacks, linked 
lists, string processing, trees, graphs, arrays, 
tables, files, and dynamic memory management. 
Prerequisite: Computer Science 104. 
Staff 

221 Computer Organization and Assembly 
Language Programming Programming at the 
machine level, with emphasis on the logical 
connection of the basic components of the 
computer and systems programs. Topics include 
machine and assembly language programming, 
basic computer operations, hardware 
organization, systems software, and compilers. 
Prerequisite: Computer Science 104. 
Staff 

250 Introduction to Software Systems 

Application of computer science principles to 
the design of a large softvvare system. In 
response to a perceived need for a solution to a 
problem that involves computing, students work 
in teams, analyzing the problem, conducting 
interviews, and preparing specifications for a 
solution. Students then produce software that 
meets these specifications. All projects require 
an application of software design principles, as 
well as the general programming principles 
learned in previous computer science courses. 
Prerequisite: Computer Science 1 04. 
^taff 

301 Theory of Computation Study of the basic 
theoretical principles of the computational 
model. Topics include finite automata, regular 
expressions, context-free grammars, Turing 
Machines, Church's Thesis, Godel numbering, 
the halting problem, unsolvability, computational 
complexity, and program verification. 
Prerequisites: Mathematics 208, C^omputer 
Science 104. Alternate years. Offered 2000-01. 
Staff 



3 1 1 Design and Analysis of Algorithms Survey 
of basic principles and techniques for the 
development of good algorithms. Emphasis is 
placed on individual development of algorithms 
and an analysis of the results in terms of 
usefulness, efficiency, and organization. Topics 
include design techniques, worst case and average 
case analysis, searching, sorting, branch and 
bound, spanning dees, reachability, combinatorial 
methods, and NP-hard problems. Prerequisites: 
Mathematics 208, Computer Science 216. 
Alternate years. Offered 2001-02. 
Staff 

322 Introduction to Computer Networl<s 

Introduction to principles used to analyze and 
build a network of computers. Course covers 
concepts and issues relating to low-level 
communications and protocols of computer 
networking. Students study formal methods for 
integrating communication events into normal 
process cycles of the computer, then concentrate 
on a study of practices for defining and specifying 
a formal communications protocol. Throughout 
the course, students apply principles that they 
study to existing networks within the department. 
Prerequisite: Computer Science 216. Alternate 
vears. Offered 2000-01. 
Staff 

324 Principles of Operating Systems Study of 
fundamental concepts of operating systems. 
Topics include sequential processes, concurrent 
processes, processor management, memory 
management, scheduling algorithms, and 
computer securit). Projects include writing of a 
program to simulate major components of an 
operating system. Prerequisite: Computer Science 
216. Alternate years. Offered 2001-02. 
Staff 

327 Parallel and Distributed Processing 

Introduction to techniques used to implement 
parallel processing concepts in computer 
environments. Course investigates SIMD (Single 
Instruction Multiple Data stream) environments 
and MIMD (Multiple Instructions Multiple Data 
stream) environments. Final topic is an 
investigation of computing in a distributed 
workstation environment. Students work with 
actual implementations of each of these 
environments and explore their advantages and 
appropriate uses. Prerequisite: Computer Science 
216. Alternate years. Offered 2001-02. 
Staff 



335 Software Engineering Introduction to 
principles used to analyze and specify software 
systems. Course covers concepts and issues 
relating to initial stages of the software life cycle. 
Course examines formal methods for analyzing 
and investigating environments requiring 
automation, then studies languages and CASE 
(Computer-Aided Software Engineering) tools. 
Throughout the course students apply principles 
that they study to situations outside the 
department. Prerfciuisite: Computer Science 216. 
Staff 

340 Advanced Systems Design Formal approach 
to techniques of softwaie desigti and development, 
hitegral part of course is the involvement of 
students, working as a team, in the development 
of a large software project, hnplementation of 
the software project is in a high-level language 
that supports modularit)' and procedural and 
data abstraction. Topics include formal model 
of structured programming, modular 
decomposition, information hiding, formal 
program specification techniques, software 
testing techniques, documentation, and user 
interfaces. Prerequisites: Computer Science 216, 
one Computer Science course at the .^00 level, 
and senior status or permission of department. 
Staff 

34 1 A Survey of Programming Languages Study 
of fimdamental concepts in the design of 
programming languages. Concepts include 
variables, expressions typing, scope, procedures, 
data types, exception handling, and concurrency. 
Particular programming languages are used as 
examples of different ways for implementing 
these concepts. Prerequisite: Computer Science 
216. Alternate years. Offered 2001-02. 

Staff 

360 Principles of Database Systems Study of 
fundamental concepts of database systems. 
Topics include physical organization of 
databases, indexing techniques, and query 
processing. Particular models studied include 
the Entity-Relationship, Relational, Network, 
and Hierarchical Models. Class projects stress 
design and implementation of a database. 
Prerequisite: Computer Science 216. Alternate 
years. Offered 2000-01. 
Staff 

371 Introduction to Artificial Intelligence Study 
of the process by which machines mimic human 
behavior. Topics include search heuristics, 
knowledge representation, logic, natural language 
processing, rule-ba.sed systems, and robotics. 



Appropriate programming languages are used 
to implement projects. Prerequisite: Computer 
Science 216. Alternate years. Offered 2001-02. 
Staff 

373 Computer Graphics Study of methods and 
issues surrounding the construction of 
graphical images on the computer. Topics 
include windowing systems and user input, two- 
dimensional graphics packages, curve drawing 
techniques, modeling in three dimensions, use 
of lighting and shading techniques, and the 
process of rendering images. Student work 
consists both of using existing packages to create 
images and of implementing algorithms used in 
graphical systems. Prerequisite: Computer Science 
216. Alternate years. Offered 2000-01. 

Staff 

374 Compilers Introduction to techniques used 
to translate high level computer languages into 
machine code. Course discusses and evaluates 
current implementation techniques, including 
the applicable theory. Topics include lexical 
scanning, parsing, code generation, and 
optimization. Students complete a major project 
involving the compilation of a particular 
computer language. Prerequisite: Computer 
Science 216. Alternate years. Offered 2000-01. 
Staff 

391,392 Selected Topics 

Staff 

450 Individualized Study: Tutorial Study 
through individualized reading and projects of 
an advanced area of computer science by well- 
qualified students under the supervision of a 
faculty member. Possible areas of study are 
software engineering, compiler design, expert 
S)'stems, parallel architecture, image processing, 
or topics in the current literature that are of 
mutual interest to the student and the supervising 
faculty member. Prerequisites: Computer Science 
216 and permission of department. 
Staff 

460 Individualized Study: Research Intensive 
study of a selected topic in computer science or 
a related area. Research project is completed in 
collaboration with a faculty member. Prerequisites: 
Computer Science 216 and permission of 
department. 
Staff 



EAST ASIAN STUDIES 



Fiitz Gaenskn, Coordinator 

Gettysburg College students have the 
opportunity to pursue an interdepartmental 
minor in East Asian Studies, which is designed 
to provide a coherent understanding and basic 
competence in the major Asian civilizations of 
Japan and China. The minor may be pursued 
with a view to broadening the scope of any 
major, to acquiring a comparative perspective 
within any of the himianistic and social science 
disciplines, or as a basis for future graduate 
work or a career related to East Asia. 

For the minor, students take one core course 
(History 221 East Asian History to 1800, or 
History 222 East Asian History 1800 to the 
Present), plus three courses in one's country of 
specialization (either Japan or China). These 
courses must come from three different 
disciplines, with at least one course from the 
humanities and one from the social sciences. 

Among courses suitable for the Japan 
specialization are: 
Japanese ISO Contemporary Japanese Culture 

and Societ)' 
Japanese 238 Pre-Modern Japanese Literature 
History 224 Modern Japan 
Music 1 1 2 The Two Musics of Japan 
Political Science 27 1 Government and Politics 

in Japan 
Religion 249 The Religions of Japan 

Gettysburg College also maintains a cooperative 
arrangement with Kansai Gaidai University in 
Osaka, Japan. Kansai Gaidai offers a full range 
of courses appropriate for the Japan 
specialization. 

Among courses suitable for the China 
specialization are: 

History 223 Modern China 

Political Science 270 Government and Politics 
in (;hina 

Religion 248 The Religions of China 

Students specializing in Japan must take Basic 
Japanese 101 and 102 (or their equivalent). 
Students specializing in China must take two 
semesters (or their equivalent) of basic-level 
Chinese. (Note: Because Chinese language is not yet 
offered at Gettysburg College, this requirement must be 
fulfilled elsewhere.) 

hi addition to the above requirements, students 
must complete one course that offers a 



comparative perspective within East Asia. This 
may be either a course, beyond the core, that is 
explicitly comparative or a course on the East 
Asian country not in one's area of specialization. 

A final requirement is one elective, which is any 
course with a substantial East Asian focus. This 
may include additional language study (Japanese 
201), Women in Buddhism (Religion 252), World 
Philosophy (Philosophy 240), Cross-Cultinal 
Perspectives on Gender and Sex Roles 
(Anthropology 228), and Asian Management 
Systems (Management 423). 

ECONOMICS 

Professors Fender, Gondwe, and Railing 
Associate Professors Fletcher (Chairperson) 

and K. Niiro 
Assistant Professors Kaiser, Lee, Stilbvaggon, and 

Weise 

Overview 

A knowledge of economics has become 
increasingly important for effective participation 
in a complex society. The department's courses 
present this knowledge in both historical and 
contemporary contexts, with a focus on developing 
the relevant economic theory and identifying, 
imderstanding, analyzing, and solving social 
problems. As a social science, economics studies 
how societies organize and make decisions for 
using scarce resources to produce and 
distribute goods and services domestically and 
internationally. Economists examine both macro- 
and microeconomic problems and consider the 
implications of alternative solutions for efficiency, 
fairness, and growth. Courses in the department 
stress the critical thinking skills of a liberally 
educated person: gathering of pertinent 
information; analysis; synthesis; and ability to 
perceive, create, and choose among alternatives. 
The department also stresses effective oral and 
written communication of the insights achieved 
through study of the discipline, hi addition to 
courses in economics, the deparuiient offers 
courses in introductory statistics. 

The department's courses are designed to meet 
the College's liberal arts objectives, while also 
serving students who intend to (1) pursue 
graduate study in economics; (2) enter graduate 
professional schools in management 
administration, law, and related areas; (3) 
pursue careers in business, non-profit private 
organizations, or government. 



Requirements and Recommendations 

Economics majors must fulfill the following 
requirements: All core courses, comprising 
Economics 103, 104, 241, 243, 245, 249, and 
either Economics 350 or Management 153. 
Additionally, the following sequence of advanced 
courses must be completed: one course from 
those courses numbered 250-299; two courses 
from those numbered 301-399; one senior 
seminar (401-403); and one otlier course chosen 
from diose numbered 201 or above. A student 
may take Mathematics 351-352 in lieu of 
Economics 241; both semesters of the 
mathematics sequence must be completed for 
mathematical statistics to substitute for the 
departmental statistics requirement. Much, 
though not all, of the material covered in such 
applied statistics courses as Mathematics 107, 
Psychology 205, and Biology 260 duplicates that 
in Economics 241; therefore, credit will not be 
given for more than one of these courses. 
Research methodology basic to economics is 
covered in Economics 241 and 350. Students 
taking an applied statistics course outside the 
economics department before deciding to 
become economics majors may be required to 
demonstrate, via examination, proficiency in the 
content of Economics 241 or may be required to 
take Economics 350. 

Mathematical modeling and statistical testing 
are extensively used as tools in economic 
analysis, and majors in economics are required 
to demonstrate achievement in mathematics. 
This requirement can be satisfied by Mathemadcs 
105-106 or Mathematics 111. The department 
strongly encourages students who have an 
interest in majoring or minoring in economics 
to complete this mathematics requirement 
during the first year, as several 200-level courses 
have a math prerequisite. The department also 
strongly achises students planning to pursue 
gradtiate study in economics to take Mathematics 
111-112, Mathematics 211-212, and Economics 
350-352. Regardless of plans upon graduation, 
all students will find more options open to them 
if they are familiar with the use of computers in 
the manipulation of economic information. We 
urge economics majors to take a course or 
courses on the use of compiUers, in addition to 
the departmental courses that require computer 
work. 

The department offers a minor in economics, 
which a student can complete by taking Economics 
103, 104; two courses from among Economics 
241, 243, 245, 249, and 350 and two courses 



from among those ninnbered 201 or above, one 
of which must be from among those numbered 
250 and above. Additionally, a student minoring 
in economics must demonstrate the same 
achievement in mathematics as required of 
majors, and must achieve a grade point average 
of 2.0 or higher in courses counted toward the 
minor. 

Economics 103, 104 are prerequisites for all 
upper-level courses in the department. Under 
special circumstances, a student may petition 
the instrtictor of a course for a waiver of course 
prerequisites. 

The departmental brochiue. Economics 
Department Handbook, contains additional 
information about the department and about 
the opportimities which the study of economics 
provides. Copies are available in the department 
office, Glatfelter 111, and from department 
facult)' members. 

Honors, Internships, Special Programs 

The Department of Economics values intensive 
and independent work by its students, as well as 
their interaction with peers and faculty 
members on collaborative economics projects. 
To encourage and recognize high quality work, 
the department offers departmental honors to 
students who (1) satisfactorily complete the 
Honors Research Seminar (Economics 420); (2) 
earn a departmental grade point average of 3.2 
or above; (3) complete a senior thesis ; and (4) 
present the thesis to the faculty of the 
department, who will make the final decision on 
the granting of the honors degree. Students 
ineligible for or uninterested in formal 
departmental honors are encouraged 
nonetheless to pursue individual projects. 

Course credit for internships involving the 
application of economics may be available to 
qualified students who provide an acceptable 
applicadon at least one month prior to the 
beginning of the internship. Persons desiring 
more information should contact Dr. Fletcher. 
Gettysburg College also recognizes the 
Washington Economic Policy Semester at 
American University, a program that involves 
both classroom study and an internship in 
Washington, D.C. (For more information, see 
Washington Semester m this catalog.) Interested 
students should contact Dr. Railing in the spring 
semester of their sophomore year. Several 
foreign study programs are especially interesting 
for economics students; information is available 
from the department and from the 
international student coordinator. 



< 




Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Economics 103, 104 fulfill the Liberal Arts Core 
requirement in the social sciences. Economics 
212, 213, 250, and 253 satisfy the Liberal Arts 
Core requirement in non-Western Culture . 

103, 104 Principles of Microeconomics, Principles 
of Macroeconomics Courses provide general 
understanding of economic systems and economic 
analysis, with emphasis on the operation of the 
U.S. economy. Topics in 103 include the price 
system, theory of consumer behavior, theory of 
production, theory of the firm, income 
distribution, welfare economics, and the micro 
aspects of international trade. Topics in 104 
include national income accounting, employment, 
inflation, monetary and fiscal policies, aggregate 
demand and supply analysis, economic growth, 
the monetary aspect of international economics, 
and comparative economic systems. 
Staff 

200 Personal Finance Course considers how 
individuals might react to financial constraints 
in order to provide for their own material 
security, then develops insight into the important 
social issues of a mixed economy. Topics include 
the meaning of financial securit)', both 
individually and collectively, the development of 
financial goals and the use of personal budgets 
to achieve goals, the proper use of credit, the 
nature and use of insurance for protection and 
saving, housing, income earning assets, and 
estate planning. Current social issues are also 
considered. Pmequisites: Y.conom\c% 103, 104. 
Mr. Railing 

21 1-218 Regional Economic History, Growth, and 
Development Seminars Intensive examination of 
one region, using the framework of economic 
analysis and political economy to consider 
economic history, growth, and development. 
Economic theory provides the primary paradigm 
within which these regions are studied, but 
consideration is also given to historical events 
that conditioned the economic outcomes. Each 
course reviews the pertinent theory and focuses 
on application of that theory to specific historical 
events. Among the regions to be studied, one in 
each course, are Africa, the Caribbean, Japan, 
Russia and Canada/U.S. Prerequisites: Economics 
103, 104. 
Ms. Fender, Mr Gondwe, Mr Niiro, Ms. Stillwaggon 

241 Introductory Economics and Business 
Statistics Topics include nomenclature of 
descriptive statistics; probabilities using the 
normal, binomial, and Poisson distributions; 
Chi-square; sampling; estimation of parameters; 



hypothesis testing; linear regression; and 
correlation. Prerequisites: Economics 103,104, 
and one of the following: Mathematics 105-106, 
1 1 1, or the equivalent or permission of the 
economics department. A student may not 
receive credit for both this course and Mathematics 
107, Psychology 205, or Biology 260. 
Ms. Fender, Ms. Fletchei; Mr Lee, Mr Niiro 

243 Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory 

Examination of classical, neoclassical, 
Keynesian, monetarist, new classical, and post- 
Keynesian economics, with particular focus on 
various theories and policies that relate to the 
determination of national (aggregate) income 
and price level, the determination and role of 
interest rates, and the part played by monetary 
and fiscal authorities in stabilizing the economy. 
Offered both semesters. Prerequisites: Economics 
103, 104 and Mathematics 105-106 or 111 or its 
equivalent, or permission of instructor. 
Mr Gondwe 

245 Intermediate Microeconomic Theory Course 
uses the methodological tools of economics to 
examine consumer and producer behavior and 
economic behavior, both individual and 
collective, under different input and output 
market structures. Also analyzes implications of 
such behavior for general equilibrium and 
economic welfare. Prerequisites: Economics 103, 
104 and Mathematics 105-106 or 111, or the 
equivalent, or permission of instructor. 
Ms. Fender, Ms. Fletcher 

249 History of Economic Thought and Analysis 

Study of the development of economic ideas 
and policies in relation to the evolution of 
economics as a discipline from its roots in 
philosophical discourse to its modern form. 
Schools of economic thought from Physiocrats 
to neoclassical economics are examined. 
Empha.sis is placed on the ideas of major 
contributors to economic thought from Plato to 
Keynes. Prerequisites: Economics 103, 104. 
Mr Gondrve 

250 Economic Development Examination of 
economic and noneconomic factors accounting 
for economic growth and development in less 
developed areas of the world. Various theories 
of economic growth and development are analyzed 
and major policy issues discussed. Primary focus 
is on the study of the development experience in 
the Third World and the roles of international 
trade, aid, multinational corporations, as well as 
the World Bank and the International Monetary 
Fund, in the formation and application of Third 
World strategies for economic development. 



Prerequisites: Economics 103, 104. Recommended: 
Economics 243, 245. Satisfies distribution 
requirement in non-Western culture. 
Mr. Gondwe, Ms. Stillwaggon 

251 International Economics Introduction to 
the history and development of international 
commerce and its relation to the rise of the 
capitalist system. Fundamentals of international 
trade and finance are also elaborated, and these 
tools are applied to such issues as international 
business cycles, global competition and technical 
change, balance of payments and trade deficits, 
and the international debt crisis. Prerequisites: 
Economics 103, 104. Recommended: Economics 
243, 245. 

Ms. Stillwaggon 

252 Gender Issues in Economics Application of 
microeconomic theory to gender issues in our 
economy. Course explores demographic issues 
such as fertility and divorce, considers the effect 
of the tax structure and other public policies on 
gender differences in labor force participation 
over time, and examines economic paradigms 
for explaining gender discrimination in our 
society. Prerequisites: Econonuca 103, 104. 
Recommended: Economics 245. 

Ms. Fletcher 

253 Introduction to Political Economy and the 
African Diaspora Examination of the origins and 
development of capitalism and the contribution 
of Third World peoples and minorities in the 
U.S. to the process and continued growth of 
capitalist development. Primary focus is on the 
contributions of Africa and people of African 
descent. Prerequisites: Economics 103, 104. 
Recommended: Economics 243, 245. 

Mr. Gondwe 

267 Finance Emphasis on financial planning, 
investment analysis, asset management, and 
sources and costs of capital. Prerequisites: 
Economics 103, 104, 241, and Management 153. 
Recommended, Economics 243, 245. 
Mr. Lee 

301 Labor Economics Theoretical and empirical 
study of the functioning of labor markets, with 
emphasis on wage and employment 
determination. Topics include time allocation, 
wage differences, discrimination, investment in 
education, mobility and migration, impact of 
legislation, unions and labor relations, and 
imperfect markets. Prerequisites: Economics 103, 
104, and 245. Recommended: Economics 241. 
Ms. Fletcher 



303 Money and Banking Course examines role 
of money, credit, and financial institutions in 
the determination of price and income levels. 
Coverage includes the commercial banking 
system, the Federal Reserve System, monetary 
theory, and the art of monetary policy. 
Emphasis is placed upon evaluadon of current 
theory and practice in the American economy 
in the context of increased internationalization 
of financial activity. Prerequisites: Econoniics 103, 
104, 243. 
Mr. Weise 

305 Public Finance Introduction to principles, 
techniques, and effects of government 
obtaining and spending funds and managing 
government debt. Nature, growth, and amount 
of expenditures of all levels of government in 
the U.S. are considered, along with numerous 
types of taxes employed by various levels of 
government to finance their activities. Domestic 
and international implications of government 
debt are also considered. Prerequisites: 
Economics 103, 104, 245. 
Mr Railing 

341 Environmental Economics Investigation of 
the relationship between the economy and the 
environment, leading to a derivation of biophysical 
conditions for a sustainable economy. Mainstream 
theories and policies, including those based on 
externalides and social costs, property rights, 
cost-benefit analysis, and discounting, are 
studied in the light of these conditions. Problems 
and prospects of both market controls and 
government regulation are considered. Special 
topics include population, appropriate technolog), 
accounting for pollution and resource depletion 
in GDP statistics, and sustainable development. 
PrCT'e^MJ52te5.' Economics 103, 104, and either 
Economics 245 or Environmental Studies 212. 
Ms. Kaiser 

342 Industrial Organization and Public Policy 

Application of microeconomic theory to the 
structure of industry. Course considers 
traditional, as well as recent and interdisciplinary 
theories of firm and industry behavior, with 
particular focus on oligopoly and game theory. 
Course also reviews the economic history of U.S. 
antitrust and regulatory policies and examines 
the effect of greater global interdependence. 
Students evaluate alternative policies for static 
economic efficiency, technological change, and 
equity. Prerequisite: Economics 245 or permission 
of instructor. 
Ms. Fender 



< 



350 Quantitative Methods in Economics 

Advanced statistical theory and the use of 
computers in data analysis. Topics include some 
applications of mathematics to economics, 
hypothesis testing and model specification, 
multiple regression and the determination of 
model acceptability. Prerequisites: Economics 241, 
243, 245. 
Ms. Fletcher 

351 Application of Mathematics to Economics 
and Business Introduction to the application of 
calculus and matrix algebra to economics and 
business. Numerous illustradons of mathematically 
formulated economic models are used to 
integrate mathematical methods with economic 
and business analysis. Prerequisites: Economics 
243, 245, 350 and Mathematics 111 or 105-106, 
or Mathematics 104 and permission of instructor. 
Mr. Niiro 

352 Econometrics Study of the application of 
mathematical economic theory and statistical 
procedures to economic data. Coverage includes 
the development of appropriate techniques for 
measuring economic relationships specified by 
economic models and testing of economic 
theorems. Prerequisites: Economics 241, 243, 245, 
and 350, plus one other 300-level course. 

Mr. Niiro 

401 Seminar: Advanced Topics in History of 
Economic Thought and Alternative Paradigms of 
Economic Analysis Investigation of different 
perspectives in economics. Close readings of 
classic primary texts are used to examine issues 
in the history of economics and alternative 
approaches to understanding the contemporary 
economy. Topics include competition, endogenous 
growth, technical change, effective demand, 
money and credit, and economic policy. 
Prerequisites: Economics 241, 243, 245, 249, plus 
at least one 300-level comse. 

■^■'^# 

402 Seminar: Advanced Topics in Theoretical and 
Applied Macro- and Monetary Economics 

Examination of advanced topics in 
macroeconomics and monetary theory and 
applications. Particular focus rotates, and 
includes such topics as the new neoclassical 
theory, rational expectations and post-Keynesian 
theory, monetary issues in international trade 
and economic development, econometric studies 
of money, regulation, and banking safety. 
Prerequisites: Economics 241, 243, 245, 249, plus 
at least one 300-level course. Recommended: 303 
as one of the two 300-level coiuses. 
Staff 



403 Seminar: Advanced Topics in Theoretical and 
Applied Microeconomics Examination of special 
topics in advanced microeconomic theory and 
applications. Particular focus varies, and includes 
such topics as new household economics, 
industrial organization and public policy, game 
theory, information costs-structure-behavior, 
production and cost functions, welfare economics, 
and micro aspects of international trade. 
Prerequisites: Economics 241, 243, 245, 249, plus 
at least one 300-level course. 
Staff 

420 Honors Research Seminar Seminar for 
students writing the senior thesis. Each 
participant completes an original research 
project under the supervision of a faculty thesis 
adviser. Students discuss course readings, review 
research methods, and present and discuss their 
findings. Prerequisite: By department in\itation 
only. 
Staff 

460 Individualized Study Topics of an advanced 
natin e for well qualified students. Individual 
reading and research, imder the supervision of 
a faculty member. A student wishing to pursue 
independent study must present a proposal at 
least one month before the end of the semester 
preceding the semester in which the independent 
study is to be undertaken. Prerequisites: 
Permission of supervising faculty member and 
department chairperson. Offered both semesters. 
Staff 

EDUCATION 

Professor Brough (Chairperson) 

Associate Professor Hofman 

Assistant Professor Pool 

Director of Field Experiences and Adjunct Professor Millei' 

Adjunct Professors Foreman, Fox, and Myers 

Overview 

The purposes of the teacher education programs 
are to give students a thorough background in 
educational philosophy and theoretical concepts 
of instruction, and to pro\ide an opportunity for 
student teaching and other field experiences. 

Other departments work cooperatively with the 
education department in the preparation of 
teachers in secondary education, elementary 
education, music education, and health and 
physical education. All education programs in 
secondary school subjects, elementary education, 
music education, and health and physical 
educadon are competency based and have 
received accreditation from the Pennsylvania 



Dipartment of Education. The liberal arts are 
cential to the College's teacher education 
programs. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Students planning to teach must complete a 
major in an academic department of their 
choice and fulfill all the requirements for the 
bachelor of arts degree or the bachelor of 
science degree. Upon completing a program in 
teacher education, students are eligible for a 
Pennsylvania Certificate, Instructional I, 
enabling them to teach in the public schools of 
the Commonwealth and other states with similar 
requirements. Students who pursue teacher 
certification are required to demonstrate 
competence in oral and written communication 
skills and computer literacy prior to certification. 
A minimum of fort)' hours of observation and 
participation in schools is required during the 
sophomore and junior years prior to acceptance 
into the Education Semester. Students who are 
seeking an Instructional I Certificate must have 
successfully completed the Praxis Series of the 
National Teachers' Exams (NTE) PPST reading, 
writing, mathematics, and listening; principles of 
learning and teaching, grades K-6 or grades 
7-12; and specialty area (elementary education 
or the subject area for which candidates are 
seeking certification) . 

Students interested in preparing to teach 
academic subjects in the secondary schools must 
complete one of the following approved 
programs for secondary certification: biology, 
chemistry, physics, general science, mathematics, 
English, German, Latin, French, Spanish, 
comprehensive social studies, health and 
phy.sical educadon (K-12), or music (K-12). 
Early planning beginning in the first year is 
essential for all of these programs. For secondary 
education, the Educadon Semester consists of 
Educadon 303, 304 and 476 (Student Teaching, 
worth 2 courses). Only these courses may be 
taken during the Secondary Educadon Semester. 

The elementary education program is distinctive 
in giving students the opportunity to 
concentrate on liberal arts studies and complete 
an academic major, thus qualifying for the 
bachelor of arts degree. Students interested in 
this program should consult with the education 
department no later than the fall semester of the 
first year. For elementary education, the 
Education Semester consists of Education 334, 
306 or pre-arranged independent study, and 476 
(Student Teaching, worth 2 coiuses) . Education 
334 includes an intensive school-based reading 



internship. Only these courses may be taken 
dining the Elementary Education Semester. 

Students, in consultation with their major 
department, will select either the fall or spring 
semester of the senior year as the Educadon 
Semester. A Ninth Semester Option offers the 
Education Semester the fall semester following 
graduation. This option, which includes only the 
Education Semester, is provided at cost to these 
recent Gettysburg College graduates who have 
been accepted into the program. (Cost for 2000: 
$2,300, plus room, board, and certification fees.) 
Student teaching experiences are completed at a 
school district in proximity to the College, or the 
student may elect to apply to student teach 
abroad, in an urban setting, or in other 
alternative sites. 

The admission of a student to the Education 
Semester depends upon the student's academic 
achievement, demonstrated competence in 
communication skills, and a recommendation 
from the major department. Guidelines for 
evaluating a student's academic achievement are 
a minimum accimiuladve grade point average of 
2.8 and a grade point average of 2.8 in the major. 
The successful applicant must have earned a C 
grade or higher in all education courses and in 
general psychology' and developmental 
psychology. The student is also evaluated on 
such professional traits as responsibility, integrity, 
enthusiasm, ethical beha\'ior, dmeliness, and 
communicadon skills. Applicadons for the 
Education Semester may be obtained in the 
Department of Education office and must be 
completed and submitted for approval by the 
Teacher Education Committee by October 15 of 
die academic year prior to student teaching. 

Students interested in teaching in states other 
than Pennsylvania will find that a number of 
states certify teachers who have completed 
baccalaureate programs in education at colleges 
approved by its own state department of 
education. Numerous states require specific 
scores on portions of the Praxis Exams. See the 
department for details. 

A student seeking teacher certification may also 
choose to minor in education. The minor in 
secondary education consists of six courses: 
Educadon 201, 209, 303, 304, and 476 (worth 
two courses) . A minor in elementary educadon 
consists of six courses. Education 201, 209, and 
476 are required for the minor. The student 
then designates three of the following five 
courses to complete the minor: Education 180, 



306, 331, 370, or 334. Completion of all eight 
courses is required for teacher certification in 
elementary education. A student who elects to 
student teach during the Ninth Semester Option 
is not eligible for a minor in education, but will 
have a concentration in education. 

180 Methods and Concepts of Mathematics 
Instruction The teaching of madiematics, based 
on recent research efforts that focus on such 
topics as early number, geometry, rational 
number, multiplication and division concepts; 
development of estimation strategies and 
processes; influence of gender/minority-related 
variables on mathematics performance; impact 
of calculators and computers; and children's 
development of mathematics concepts. Spring 
semester only. Prerequisite: Education 201, 209, 
or permission of instructor. 
Ms. Hofman 

20 1 Educational Psychology Study of psychological 
principles and theories of development, cognition 
and learning, motivation, classroom management, 
instructional planning, assessment, and 
reflective inquiry. Repeated spring semester. 
Prerequisite: C or better in Psychology 101. 
Ms. Pool 

209 Social Foundations of Education Study of 
professional aspects of teaching, historical and 
philosophical development of American 
education, and the relationship of schools to 
society. Current issues affecting schools, such as 
organization, reform, and national legislation, 
are examined. Repeated spring semester. 
Ms. Brough 

303 Educational Purposes, Methods and 
Educational Media: Secondary Emphasis is placed 
on implementing methods, techniques, media, 
and technology into the teaching-learning 
process. Course includes an examination of 
curriculum considerations, unit development, 
reading in the content areas, accommodating 
special needs, assessment, classroom 
management, and development of a professional 
portfolio. Prerequisites: Education 201, 209, and 
acceptance into the Education Semester. 
Recommended: the subject methods course. 
Repeated spring semester. 

Ms. Brough, M.<i. Hofman, Ms. Pool, Mr Myers 

304 Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of 
Secondary Subject Secondary subjects, including 
biology, chemistry, physics, English, French, 
Spanish, German, Latin, mathematics, health 
and physical education, and social studies. Course 



is taught by a staff member of the appropriate 
academic department who has students in the 
Education Semester. Prerequisites: Consent of 
the major department and acceptance into the 
Education Semester. Repeated spring semester. 
Staff 

306 Educational Purposes, Methods, and 
Instructional Media in Social Studies, Art, and 
Music Application of principles of learning and 
himian development to teaching social studies 
in the elementary school. Included is the 
correlation of art and music with the teaching 
of the social sciences. A major portion of the 
coiuse is devoted to the development and 
implementation of a social studies imit. 
Prerequisites: EducaUon 201, 209, and 180 or 370, 
or permission of instiuctor. Offered both 
semesters. 
Mr. Miller, Ms. Hofimn 

331 Developmental Reading Instruction and the 
Language Arts Introduction to theory, problems, 
and approaches to developmental reading 
instruction and the language arts. Current 
trends relating to acquisition of language and 
reading and writing skills are studied. Young 
adult and children's literature are explored in 
relation to the learning process. Designed for 
teachers of all grade levels. Preiequisite: C or 
better in Edtication 201. Fall semester only. 
Ms. Brough 

334 Corrective Reading Study of the analysis and 
correction of reading difficulties. Survey of 
diagnostic and motivational means and materials 
is covered. Course includes a reading internship 
in the public schools under the guidance of a 
reading teacher. Elementary education students 
enroll in this course during the Education 
Semester. Prerequisites: Education 201, 209, 331, 
and acceptance into the Education Semester. 
Repeated spring semester. 
Ms. Brough 

370 Elementary School Science: Purposes, 
Methods, and Instructional Media Course 
emphasizes science education process skills and 
the inquiry-based approach; child development 
and its relation to learning science concepts; 
examination of science programs; multidisciplinary 
science; evaluation techniques; individualization 
(including issues related to gender, culture and 
special needs), and instructional media designed 
for the prospective teacher. Prerequisite: C or 
better in EducaUon 180, 201, or permission of 
instructor. Fall semester only. 
Ms. Hofman 



41 1 Internship in Teaching Composition Under 
the super\asion of the instructor of a section of 
EngHsh 101, the intern attends classes, prepares 
and teaches selected classes, counsels students 
on their written work, and gives students' papers 
a first reading and preliminary evaluation. All 
interns meet regularly with a member of the 
English depaiuiient to discuss methods of teaching 
composition and to analyze the classroom 
experience. Required of all majors in English 
planning to enroll in the secondary education 
program. Students should register for 
Education 411 in the semester prior to their 
Education Semester. 
English Department Staff 

461 Individualized Study — Research 

Offered botli semesters. 

471 Individualized Study — Internship 

Offered both semesters. 

476 Student Teaching Student observation, 
participation, and teaching under supervision 
of an experienced and certified teacher. Group 
and individual conferences are held for 
discussion of principles and problems. Student 
spends the full day for 12 to 15 weeks in the 
classroom. Weekly seminar is required. Course 
carries two course credits. Prerequisites: All 
required education courses and acceptance into 
die Education Semester. Repeated spring semester. 
Mr. Miller, Ms. Brough 

ENGLISH 

Professors Fredrickson, Garnett, Lambert 
(Chairperson), Myers, Stitt, and Winans 

Associate Professors Barnes, Berg, Larsen Cowan, 
Johnson Flynn, and Goldbeig 

Assistant Professors Bivens-Talum, Fee, Leebron, 
Rhett, and Ryan 

Lecturers de la Paz and Lane 

Adjunct Instructors Altieri, Knight, Lindeman, 
Phillips, Roth, Sallzman, Sellers, and Singley 

Overview 

Courses offered by the English department are 
designed to train students to express their 
thoughts clearly and effectively through spoken 
and written language and to understand, 
interpret, and assimilate the thoughts and 
experiences of the great wiiters of English and 
American literature. English is excellent 
preparation for careers in business, teaching, 
law, publishing, journalism, and government 
service, and for graduate study leading to 
advanced degrees in English, the ministry, and 
library science. Majors have also enrolled in 



graduate programs in business, urban planning, 
social work, public administration, and others. 

The department offers a major in English and 
American literature, a minor program in each 
field, and a writing minor. 

A well-balanced program for a major in English 
and American literature should incltide: (1) 
knowledge of the literary history of England and 
America; (2) training in the application of the 
techniques of literary analysis and the different 
critical approaches to literature; (3) knowledge 
of the characteristics and development of the 
major literary forms or genres; (4) study in 
depth of the work of one author of significance; 
and (5) some knowledge of the history of the 
English language and of English as a system. 

The Writing Center 

The Writing Center, staffed by several English 
department faculty members and specially 
trained Gettysburg College students, is a 
valuable resource. The Writing Center is open 
six days a week, and there is no charge for this 
service. The Center's staff assists students with 
their writing in the following ways: 

• Discusses an assignment in order to clarify it 
or to plan a method of approach; 

• Helps in organizing a paper or other piece of 
writing, such as a letter of application; 

• Suggests ways to make troublesome parts of a 
paper more effective; 

• Shows ways to correct recurring grammatical 
errors. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Major Requirements: Requirements for the major 
in literature are twelve courses in English and 
American language and literature, in addition 
to the first semester of Literary Foundations of 
Western Culture (IDS 103). To obtain the 
desired distribution of courses, majors elect 
courses from the following categories: 
I. Introductory Studies in Literature 
(English 120-139). Students may count one 
introductory literature course toward the 
major or a designated first-year seminar. 
II. Historical Surveys (English 2.30-239). 
Students must take at least fotu^ historical 
survey courses, but may not count more 
than five toward the major. 
Ill.Cridcal Methods (English 299). Students 
must take this course concurrendy with or 
prior to their first 300-level topics course. 
FV. Topics in Literature (English 310-375). 
Students must take at least four topics 
courses. 



► 



V. Seminar (English 401-409). Students must 
take at least one seminar. 
VI. Two additional electives. 

Of the 200- and 300-level courses, at least three 
must focus on a period of literature before 
1800. Such cotirses are marked with an asterisk 
(*) in the catalog. 

English 101 and courses in speech may not be 
used to fulfill the department's major 
requirements. One writing course (201, 205, 
300-307) may count toward the major. 

Minor Requirements: Requirements for the minor 
in literature are six courses. All minors must 
take two Historical Survey courses (English 
230-239) , and at least two Topics in Literature 
courses (English 310-375). No more than one 
Introductory Studies in Literature course 
(English 120-39) or designated first-year 
seminar may count toward the minor. Writing 
courses, with the exception of English 101, may 
be used to fulfill the department's minor 
requirements. 

Writing Minor Requirements: Requirements for the 
writing minor are six coiuses. These include 
Introduction to Creative Writing (English 205) 
and at least four courses from the grouping, 
English 201, 300-304, 306, and 307. Students 
may also take an individualized Study in Writing 
or one-semester internship at the Gettysburg 
Review. 

The major for students enrolled in the 
elementary education program consists of ten 
courses, in addition to the first term of Literary 
Foundations of Western Culture (IDS 103). 
Working with the chairperson of the English 
department, each elementary education student 
designs a major program that follows as closely 
as possible the department's distribution 
requirement for the major. Students planning to 
teach English in secondary schools are required 
to take English 209, either 365 or 366, Speech 
101, IDS 104, and either Theatre Arts 328 or 
329. The department cooperates in offering 
Education 411, Internship in Teaching 
Composition. Students planning to do graduate 
work in English should develop proficiency in 
Latin, French, or German. 

English majors may take internships in a variety 
of fields, such as journalism, law, public relations, 
publishing, radio, and television. Theatre arts 
majors may take internships in theatre, radio, 
television, public relations, and arts administration. 
Students who wish to apply for internships must 



secure from their advisers a statement of the 
department's policy regarding application 
deadline, form of proposal, requirements, and 
grading. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

All courses offered by the department, except 
English 101, 201, 203, 205, 207, 299, 300-307, 
and courses in speech fulfill the Liberal Arts 
Core requirement in the humanities. English 
205 fulfills the Liberal Arts Core requirement 
in the arts. 

Senior Honors Program 

English majors who have shown special promise 
in English will be invited to complete a thesis 
during their senior year. Students taking the 
program will write a thesis during the fall 
semester under the direction of a member of 
the department. Only students selected for and 
successfully completing the program will be 
eligible to receive honors in English. For details 
of the program, consult the English department. 

101 English Composition Course develops 
students" abilit) to express themselves in clear, 
accurate, and thoughtful English prose. Not 
limited to first-year students. Repeated spring 
semester. 
Staff 

201 Writing the Essay Intensive course in 
advanced rhetorical techniques, with particular 
emphasis on analysis of evidence, selection of 
appropriate style, and importance of revision. 

Mr. R\an 

203 Journalistic Writing Hands-on introduction 
to journalistic writing and a conceptual look at 
the news media and their role in a twenty-first- 
century democratic society. Students learn to 
write a strong lead (or "lede"), develop 
newsworthy questions, use active voice and 
action verbs, and cut down on words that do not 
carry their own weight. Students talk with 
professionals in the field and learn the ethics 
and traditions of journalism. They are also 
encouraged to submit articles to the campus 
newspaper, The Geltysburgian. Prerequisite: 
English 101. 
Mr. Kiiigiit 

205 The Writing of Fiction, Poetry, and Drama 

Workshop in the writing of short stories, verse, 
and plays, with an analysis of models. Either 
course may be used to fulfill the distribution 
requirement in arts. 
Staff 



209 History of the English Language Course 
provides a historical understanding of the 
vocabulary, forms, and soimds of the language 
from the Anglo-Saxon or Old English period to 
the twentieth century. 
Mr. Fee 

216 Images of Women in Literature Examination 
of various ways women have been imagined in 
literature, with consideration of how and why 
images of women and men and of their 
relationships to one another change, and how 
these images affect us. Emphasis is placed on 
developing the critical power to imagine 
ourselves differently. 

Ms. Berg 

217 Slavery and the Literary Imagination Study 
of various forms of discourse on .\merican 
chattel slavery — authentic emancipatory 
narratives written by ex-slaves; slave narratives 
recoided by WTA writers; socio-historical essays; 
neo-slave narrative written by contemporary 
novelists; poetry, ballads, spirituals, and folklore. 
Ms. Barnes 

*l'iO, *23 1 , 232 Survey of English Literature 

Historical survey of English literature from 
Beouni I fthvough the twentieth centiuy, with 
some attention to the social, political, and 
intellectual backgrounds of the periods under 
investigation. Selected works are discussed in 
class to familiarize students with various 
methods of literary analysis; students write 
several short critical papers each semester. 

233, 234 Survey of American Literature A 

chronological study of American writing from 
colonial days through the present, with some 
attention to the social, political, and intellectual 
backgroimds. Primary emphasis during the first 
half of the sequence falls on the Puritans and 
American Romantics; the second half surveys 
writers from the Romantics forward, including 
such figures as Twain, Chopin, James, Williams, 
Stevens, Faulkner, Hughes, as well as selected 
contemporary writers. 

235-260 Studies in Literature Intensive study of 
a single writer, group, movement, theme, or 
period. May be counted toward the major. 
Fulfills distribiUion requirement in literature. 
Open to first-year students. 

235 Survey of African American Literature 

hitensive stud\' of a single writer, group, 
movement, theme, or period. May be counted 
toward the major. Open to first-year students. 
Barnes 



299 Critical Methods Course introduces students 
to advanced literary study. Attention is placed 
on close reading, using the library and 
electronic resources and incorporating scholarly 
perspectives. Course also considers a variety of 
theoretical approaches to literature and their 
place within contemporary literary scholarship. 
Course is required of all English majors and must be 
taken prior to or concurrejilly luilh a student '.? first 
300-level course. 

Staff 

300 Forms of Fiction Writing Discussion course 
in the writing and reading of alternative forms 
of fiction. Aim is to enhance tmderstanding and 
implementation of various alternatives to short 
fiction, including short-short fiction, the 
novella, and the novel. Each student completes 
two short-short stories and a fragment of a 
novella or the opening of a novel. All styles and 
subjects are welcome, and students are 
encouraged to discover and exercise their 
tmique writing voices. 

Mr Leebron 

30 1 Writing Short Fiction Workshop in the 
reading and writing of short stories. Aim is to 
imderstand and implement various techniques 
and strategies of short fiction, including 
characterization, character development, 
variance of voice, transport, and resonance. 
Each student is to complete a number of 
exercises and two short stories (with both 
revised) , as well as written critiques. Prerequisites: 
English 101 (or equivalent) and English 205, or 
permission of instructor. 

Mr. Leebron 

302 Writing of Poetry Study of theory, process, 
craft, and practice of the writing of poetry. 
Course has a substantial writing component and 
combines workshop methods with lecture, 
analysis of models, and discussion. Close 
attention is paid to rhythm, rhyme, image, 
diction, syntax, open forms, and closed forms. 
Students from all disciplines are welcome. 
Prerequisites: ^ng\K\\ 101 (or equivalent) and 
English 205, or permission of instructor. 

Ms. Cowan 

303 The Writing of Screenplays and Stageplays 

Study of theory, process, craft, and practice of 
scriptwriting for film and for the theatre. Course 
has a substantial wiiting component and 
combines workshop methods with lecture, 
analysis of models, di.scussion, and viewing of 



> 



plays and films. Students from all disciplines are 
welcome. Prerequisites: English 101 (or equivalent) 
and English 205, or permission of instructor. 
yV/5. Coiuan 

304 Writing the Personal Essay Workshop in the 
personal essay, which explores an idea from an 
individual's point of view, requiring both 
persuasiveness and a distinctive voice. Students 
develop a series of essays and read a wide variety 
of model texts for analysis and inspiration. 
Students serve as peer critics. Prerequisites: 
English 101 (or equivalent) and English 205, or 
permission of instructor. 
Ms. Cowan 

306 Writing the Memoir Workshop in the 
reading and writing of memoir. Students 
develop narratives based on personal 
experience and address the question of how to 
transform memory into compelling writing 
through the analysis of appropriate models and 
discussion of student work. Each student is 
expected to complete various exercises and 
critical responses, as well as a substantial memoir 
project. Prerequisites: English 101 (or equivalent) 
and English 205, or permission of instructor. 
Ms. Rhett 

307 The Elements of Editing Workshop in the 
editorial process covering all stages of text 
management, including choosing, (copy) 
editing, proofreading the texts and dealing with 
the authors; ordering a group of texts into a 
coherent whole; layout and design; marketing. 
Prerequisites: English 101 with a grade of B- or 
better (or equivalent) and English 205. 

Mr. Stitt 

*3 1 0-*3 1 9 Topics in Medieval and Renaissance 
Literature Study of a variety of authors, themes, 
genres, and movements, ranging from Anglo- 
Saxon poetry and prose through Shakespeare's 
works. Several sections, each with a different 
subject, are offered every year. 

*3I0A Hamlet Examination oi Hamlet'?, greatness 
in its background and sources and in the works 
it later influenced, as well as in its own intrinsic, 
numinous power as an archetypal quest for the 
understanding that truly liberates. Students read 
a variety of sources, analogues, and derivative 
works; compare several of the more significant 
cinematic interpretations of the play; prepare 
oral reports; and write, as ever-evolving records 
of their own quests, an analytic-research essay. 
Mr. Myers 



312 Medieval Drama Exploration of conflicting 
theories concerning the origin and develop- 
ment of medieval drama. Students examine its 
social roles, discuss issues of text and 
performance, and compare the relative merits 
of "good literature" and "good drama." 
Examples are drawn from a variety of genres of 
drama. Students also view performances of 
several plays on videotape — and stage their own 
production. 
Mr Fee 

*320-*329 Topics in Seventeenth- and Eighteenth- 
Century Literature Stuch- of a variety of authors, 
themes, genres, and movements, ranging from 
Donne and Herbert through Johnson and 
Boswell. Several sections, each with a different 
subject, are offered every year. Courses in this 
category offered in 1997-98. 

^320B The Early Seventeenth Century in England 

Study of the literature of the early seventeenth 
century (from the death of Elizabeth 1 in 1603 
to the execution of Charles I in 1649) in the 
context of the culture and history of the time. 
Through poetry, drama and prose, and other 
forms of imaginative expression such as art and 
architecture, students learn various aspects of 
the early seventeenth century, including the 
high culture of the court, the vernacular culture 
of urban and rural life, exploration and 
colonization of the new world, the intensity of 
religious beliefs and zeal, love and relationships 
between the sexes, and the \iolence of polidcal 
conflict. 
Mr. Garnett 

*322 Johnson and His Circle Course focuses on 
literature written between 1660 and 1743, and 
examines dominant literary forms and modes, 
as well as such issues as the education of women 
and marriage, changing social behavior, and 
growing consumerism. Through plays, prose 
writings, diaries, and poetry, students sample 
the literary richness of the period. 
Ms. Lambert 

325 A New Species of Writing: The Eighteenth- 
Century Novel In the history of literature the 
novel is a young genre, "invented" in the 
eighteenth-century. They called it "a new species 
of writing" and reveled in the freedom the form 
gave them to explore many facets of the human 
condition. Students read several novels and 
examine the particular intellectual and social 
milieu of the time that produced some of the 
best fiction ever wTitten. 
Ms. Lambert 



330-339 Topics in Nineteenth and Twentieth 
Century Literature Study of a variety of authors, 
themes, genres, and movements, ranging from 
Blake, Wordsworth, and Coleridge through 
Yeats, Eliot, Woolf, and selected contemporary 
writers. Several sections, each with a different 
subject, are offered every year. Courses in this 
category offered in 1997-98. 

330A The Tragedy of Romanticism Examination 
of melodramas written for the contemporary 
stage by long forgotten, and recently recovered 
writers, many operating under the influence of 
Gothicism; verse dramas that draw upon the 
conventions of the classical and Jacobean 
theaters; translations from leading European 
dramatists; and narratives that muse on the bad 
things that can happen to good, and not so 
good, people. 
Mr. Goldberg 

334 Mad Women, Fallen Women Exploration of 
the various ways in which women contribiued to 
the intellectual and political excitement of mid- 
Victorian England. Coiuse looks at novels, 
paintings, and other writings by women to 
determine if women presented different 
perspectives, if these perspectives were skewed, 
and what might have been the causes and 
consequences of their different ways of looking. 
Special attention is given to women's collective 
action in reforming lunacy laws, attitudes 
toward prostitutes and prostitution, and married 
women's property rights. 
Ms. Berg 

340-349 Topics in American Literature Study of a 
variety of audiors, tliemes, genres, and movements, 
ranging from colonial writers through selected 
contemporary authors. Several sections, each 
with a different subject, are offered every year. 
Courses in this category offered in 1997-98. 

340B Hughes, Wright, Baldwin: I, Too, Sing, 
America Examination of the literary works of 
three major African American writers who 
critique and explore the complexities of being 
both Black and American before integration. In 
their poetry, prose, and fiction, Hughes, Wright, 
and Baldwin refute denigrating Anglo-American 
stereotypes concerning African Americans, 
revise and elevate the African American's self- 
perception and social perception, and conserve 
African American cultiual forms and social 
imperatives. Taken altc:)gether, their rhetorical 
postures represent a broad spectrum of African 
American responses to America's twentieth- 



century system of social, economic, and political 

apartheid. 

Ms. Barnes 

344 Contemporary American Poetry Study of 
American poetry written since World War II by 
such poets as Elizabeth Bishop, James Wright, 
Charles Wright, Charles Simic, Rita Dove, and 
Sharon Olds. The class may be visited by one or 
more of the poets. 
Mr. Stitl 

347 Contemporary American Fiction Course 
studies form, content, and diversity in American 
fiction since the 1940s, drawing on a selection of 
novels and short stories by such writers as Updike, 
Nabokov, Carver, Bellow, Pynchon, and others. 
Mr. Fredrickson 

349 Major Contemporary African American 
Women Writers Coinse examines cultmal, social, 
and domestic concerns of African American 
women in the literature of Alice Walker, Toni 
Morrison, Gloria Naylor, Paule Marshall, Terry 
McMillan, and Toni Cade Bambara. 
Ms. Barnes 

355 Contemporary Indian Literature in English 

Study of twentieth-century South Asian prose 
and poetry written originally in English, as 
stimulated by the British educational legacy, 
traditional Indian thought, Marxism, 
Independence and feminist movements, post- 
colonial thought, and magical realism. Criticism 
by Indian scholars supplements Western critical 
approaches. 
Ms. Poiuers 

357 The White Man's Burden: Literature of 
Empire Focus on texts of British colonialism and 
English representation of the cultural "other." 
An examination of British imperialism and its 
denigration of non-European cultures is meant 
to reveal the extent to which the English 
projected their fears and desires upon the 
colonized peoples of the British Empire. 
Mr. Bivens-Tatiim 

360 Visions and Discontent Intensive 
examination of the poetry and poetic trajectory 
of four of five British and American poets, 
including W. B. Yeats, T. S. Eliot, and Wilfrid 
Owen. 

Mr. Garnett 

361 The Quest Examination of five literary 
narratives, which serve as the archetype of the 
journey in literature. Study of this quest motif is 
used to compare romantic literatiue with the 



> 



form of modernism that both descended from 
and rebelled against it. 
M). Goldberg 

362 Chaucer Examination of a selection of 
Chaucer's minor poems and some major works, 
including Canterbury Tales. Particular attention is 
given to the literary, historical, philosophical, 
and other relevant backgrounds. Gender issues, 
political commentary, and Chaucer's use of 
satire, hinnor, and irony are studied in detail. 
Mr. Fee 

*365, 366* Shakespeare Course seeks to 
communicate an understanding both of 
Shakespeare's relation to the received traditions 
of his time and of his achievement as one of the 
most important figures in Western literature. 
Language, characterization, and structure in 
each of the numerous plays will be carefully 
analyzed. English 365 focuses on the early plays 
through Hamlet and Troilus and Cressida; English 
366, on the later plays. 
Mr. Myers 

400 Writing the Novella For seniors and juniors. 
Students read novellas by Voltaire, von KJeist, 
Flaubert, Kafka, and various twentieth-century 
writers. In addition, each student produces a 
minimimi of 12,000 words (45 pages) of new 
work that constitutes an entire novella. 
Prerequisite: English 205 and either 300 or 301. 
Mr. Leelrron 

403 Terrible Beauty: The Literature of Apocalypse 
and Chaos Exploration of why turbulence, 
disorder, and even anarchy have often resulted 
when civilizations pursue their need for order 
and stability and how several literary works have 
puzzled over this. In modern times, writers have 
often drawn upon scientific speculation to help 
resolve the contradictions. Accordingly, the 
course will also examine the importance of 
Quantum Physics, Turbulence Theory, and 
Chaos Theory in shaping literary history. 

Mr. Myers 

404 Forms of Literary Nonfiction Seminar on 
nature writing, memoirs, and travel writing. 
Students learn to identify the qualities of such 
writing, which while based on the actual world is 
nonetheless deemed "creative." What are the 
special advantages of this approach to reality? 
Students write reports and scholarly papers, as 
well as one major piece of creative nonfiction. 
Mr. Fredrickson 



464 Honors Thesis Individualized study project 
involving the research of a topic and the 
preparation of a major paper under the 
direction of a member of the department. 
Research and writing are done during the fall 
.semester of the senior year. Prerequisites: By 
invitation of department only. 
Staff 

Individualized Study Individual tutorial, research 
project, or internship under the supervision of a 
member of the staff. Student must submit a 
wiitten proposal to the department well in 
advance of registration. Prerequisite: Approval of 
department and of directing faculty member. 
Offered each semester. 
Staff 

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 

Professors Commito (Chairperson), Coivan, and. 

Mikesell 
Associate Professor Delesalle 
Assistant Professors Craioford and Wilson 

Overview 

Environmental Studies is an interdisciplinary 
department designed to provide students with 
the expertise necessary to analyze and resolve 
complex issues related to the environment. 
Faculty from eleven departments on campus 
teach courses in the Environmental Studies 
major and minor, making it one of the most 
comprehensive small-college environmental 
programs in the country. Although local 
terrestrial, freshwater, and marine habitats are 
studied, the program is national and 
international in scope. Students are encouraged 
to take advantage of Gettysburg's proximity to 
scientific and policy-making agencies in the 
Pennsylvania state capital and Washington, D.C. 
Environmental Studies students are actively 
involved in a wide variety of activities across the 
country, fi-om working on economic development 
issues with Native Americans in Arizona to 
collecting field data on the ecolog)' of Maine's 
coastal zone. At the global level, students can 
utilize the College's extraordinary travel 
opportunities to investigate firsthand the 
environmental problems facing Africa, Asia, 
Europe, and Latin America. In the classroom or 
laboratory, on an internship site or service 
learning project, in the comfort of the library or 
under demanding field conditions, students are 
taught to approach environmental issues with 
an open mind, to examine alternatives carefully, 
and to write and speak effectively about their work. 



Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

The Liberal Arts Core requirement in the 
natural sciences may be satisfied by two of the 
following: Environmental Studies 121, 124, 126, 
128, and 130. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Environmental Studies offers three levels of 
involvement for students interested in the 
environment. Students who want to learn about 
environmental issues biu are not planning a 
major or a minor in the discipline are 
encouraged to take 100-level Environmental 
Studies courses. Students with a stronger interest 
in Environmental Studies may piusue the major 
or minor. 

Major in Environmental Studies 

Environmental Studies at Gettysbiug involves 
an interdisciplinary approach that links 
environmental protection, economic development, 
and human rights issues on a global scale. There 
is a strong foundation in the natural and social 
sciences, especially biology, chemistry, economics, 
and political science, with an emphasis on 
quantitative skills. Students engage in a senior 
capstone experience; they are also encouraged 
to pursue off-campus study, internships, and 
research opportunities. 

The Environmental Studies department offers a 
major with two areas of concentration: 

Co/f Requirements 
Bio 1 1 1 Introductory Biology 
Bio 1 12 Form and Function of Living Organisms 
Econ 103 Principles of Microeconomics 
Econ 1 04 Principles of Macroeconomics 
Econ 341 Environmental Economics 
ES 2 II Introduction to Environmental 

Science: Principles of Ecology 
ES 212 Intermediate Environmental Science: 

Environmental Problems 
Math 1 1 1 Clalculus I or Math 105-106 Calculus 

witii Precalculus 
Phil 107 Environmental Ethics 

Integration Course (choose one) 
ES 240 Energy: Production, Use, and 

Environmental Impact 
ES 310 Physical and Human Geography 
ES 3 1 5 Land: Ecology, History, and Cultiue 
ES 317 Chesapeake Bay Environmental Issues 
ES 333 Environmental Policy 

Senior Capstone Experience (choose one) 
ES 400 Environmental Studies Seminar 
ES 460 Individualized Study: Research 



Area of Concentration 

Students choose one concentration, either 
policy or science. At least two electives must be 
above the 200-level. 

Environmental Policy 
Econ 241 Introductory Economics and 
Business Statistics or Pol Sci 215 Political 
Science Research Methods or both Soc 302 
Sociological Research Methods and Soc 303 
Data Analysis and Statistics 
Econ 245 Intermediate Microeconomic Theory 
ES 3 1 Physical and Human Geography 
ES 333 Environmental Policy 
Pol Sci 10 1 American Government or 
Pol Sci 103 Introduction to International 
Relations o? Pol Sci 104 Introduction to 
Comparative Politics 

Plus three electives from: 
Econ 250 Economic Development 
Econ 25 1 International Economics 
Econ 305 Public Finance 
ES 31 1 Introduction to Geographic 

Information Systems 
ES/Soc 314 Comparative Study of 

Environmental Movements 
Geog 3 1 2 Physical and Human Geography of 

Southern Africa 
Pol Sci 252 North-South Dialogue 
Pol Sci 308 State Politics and Policy 
Pol Sci 340 Models and Policy Analysis 
Pol Sci 363 The Politics of Developing Areas 
Soc 203 World Population 
Soc 306 Introduction to Sociological Theory 
Soc 3 1 3 Political Sociology 

Environmental Science 
Chem 107 Chemical Structure and Bonding 
Chem 108 Chemical Reactivity 
Phy 103 Elementary Physics orPhy 111 

Mechanics and Heat 
Phy 104 Elementary Physics or Phy 112 Waves 

and Electricity and Magnetism 

Plus three electives from: 
Bio 200 Physiology of Plant Adaptations 
Bio 260 Biostatistics or Phy 325 Advanced 

Physics Laboratory 
Bio 306 Marine Ecology 
Bio 307 Limnology 
Chem 203 Organic Chemistry 
Chem 204 Organic Chemistry 
Chem 317 Instrumental Analysis 
ES 225 Physical Geolog)' 
ES 226 Structural Geology 
ES 310 Physical and Human Geography 
ES 3 1 1 Introduction to Geographic 

Information Svstems 




ES 315 Land: Ecology, History, and Culture 

ES 3 1 6 Conservation Biology 

ES 317 Chesapeake Bay Environmental Issues 

ES 350 Coastal Ecology of Maine 

Phy 2 1 3 Relati\dt}' and Modern Physics 

Phy 3 1 Atomic and Nuclear Physics 

Phy 352 Optics and Laser Physics 

Minor in Environmental Studies 

The minor requires two introductory courses, 
three electives, and a senior capstotie 
experience, including: 

ES 21 1 hitroduction to Environmental 
Science: Principles of Ecology or Bio 305 
Ecology 

ES 212 Intermediate Environmental Science: 
Environmental Problems 

ES 400 Environmental Studies Seminar 

Plus three electives from: 
Bio 306 Marine Ecolog)' 
Econ 34! Environmental Economics 
ES 240 Energ)': Production, Use, and 

Environmental Impact 
ES 310 Physical and Human Geography 
ES/Soc 3 i 4 Comparative Study of 

Environmental Movements 
ES 3 1 5 Land: Ecology, History, and Culture 
ES 316 Conservation Biolog)' 
ES 317 Chesapeake Bay Environmental Issues 
ES 333 Environmental Policy 
ES 350 Coastal Ecology of Maine 
Phil 107 Environmental Ethics 

Enrichment Courses 

Students are encouraged to take enrichment 
courses to add depth and breadth to their 
Environmental Studies major or minor. These 
courses come from departments across campus 
and relate to the environment in a variety of 
ways. In addition to courses listed as electives in 
the major and minor, enrichment courses 
include, but are not limited to: 

Bio 2 1 8 Algae and Fungi 

Bio 224 Vertebrate Zoology 

Bio 227 Invertebrate Zoology 

Bio 230 Microbiologv' 

His 239 Aichitecture and Societv' in 

Nineteenth-Century America 
IDS 250 Science, Technolog)', and Nuclear 

Weapons 
Phil 105 Contemporary Moral Issues 
Phil 340 American Philosophy 
Pol 263 The Politics of Developing Areas 
VAH 217 History of Modern Architecture 
VAH 227, 228 Arts of the First Nations of North 

America 



Special Programs 

Faculty members teaching Environmental 
Studies are active scholars who involve students 
in their projects as research assistants. Research 
facilities include a new Geographic Information 
Systems (GIS) laboratory, electron microscopes, 
environmental growth chambers, and a fleet of 
15-passenger vans for field trips. 

Many of the College's off-campus affiliated 
programs provide excellent opportunities to 
study environmental issues in the U.S. and 
abroad. These include the American University 
Environmental Policy Semester in Washington, 
D.C., which offers internships with government 
agencies and private environmental 
organizations, as well as research projects in 
Costa Rica and Kenya. The College is one of a 
select few to maintain cooperative programs in 
marine science with Duke University Marine 
Laboratory and the Bermuda Biological Station. 
Students also study at affiliated environmental 
science and policy programs at imiversities in 
Australia, Denmark, England, and New Zealand, 
as well as at the Ecos)'stems Center in Woods 
Hole, Massachusetts. In addition, the Duke 
University School of the Environment has 
entered into an agreement with the College that 
permits students to start work at Duke on a 
Master of Environmental Management or 
Master of Forestry degree after three years at 
Gettysburg. This cooperative agreement allows 
students to earn the bachelor's and master's 
degrees in just five years. 

All across the nation, public and private schools 
have recognized tJie importance of environmental 
issues and are adding courses in environmental 
studies to their curricula. Students interested in 
a teaching career who wish to combine training 
in education and environmental studies are 
encouraged to contact the education department. 

121 Environmental Issues Introduction to 
national and global environmental issues. Students 
learn the basic concepts of ecology, including 
population growth models, species interactions, 
and ecosystem and biosphere processes. 
Building on this scientific base, students use an 
interdisciplinary approach to analyze economic, 
ethical, political, and social aspects of environ- 
mental issues. Topics include human population 
dynamics, air and water pollution, toxic wastes, 
food production, land use, and energy 
utilization. Course does not count toward the 
major or minor in environmental studies. 
Staff 



1 24 Meteorology Study of the atmosphere and 
atmospheric phenomena, as well as associated 
interactions with the oceans and the earth's 
surface and its organisms. Topics include 
composition and energy budgets of the 
atmosphere, cloud development and 
precipitation, air pressure, winds and fronts, 
and atmospheric circulation patterns. 
Destruction of the ozone layer and ultraviolet 
radiation, the greenhouse effect, pollution, and 
global warming are also examined. Course does 
not count toward the major or minor in 
environmental studies. 
Mr. Mikesell 

126 Climatology Study of the localized weather 
of a region. Influencing factors of climate are 
examined, including continental vs. 
oceanic/lake effects, temperature and 
precipitation, the role of cyclones and 
anticyclones, and topographic and organismic 
alterations. Also analyzed are specific 
climatolocial disturbances, such as 
thimderstorm formation, tornedo development 
and occurrence, hurricane structure and 
movement, el Nifio and the Southern 
Oscillation (ENSO), and la Nina. Course does 
not count toward the major or minor in 
environmental studies. 
Mr. Mikesell 

128 Oceanography hitroducdon to our planet's 
oceans, beginning with the history of 
oceanography and focusing on the fundamental 
concepts of chemical, physical, geological, and 
biological oceanography, hnportant 
enxaronmental problems in marine habitats are 
also explored. Topics include ocean 
exploration, plate tectonics, hydrothermal 
vents, ciurents, tides, upwelling, waves, 
tsunamis, ocean-climate interactions, El Nino, 
global nutrient cycles, primary production, 
biodiversity, pollution, overfishing, and the law 
of the sea. Course does not count toward the 
major or minor in environmental studies. 
Staff 

1 30 The Chesapeake Bay Ecosystem Introduction 
to the physical, chemical, and biological 
components of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. 
Emphasis is placed on the history of the Bay, 
primary production dynamics, habitat types, 
and pelagic and bottom-dwelling organisms. 
Human impacts on the Bay and its watershed 
are discussed, including contemporary issues 
such as crab and oyster fisheries, aquaculture, 
nutrient inputs, toxic chemicals, exotic species 
invasions, and the management goals of the 



Chesapeake Bay Program. Course does not 
count toward the major or minor in 
environmental studies. 
Staff 

21 1 Introduction to Environmental Science: 
Principles of Ecology Introduction to current 
ideas in theoretical and empirical ecology. A 
quantitative approach is used to examine 
population dynamics, competition, predator- 
prey interactions, life-history strategies, species 
diversity patterns, community structure, energy 
flow, biogeochemical cycling, and the biosphere. 
Course provides a foundation for further work 
in environmental studies. Three class hours and 
laboratory. Credit is not given for both 
Environmental Studies 21 1 and Biology 205. 
Prerequisite: One year of college science. 

Mr Commito 

212 Intermediate Environmental Science: 
Environmental Problems Analysis of the major 
environmental problems facing the U.S. and the 
world. Application of modern ecological theory 
to current environmental problems is emphasized. 
Perspectives from the natural sciences, social 
sciences, and humanities are used to investigate 
population growth, agricultural practices, 
pollution, energy, natural resource use, 
endangered species, and land-use patterns in the 
industiialized and developing nations. Prerequisite: 
Environmental Studies 211 or Biology 205. 

Mr Wilson 

225 Physical Geology Investigation of the earth's 
materials and processes that explain the physical 
structures that make our planet unique. Topics 
include the Earth's position in space, rock and 
mineral types, volcanism, glaciation, and seismic 
events influenced by tectonic activit)'. Formerly 
titled Geomorphology. Alternate years. Offered 
in 1996-97. Prerequisite: One year of college 
science. 

Mr. Mikesell 

226 Structural Geology Investigation of the 
earth's varied topographical regions and the 
processes that produce change. Topics include 
tectonism, orogenesis, crustal deformation, and 
erosional agents such as wave action, wind, 
water, and mass wasting. Alternate years. 
Offered 1997-1998. Prerequisite: One year of 
college science. 

Mr Mikesell 

240 Energy: Production, Use, and Environmental 
Impact (>onventional and alternative eneigv' 
sources are examined with respect to supply, 
price, technologv', and environmental impact. 



A 



U.S. consumption patterns are studied and the 
potential of conservation is addressed. Topics 
include nuclear reactors, fossil fuel supply, 
photovoltaics, air pollution, greenhouse effect, 
and energy efficient architectiue. Prerequisite: 
One college science class. 
Mr Cowan 

310 Physical and Human Geography Studies of 
human activities in its locational context. Topics 
include basic place name geography, weather 
and climate, population trends and 
characteristics, health and human development, 
culture and language, technology and economic 
development, human ecology, and 
environmental problems. 

Mr Crawford 

31 1 Introduction to Geographic Information 
Systems Analysis of geographic data and issues 
relevant to their use. Topics include digital 
geographic information technologies, digital 
data sources and database development, 
geodesy and map projections, data models and 
structures, data quality and sources of error, 
spatial analyses, and introduction to basic 
satellite image processing. Laboratory uses 
Arc View GIS software to provide hands-on 
experience in the use and analysis of geographic 
data. Prerequisite: One year of college natural 
science, social science, or computer science. 

Mr Crawford 

314 Comparative Study of National 
Environmental Movements Analysis of national 
and international environmental movements. 
Application of rational choice theory, resotirce 
mobilization theory, and the emerging emphasis 
on identity and culture to the analysis of 
national environmental movements and 
organizations. Comparison of national and 
international environmental movements in 
Eiuope, Latin America, Africa, and Asia. 
Prerequisite: One Environmental Studies, 
Sociology, or Anthropology 200-level course. 
Staff 

3 1 5 Land: Ecology, History, and Culture 

Exploration of the ecolog)', history, and culture 
of land, the foundation upon which human and 
natural communities exist, foctising on 
landscape ecology as a tool for analyzing the 
terrestrial environment at the scale of human 
intervention. Course al.so looks at land in 
western culture and contemporary issues of land 
management. Prerequisite: Environmental Studies 
211 or Biology 205. Alternate years. Offered 
2001-2002. 
Staff 



316 Conservation Biology A discipline 
comprising pure and applied science, which 
focuses on the preservation of biological diversity. 
Focus implicitly recognizes that preserving the 
genetic and ecological features of a species 
requires preservation of that species' niche. 
Topics include food web organization, spatial 
heterogeneity and disturbance, consequences of 
small population size and inbreeding, captive 
propagation, demographics of population 
growth, and species reintroduction and 
management. Prerequisite: Environmental Studies 
21 1 or Biology 205. Alternate years. 

Ms. DelesaUe 

317 Chesapeake Bay Environmental Issues 

Analysis of the geology and natural history of 
the Chesapeake Bay region in the context of 
society's exploitation of a natural system. Course 
traces the settlement of the region, as well as 
how the Bay affected the societv' that developed 
along its shores, and how the Bay was, in turn, 
affected by this growth and development. 
Readings from the scientific, historical, 
sociological, and economics are studied to form 
a coherent portrait of the interplay between 
society and the environment. Prerequisite: 
Environmental Studies 21 1 or Biology 205. 
Alternate years. Offered 2001-02. 
Staff 

333 Environmental Policy Analysis of the policies 
that guide the use, control, and management of 
natural resources. Students examine the laws, 
bureaucracies, economics, politics, and 
ideologies underlying policy-making processes 
in order to understand how and why certain 
policies emerge, as well as their social and 
ecological effects. Primary focus is on the U.S., 
but the growing international dimension of 
environmental policies and the ambiguous role 
of the U.S. in these efforts are also considered. 
Pr«w/?/«?te.- Environmental Studies 121 and an 
introductory social science course, or 
Environmental Studies 212. 
Mr Wilson 

350 Coastal Ecology of Maine Intensive two-week 
field and laborat(jry experience to investigate 
marine and terrestrial environments in Maine. 
Students collect and analyze data, using 
quantitative sampling techniques to test hypotlieses 
on the ecology of major habitats. Field .sites 
include rocky and soft-sediment shores, open 
beaches, spruce-fir forests, blueberry barrens, 
and peat bogs. Emphasis is on the geological 
phenomena that created North America's 
glaciated landscape. Relationships between 



environment and human activities in this rural 
area with its natural resource-based economy 
are explored. Prerequisite: Environmental Studies 
211 or Biology 205. 
Mr. Commito 

400 Seminar Advanced study of an important 
national or global environmental issue. 
Interdisciplinary approach is used to analyze the 
problem from a variety of viewpoints in the 
humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. 
Students are responsible for a major term paper 
involving independent research. Topics differ 
each semester. Prerequisite: Senior standing as a 
minor or major in environmental studies or 
permis.sion of instructor. 
Stajf 

460 Individualized Study: Research Independent 
investigation of an environmental topic of 
interest to the student. In conjunction with a 
faculty member, the student writes a research 
proposal due the tenth week of the spring 
semester of the junior year for a project to be 
conducted in the senior year. Student usually 
defines a research question and collects data to 
test a hypothesis. Such work may be done in the 
laboratory or field or with a computer database. 
A substantial paper is written and presented 
orally. Studio, performance, and writing 
projects may also be appropriate individualized 
study activities. Prerequisite: Senior standing as a 
major or minor in environmental studies and a 
GPA of at least 2.8, or permission of instructor. 
Staff 

FRENCH 

Professors Gregorio (Chaiiperson), Richardson Viti, 

and Viti 
Associate Professors Biriet and A. Tanneuhaum 
Instructor Benoist 

Overview 

Foreign language study not only teaches students 
much about their native tongue, but also 
introduces them to another people's language, 
literature, and customs. This awareness of 
cultural and linguistic relativity is one of the 
hallmarks of a liberal arts education. 

Introductory French courses develop students' 
skills in spoken and written French and acquaint 
them with the literature and culture of the French- 
speaking world. Language laboratory work is 
mandatory for all beginning students. With 
emphasis on oi^al/ aural proficiency, it complements 
classroom instruction in the language. 



Advanced language allows the student to reach 
the higher level of mastery in French required 
in more specialized study and usage. In the 
more advanced literature and civilization courses, 
students study French writing and culture in 
greater depth, thereby gaining considerable i^ 

knowledge of and insight into France's past and 
present achievements in all fields of endeavor. 
Students at all levels of French are encouraged 
to study abroad, either in the College-sponsored 
programs at the Institute for American 
Universities in Aix-en-Provence or at the Centre 
d'Etudes Fran^aises in Avignon, or in another 
approved program, as an inestimable 
enhancement to their imderstanding of the 
country, its people, and its language. Wlien 
students choose the College-sponsored course 
of study in Aix or Avignon, both credits and 
grades are transferred and financial aid may be 
applied to participation in the program. 

Students specializing in French will find that 
their major studies, in addition to their 
humanistic value, afford sound preparation for 
graduate study and for careers in teaching or 
interpreting. A knowledge of French will also be 
invaluable to them in the fields of international 
business and government, as well as social work. 
All cotirses offered in the department are conducted in 
French. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Major Requirements: The French major 
curriculimi, which includes a miniminn often 
courses at or above the 30()-level, is made up of 
two sequences: 

1 ) A group of four required courses, three of 
which— 300 first, then 305 and 310— should 
be taken before further progress in the major 
program unless there is a valid reason for 
exception, (305 or 310 may be taken 
simultaneously vsith 300) ; and French 400, 
which must be taken in the spring semester 
of the senior year. 

2) A set of six electives chosen from the other 
departmental offerings at the 300 level. 

All French majors are required to spend at least one 
semester studying abroad in a program approved by 
the department. Beginning with the Class of 2003, 
the number of courses taken abroad for credit 
toward the major is limited to three. 

Students planning on certification in secondary 
education must include both a history/ 
geography/ civilization course, a phonetics 
course and a linguistic component in their 
program of study. These requirements can be 



met by completing French 351 and Education 
304 or by taking the equivalent courses in a 
program of study abroad. 

Individualized study may be taken only once as 
part of the minimum requirements for the 
major. All majors must take at least one course 
within the department during their senior year. 
These requirements may be waived in special 
cases at the discretion of the department. 

Minor Requirements: Six courses are required for 
a minor in French. For students who begin in 
the 101-102, 103-104, or 201-202 sequences, 
202 will count toward the minor. In addition, 
students must take 205, 300, and three 
additional courses above 205. 

Students who begin in 205 must take, in addition, 
300 and four other courses above 205. 

Students who begin on the 300 level must take 
300 and five additional courses above 300. As 
with the major, courses taken abroad may be 
counted toward a minor, subject to the approval 
of the department chairperson. Beginning with 
the Class of 2003, the number of courses taken 
abroad for credit toward the minor is limited to 
two. 

Students contemplating a minor in French 
should register with the department chairperson 
and be assigned a minor adviser. 

French 305 is a prerequisite for majors and 
minors for all literature and film courses above 
the 205 level. (Students may take 305 
simultaneously with 300.) 

Students who have completed the language 
requirement and who wish to continue in 
French, but do not contemplate either a major 
or minor, may take 205, 211, 300, or 305. 
Permission of the deparUnent chairperson is 
required for entry into all other coiuses. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Prior to their first registration at the College, 
all students receive preregistration materials, 
which give detailed instructions on language 
placement and fulfillment of the Liberal Arts 
Core requirement in foreign language. 

The Liberal Arts Core requirement in foreign 
language may be satisfied by successful 
completion of French 202. Achievement 
equivalent to 202 may be demonstrated by an 
advanced placement examination or a 
departmental placement examination. No 
student may continue French unless he/she has taken 
the Departmental Placement Examination. 



All French literature and civilization courses 
may be used to satisfy the liberal arts humanities 
requirement, including any approved literature 
or civilization course completed abroad. 

Study Abroad for Majors 

Juniors and first-semester seniors who have 
completed French 300 or its equivalent may 
study for one or two semesters at the College's 
affiliated program in Avignon, France. Both 
credits and grades from this program will be 
transferred, and Financial Aid may be applied to 
participation. (See Off Campus Study.) 

Study Abroad for Minors 

Students pursuing a minor in French may study 
for a semester at the College's affiliated 
program in Aix-en-Provence. Both credits and 
grades from this program will be transferred, 
and Financial Aid may be applied to 
participation. (See Off Campus Study.) 

Intermediate Program Abroad 

Students may complete the language 
distribution requirement in French by studying 
for a semester in Aix-en-Provence. The 
department's Intermediate Program is offered 
every fall semester and includes two required 
courses in French language, plus three elective 
courses from areas such as political science, 
history, art, psychology, etc., which may satisfy 
liberal arts and/or major/minor requirements. 
Students are required to live with French 
families. 

Special Facilities 

Technology classroom in McKnight Hall. 

Special Programs 

See Study Abroad, Institute For American 
Universities Programs in Avignon and Aix-en- 
Provence. 

Other Activities 

The department and the French Teaching 
Assistant sponsor various activities and 
organizations, such as the weekly Table frangaise 
in the Dining Hall, the Cercle Fran^ais (French 
Club), French films, and lectures. 

101-102 French for Beginners Elements of 
speaking, reading, and wridng French. Language 
laboratory usage is required. Enrollment limited 
to those who have not studied French previously. 
A student may not receive credit for both 101 
and 103; 102 and 104. 



103-104 Elementary French Fundamentals of 
speaking, reading, and \vTiting French. Language 
laboratory usage is required. Enrollment limited 
to those who have previously studied French 
and who are enrolled according to achievement 
on the Departmental Placement Examination. A 
student may not receive credit for both 101 and 
103; 102 and 104. 

201-202 Intermediate French Grammar review 
and practice in oral French in the fall semester, 
with stress on reading and written expression in 
the spring. Contact with French culture is 
maintained throughout. Enrollment limited to 
those who have previously studied French and 
who have completed 101-102 or 103-104, or 
who are enrolled according to achievement on 
the Departmental Placement Examination. 
Successful completion of 201 is a prerequisite 
for entry into 202, unless student is placed there 
according to the placement examination. 

^Hf 

205 Readings in French Literature Two 

objectives: skill in reading French prose for 
comprehension and reading a significant 
amount of French literatiue of literary and 
cultiual merit. This coiuse differs from French 
201, 202 in that it emphasizes reading for 
comprehension of content. Enrollment limited 
to those who have previously studied French 
and who are enrolled according to achievement 
on the Departmental Placement Examination. 
Staff 

21 1 French Civilization Introduction to aspects 
of contemporary French society through a study 
of French history. Offered every spring. 

300 Practice in Communication Oral, aural, and 
written practices of French structures. 
Collaborative writing, group discussions, 
individual compositions, and presentations. 
Recent French films serve as text. Offered every 
semester. 
Staff 

305 Approaches to Literary Analysis Reading 
and analysis, in their entirety, of representative 
selections of prose, poetry, and theatre. Course 
aims to introduce students to interpretive 
strategies, and to make them more aware of and 
competent in the reading of literatiue. 
Prerequisite: French 202 or equivalent. Required 
of all majors. Course is a prerequisite for all 
literature courses on the 300-level for both 
majors and minors. Offered every year. 
Staff 



3 1 French Revolutions: Political, Social, and 
Cultural Upheaval Since 1789 Overview of the 
various revoliuions in France following the 
Revolution of 1789. Course examines the many 
political changes from the rise of the French 
Republic to the current phenomenon of 
cohabitation, as well as changes that have 
transformed the face of France in the last two ' 

centuries, on fronts as diverse as architecture, ', 

the fine arts, demography, and culture. Offered 
every year. 
Staff 

332 French Film: Images, Sounds, Theories Study 
of selected major French films from the New 
Wave movement to recent cinema. Course is an 
introduction to the study of the techniques, 
theory, and semiotics of film as an art form. It 
includes a reflection on the relationships 
between image production, social landscapes, 
and lifestyles in changing contemporary France. 
Students learn to distinguish between the 
production and reception of cinematic 
language. Prerequisite: French 305 or equivalent. 
Offered 2004-05. 

Ms. Binet 

333 March of a Century: Multiple Colors and 
Voices: A Choice of Paintings, Films, Poems, and 
Songs in Twentieth-Century France Study of 
specific intersections and influences among 
selected visual arts productions, motion i 
pictures, and poetic texts in a changing ? 
twentieth-century France. Students are invited 

to read between shapes and colors, to see and 
hear poetry, to decode film languages and to 
detect correspondences. Definitions of 
techniques and decoding systems pertaining to 
each artistic expression are presented and 
debated. Prerequisite: French 305 or equivalent. : 

Offered 2002-03. | 

Ms. Binet 

335 A Woman's Life: Fact and Fiction About the 
Female Experience Study of the female i 

experience through the words of women [' 

themselves. As Annie Leclerc pointed out in | 

Parok defemme, for too long men have coopted s 

language and assiuned the task of telling women ' 
who they are. Course addresses such a ' 

presumption and examines, in both fiction and 
nonfiction, firsthand experience from 
childhood through aging. Prerequisite: French i. 

305 or equivalent. Offered 2001-02. 
A/5. Richardson Viti 



340 Masterpieces of French Literature Reading 
and discussion of masterworks of French poetry, 
prose, and theater in their historical, artistic and 
social contexts. Works by such authors as Villon, 
Montaigne, Moliere, Mme de Lafayette, Voltaire, 
Balzac, Flaubert, Colette and Beckett are read in 
their entirety. Pmequisite: French 305 or 
equivalent. Offered 2001-02. 
Staff 

342 Classical Greek Heroes on the French Stage 

Reading and analysis of plays based on Greek 
myths by such authors as Corneille, Racine, 
Cocteau, Anouilh and Sartre. Comparison and 
contrast with the original myth and/or play 
helps elucidate "modern" responses to the 
eternal questions posed by classical Greece and 
its literary masters. Prerequisite: French 305 or 
equivalent. Offered 2001-02. 
Mr. Vili 

343 He Said, She Said: Gender Perspectives in the 
Contemporary French Novel Study of the 
conflicting male/female perspective in 
representative works by major twentieth<entury 
French writers from Colette and Butor to Proust 
and Beauvoir. Prerequisite: French 305 or 
equivalent. Offered 2002-03. 

Ms. Richardson Viti 

344 Moralists and Immoralists in French 
Literature Study of topics in French literature 
over the centuries, examining works of prose 
whose thematics revolve aroimd the question of 
morality. Course presents a survey of novels, 
short fiction, maxims, and fragments that either 
advance or reject the conventional moral 
system. Authors studied include La Bruyere, La 
Rochefoucauld, Pascal, Mme de Lafayette, de 
Bergerac, Sade, Diderot, Balzac, Flaubert, 
Huysmans, Gide, Duhamel, and Camus. 
Prerequisite: French 305 or equivalent. Offered 
2001-02. 

Mr. Gregorio 

350 Advanced Stylistics Intensive practice in the 
refinement of writing skills directed toward a 
sophisticated and idiomatic use of the language. 
Coursework includes composition, translation, 
comparative stylistics, French for use in 
commercial and other correspondence, and 
work in the spoken language. Prerequisite: 
French 300 or equivalent. Offered 2001-02. 
Staff 

351 Phonetics and Diction Phonetic theory, 
practice, and transcription. Intensive training 
in pronunciation and diction. Intended for 



majors/minors prior to foreign study. Offered 

2001-02. 

Ms. Tannenbaum 

352 French Translation Study and practice in 
translating from French to English and from 
English to French. Course develops the ability to 
render idiomatic French into idiomatic English, 
and vice-versa. Offered 2003-04. 
Staff 

400 Seminar Intensive study of a particular 
aspect of French literature, civilization, or 
culture to be determined by the instructor. Past 
offerings include The Art of Emile Zola, The 
Image of Women in French Literature: A 
Feminist Perspective and The Gaze and Self- 
image in French Film, 1959—89. Course is for 
seniors (in the final semester) to complete 
undergraduate work in French. Prerequisites: 
Limited to seniors, except with permission of 
instructor and approval of department 
chairperson. Offered every spring. 
Staff 

Individualized Study Guided readings or 
research under the supervision of a faculty 
member. Prerequisites: Permission of instructor 
and approval of department chairperson. 
Staff 

GERMAN 

Assoriate Professors Armsler, McCardle (Chairperson), 
and Ritterson 

Overview 

Learning German is more than learning a 
language. It's also the study of a culture and its 
history. The German program offers a wide 
range of courses so that the student of German 
can become proficient in understanding 
German literature, history, art, and politics in 
the context of modern society. At all levels, we 
encourage the partnership between the study of 
Germany's historical and cultural development, 
and the study of its language. 

Courses are offered at all levels, from beginning 
to advanced, for majors and nonmajors. We 
encourage all of oiu' students to study on our 
semester program in Cologne, Germany. On 
this program, students live with German families, 
participate in weekly excursions, and study 
German language, art, political science, literature, 
and history under the direction of a U.S. faculty 
member and resident German faculty. In addition, 
qualified students may study on a junior-year 
program at a German university. 



A resident German assistant and various 
cocurricular activdties — films, visiting lecturers, 
excursions to cultural centers in Washington 
and Baltimore, weekly German table, German 
Club — all foster a close working relationship 
between students and faculty. German television 
broadcasts are received by a campus-wide satellite 
system, and in addition to library subscriptions 
to important joiunals and newspapers, the 
department itself maintains subscriptions to 
newspapers, magazines, and a collection of 
soiuxe materials for use by students and faculty. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

German 202 or equivalent proficiency is 
considered a prerequisite to all higher-ntimbered 
German coiuses, unless specified otherwise. 

Major Requirements: A major consists of a 
minimum of ten courses beyond the 
intermediate language level, including 301 (or 
.S03-304), 305, and 306; 311,312, 400; at least 
two courses from those numbered 328, 331, 333, 
335, or 325; and one course from History 218, 
History 218-GC, or German 120. Women's 
Studies/German 351 (Women in Nazism) also 
coimts for major credit with the approval of the 
instructor. Majors preparing to teach German in 
secondary schools must also take Education 304, 
Techniques of Teaching, and CXirriculum of 
Secondary German (does not coimt toward 
German major) . No more than three courses 
taken in Cologne may count toward the major. 

Majors must spend at least one semester 
studying in an approved program in a German- 
speaking country. Majors who take a study 
abroad program may count no more than six of 
those courses toward the major and must take at 
least two German courses in their senior year. 

Majors who, by the end of the junior year, have 
not demonstrated a satisfactory level of 
competency in the reading, writing, speaking, 
and listening comprehension of German, as 
determined by the department's stiiff, will be 
assigned such additional work as considered 
necessary and appropriate to the attainment of 
such competency by the end of the senior year. 

Minor Requirements: For students beginning at 
202 or below, the German minor consists of 202 
(or equivalent intermediate course work in 
Cologne), 301 (or equivalent advanced course 
work in Cologne), and four additional courses. 
For students beginning at the 301 level, the 
minor consists of 301 (or equivalent advanced 



course work in Cologne) and five additional 
courses. No more than three courses taken in 
Cologne may cotmt toward the minor. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Prior to their first registration at the College, 
all students receive preregistration materials 
that give detailed instructions on language 
placement and fulfillment of the Liberal Arts 
Core requirement in foreign language. 

Achievement equivalent to 202 may be 
demonstrated by an advanced placement 
examination or a departmental placement 
examination given during orientation before 
the initial week of fall semester. 

The Liberal Arts Core requirement in foreign 
language may be satisfied by successful 
completion of German 202 or any 300-level 
course. 

All German literatiue and civilization courses 
satisfy the Liberal Arts Core requirement in the 
humanities. 

With the consent of the history department, 
German 31 1 or 312 may be coimted toward a 
history major. 

SPECIAL PROGRAMS 

Fall Semester in Cologne, Germany 

Every fall semester students are invited to 
participate in the semester study abroad 
program cosponsored by the Pennsylvania 
Colleges in Cologne Consortium (PCIC). This 
program is open to all students, sophomore 
through first-semester senior, regardless of 
major, who have completed a minimum of one 
year of college German or the equivalent. 
Students register for a normal cotuse load (4-5 
courses) . Two courses are German language 
courses: 

203, 204 Intermediate German 

214 Cologne: 2000 Years of History and Culture 

303, 304 Advanced German 

325 German Literature since 1945 

The other coiuses (taught in English) are from 
the areas of political science, history, art history, 
and literature and may satisfy distribution 
and/or major/minor requirements in those 
areas. These include: 

Art Hist. 2 1 5 German Ait from the Middle 
Ages to Today 

History 218 History of Germany from 1815 
to the Present 

Pol. Sci. 273 Political Systems of Germany 



Credit for the two German courses is for the 
200- or 300-level and constitutes the completion 
of the language requirement. Students live with 
German families as regular members of the 
family. Regular Gettysburg College tuition, room, 
and board cover all but personal expenses. 

Junior Year Abroad 

Qualified students are encouraged to study 
abroad one or both semesters of their junior 
year. Students can choose from programs 
administered by American institutions at 
universities in Munich, Freibing, Marburg, 
Heidelberg, Bonn, and elsewhere. (See Study 
Abroad). 

GERMAN LANGUAGE 

101, 102 Elementary German Essentials of 
grammar, composition, pronunciation. Course 
includes oral and written work, graded elementary 
reading, and use of audiovisual cultural materials 
and correlative drill in the language laboratory. 
Prepares for German 201, 202. 

103, 104 Fundamental German Fundamentals of 
understanding, speaking, reading, and writing 
German. Course includes oral and written work, 
graded elementary reading, use of audiovisual 
cultural materials, and correlative drill in the 
language laboratory. Enrollment is limited to 
those who have previously studied German and 
who are enrolled according to achievement on 
the Departmental Qualifying Examination. 
Students cannot receive credit for both 101 and 
103; 102 and 104. 
'^■'«// 

201, 202 intermediate German Continuation of 
the work of German 101, 102. Progressively 
more difficult readings introduce the student to 
German literature and civilization. Coiuse 
includes use of audiovisual cultinal materials 
and correlative drill in the language laboratory. 
Prerequisite: German 102 or equivalent. 

Staff 

301 Advanced German Designed for advanced 
work in language and intended for students who 
have successfully completed at least German 

202, as well as for qualified incoming students. 
Intensive practice in developing oral 
communication skills, listening comprehension, 
and written expression. Conducted in German 
Staff 



GERMAN CULTURE STUDIES 

205 Understanding Cultural Differences 

Intercultural workshop focusing on everyday-life 
situations in the German-speaking world. 
Course highlights similaiities and differences 
between Americans and Germans in order to 
improve students" understanding of other 
cultures and to train them to participate 
sucessfully in intercultural communication. 
Readings are in German; course is conducted in 
German. Prerequisite: German 201 or equivalent. 
Course receives half credit. 
Staff 

305 German Studies: An Introduction 

Introduction to the German major through the 
study of cultural, social, economic, and political 
developments in postwar Germany from division 
to the present. Extensive use of critical/analytical 
readings, memoirs, literature, film, newspapers/ 
magazines, and German television via satellite. 
Conducted in German, with additional language 
practice integrated into the course. Oral reports 
and short papers. Prerequisite: German 202 or 
equivalent. Course is required of all German 
majors. 
Staff 

31 1 Survey of German Culture, Origins to 1790 

Study of German cultural history from its 
origins to the Age of Romanticism, including 
such topics as Germanic tribes, medieval 
d)'nasties, romanesque, gothic and baroque 
st\les, Reformation and Age of Absolutism. Aim 
is to deepen the student's understanding of and 
interest in the culture of the German-speaking 
peoples and their major contributions to the 
world's cultural heritage. Conducted in German. 
Prerequisite: German 301 or equivalent, or 
permission of instructor. 
Staff 

312 Survey of German Culture, 1790-1945 Study 
of the cultural history of the German people 
from the Age of Romanticism through the end 
of World War II, within the context of major 
social, political, and economic developments. 
Goal is to understand the creative spirit in 
nineteenth- and twentieth-century German- 
speaking coimtries, and to appreciate their 
major contribufions to the world's cultural 
heritage. Conducted in German. Prerequisite: 
German 301 or equivalent, or permission of 
instructor. 

Staff 



GERMAN LITERATURE 

120 German Literature in Translation Critical 
analysis and appreciation of form and content 
of representative German literary masterpieces, 
selected from the literary periods from the 
Middle Ages to the present, together with an 
examination of the times and cultural 
circumstances that produced these works. 
Counts toward a major in German. 
Staff 

306 Interpreting German Literature 

Introduction to the development of German 
literature and how to read and comprehend 
literary prose, poetry, and drama. Course aims 
to develop a sense for the art of reading, 
interpretive strategies for literary study, and a 
valid basis for the appreciation and judgment of 
literature. Students read, discuss, and write 
aboiU literary texts in various genres and from 
various historical periods. Conducted in 
German Prerequisite: German 202 or equivalent. 
Coiuse is required of all German majors and is a 
prerequisite for all higher-numbered literature 
courses. Offered every year. 
Staff 

328 Goethe's Faust Intensive reading and analysis 
oi Faust. Lectures and discussions highlight its 
aesthetic, moral, and ethical values and 
autobiographical significance. Modern cultural 
implications are also examined. Outside reading 
and reports. Conducted in German. Prerequisite: 
German 306 or permission of instructor. 
Staff 

33 1 Narrative Literature Course in German 
prose narrative, represented primarily in 
writings from the early eighteenth century to 
the present. Works read reflect particularly the 
development of German narrative since the 
emergence of the modern novel and Novelle. 
Readings are in German; course is conducted in 
German. Prerequisite: German 306 or permission 
of department. 
Staff 

333 Lyric Poetry Study of German I)Tic poetry 
from the earliest examples to the works of 
contemporary poets. Class discussions of the 
readings concentrate on the interrelations of 
form, content, and idea. Course also considers 
the historical place of works by major figures. 
Readings are in German; course is conducted in 
German. Prerequisite: German 306 or permission 
of department. 
Staff 



335 German Drama Reading and critical analysis, 
through discussion and lecture, of representative 
dramas from the eighteenth century to the 
present. Includes works by Lessing, Schiller, 
Goethe, Kleist, Buchner, Hebbel, Hauptmann, 
Brecht, Diirrenmatt, Frisch, Braun, Hacks, or 
others. Readings are in German; course is 
conducted in German. Prerequisite: German 306 
or permission of department. 
Staff 

351 Women and Nazism Examination of the 
effects of Nazism on women, primarily (but not 
exclusively) in Germany, beginning in the 1920s 
and extending to postwar times. Course focuses 
on women's perspectives as exhibited in 
historical and literary documents. Fulfills 
literature requirement. May be counted toward 
the German major with approval from professor. 
Ms. Armster 

400 Seminar Intensive study of selected aspects 
of German language, literature, and civilization 
through reading, discussion, and oral and 
written reports. Topics are selected with a view 
to affording students an opportunity to 
strengthen their knowledge in areas not covered 
in their other course work in the department. 
Conducted in German. 
Staff 

IN COLOGNE: 

214 Cologne: 2000 Years of History and Culture 

Intermediate-level course for students enrolled 
in German Language and Culture I and II. 
Study of the development of the city of Cologne 
as an urban complex and as a mirror of German 
and European history. Course also builds 
vocabulary and further strengthens language 
skills. Includes lectures, discussions, readings, 
field trips, essays, and group projects. 

325 German Short Fiction Study of the literature 
of German-speaking countries from the end of 
World War II to the present. Course introduces 
students to authors and genres representing 
important literary currents and historical 
developments of the postwar era. Conducted in 
German. 

Individualized Study Guided reading or research 
under the super\ision of a facult)' member. 
Prerequisite: Permission of department. 



HEALTH AND EXERCISE SCIENCES 

Associate Professor Do nolli 
Assistant Professor Stuempfk (Co-Chairperson) 
Instructor D. Petri (Co-Chairperson) and C. Wiight 
Adjunct Instructors M. Cantele and Fees 

Overview 

The department's philosophy is a holistic one. 
We believe in the Greek ideal of "a sound mind 
in a sound body." The College stresses the 
individual need for total fitness for all students 
through our required courses. Our majors' 
courses offer students with a particular interest 
in health and exercise sciences a rewarding and 
well-rounded educational and life experience. 

A major in health and exercise sciences (HES) 
is an excellent preparation for specific areas, 
such as allied health careers and state-approved 
teaching certification in health and physical 
education (K-12). With proper course selection 
students can qualify for postgraduate work in 
allied health fields such as physical therapy, 
occupational therapy, physician assistant, cardiac 
rehabilitation, and exercise physiology. 
Gettysburg College has an agreement with MCP 
Hahnemann University Graduate School for 
early acceptance of selective graduates who 
meet the criteria for admission into the entry- 
level physical therapy program. The College also 
has an agreement with The Johns Hopkins 
University School of Nursing for a combined 
(3-2) degree program, and with Pennsylvania 
College of Optometry for an accelerated (3-4) 
degree program. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Major Requirements: HES majors mtist satisfy all 
College Liberal Aits Core requirements. 
P.sycholog)' 101 is the preferred social science 
course. Biology 101 and 112 are required for 
students in the Allied Health Science Track and 
should be taken during the first year. Biologv' 
101 and 102 are required for students in the 
Teacher Education Track and should be taken 
during the first year. 

Majors are required to complete seven core 
courses, plus courses in an area of concentration. 
The seven core courses are HES 112, 209, 210, 
214, 218, 309, and 320. In addition to taking the 
core program, all majors select an area of concen- 
tration and complete the courses specified. 

a) Allied Health Science Track: Each student is 
required to take the following courses: HES 310, 
376, 449, HES 332 (or Biology 260 or Math 107 
or Psychology 205), and Chemistry 107,108, 



and/or Physics 103, 104 

b) Teacher Education Track: For students 
graduating in the K-12 teacher certification 
program (elementary and secondary teacher 
education), the following courses are required: 
HES 101, 102, 201, 202, 301, 302, HES 211, 230, 
310, 332, Education 201, 209, and Psychology 
101, 225. In order to complete teacher 
certification Education 303, 304, and 476 must 
be completed. (See listings and requirements in the 
Department of Education and under Teacher 
Education Programs.) 

Faculty advisers are available to help in counseling, 
but students have the sole responsibility for 
meeting all major requirements. It is important 
to declare the HES major early in the four-year 
curriculum; failure to do so often means an 
additional semester or two to complete the 
program. HES majors must take all HES core 
courses at Gettysburg College. 

The department strongly recommends that all 
HES majors complete an internship in order to 
gain practical experience and insights into a 
specified area of interest. Internships may be 
taken during the summer months or during the 
regular academic year. Applied experiences may 
be arranged in such settings as sports medicine, 
physical therapy, adult fitness, cardiac rehabili- 
tation, sports administration, or sports management. 
Grading is contracted between the student and 
the faculty sponsor on an S/U basis and is 
determined by the sponsor and the cooperating 
internship supervisor. 

Minor Requirements: Students must meet the 
prerequisite in the natural sciences by 
completing Biology 101 and 112. The following 
five courses are required: HES 209, 210, 214, 
218, and 309. The student may choose one 
course from the remaining to complete the 
minor: HES 230, 240, 310, 332, 361, 376, or 449. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

For nonmajors, the one-quarter credit course in 
fitness/recreational skills is required for 
graduation. This course is graded only on an 
S/U basis. 

HES 332 and 342 fulfill the Liberal Arts Core 
requirement in quantitative reasoning. 

FITNESS/RECREATIONAL SKILLS ACTIVITIES 

Activities for Children 

Aerobics 

Archery 

Badminton 



Basketball 
Beginner's Swim 

Body Conditioning (Aerobics, Anaerobics, 
Weight Training) 
Challenge Course 
Fitness Swim 
Golf 

hidoor Soccer 
Indoor Lacrosse 
Lifeguarding** 

Running & Jogging (Self-Paced) 
Skiing** 
Softball 
Tennis 
Volleyball 
Water Polo 
**Requires extra fee 

Students who are unable to participate due to 
medical reasons in the regular programs should 
enroll in HES 106, Adapted Physical Education, 
which can be substituted for any 
fitness/recreational skills course. 

1 1 , 1 02, 20 1 , 202, 30 1 , 302 Major Skills Skill 
development and methods and techniques of 
class organization and instruction for the 
following physical education activities: lacrosse, 
field hockey, wresding, swimming, gymnastics, 
folk-square-social dance, baseball, softball, 
tennis, aerobics, conditioning, weight-training 
badminton, elementary school teaching, golf, 
archery, soccer, elementary-junior high-senior 
high games and recreational activities, basketball, 
volleyball, and track and field. Course is for 
healdi and exercise sciences majors. 1/4 course 
each. 
Staff 

I 12 Foundations of Health, Physical Education, 
and Recreation Introduction to the development 
of health, physical education, and recreation 
programs from historical, philosophical, and 
contemporary perspectives. Special emphasis is 
placed on current controversial issues existing 
in physical education and athletics, as well as on 
the diversity of career options available within 
allied health sciences. I'reiequisite: Majors only or 
prospective majors. 
Ms. Wright 

209 Human Anatomy and Physiology I Systems 
approac h to study the struc ture and function of 
the himian body. Emphasis is placed on the 
levels of organization within the human body, 
and the anatomy and physiolog)' of the 
integimientary, skeletal, muscular, and nervous 
systems. (The remaining systems are covered in 



HES 210.) Prnpfjiiisites: R\o\ogy 101 or 111 and 
Biology 102 or 112. 
Ms. Stuem/)flr 

210 Human Anatomy and Physiology II Systems 
approach to study the structure and function of 
the human body. Emphasis is placed on the 
anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular, 
lymphatic, respiratory, urinary, digesdve, 
reproductive, and endocrine systems of the 
human body. (The remaining systems are 
covered in HES 209.) Prerequisites: biology 10 i 
or 1 1 1 and Biology 102 or 112. 

Ms. Stuempfl/' 

21 1 Personal Health Critical look at relevant 
health issues of this decade. Careful inspection 
of data concerning drugs, human sexuality, 
marriage and family living, old age, and 
pollution is included, along with an 
examination of the relationship of personal 
health problems to the coinmimity at large. 
Ms. Wright 

212 Community Health Broad overview of 
community health. Health promotion, 
consumer health, public health, school health, 
environmental health, preventative medicine, 
and the health care system are examined. Each 
area's contribution to community health is 
discussed. 

Ms. Wright 

214 Athletic Training i Preparation of the 
prospective athletic trainer for the prevention 
and care of injtuies. Course includes instruction 
about protective equipment, safety procedures, 
and facilities, as well as preparation of the 
athlete for competition, emergency procedures, 
post-injury care, and medical research related to 
training and athletics. Material in the official 
Red Cross Standard First Aid cotuses is given, 
and certificates can be earned. Practical work 
covered includes massage, taping, bandaging, 
and application of therapeutic techniques. 
Mr. Cantele 

218 Kinesiology Examination of the interaction 
of the skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems 
that create movement. Areas of study include 
the osteology, arthrolog)'. myology, and 
neurology of the head, neck, trunk, and limbs. 
Various skills are analyzed to determine joint 
motion, types of muscle contraction, and 
involved muscles. Prerequisite: HES 209. 



< 



220 Administration in Health and Exercise 
Sciences Study of the administrative theory, 
principles, and problems in health and exercise 
science. 

Slaff 

230 Nutrition and Performance hwestigation of 
himian nutrition, focusing on the nutrients and 
factors that affect their utilization in the human 
body. Emphasis is placed on the effects of various 
nutrients on fitness and athletic performance. 
Topics include nutritional quackery, weight 
control, and pathogenic practices among adiletes. 
Prerequisite: Biology 101 or 111. 
Staff 

240 Sport Psychology Study of the principles 
and concepts used in sports psychology. Topics 
of personality and the athlete, success strategies 
of performance, and motivational theories are 
covered in depth. History of sports psychology 
and the psychology of play and competition are 
also stressed. Prerequisite: Psychologv' 101. 
Mr. Janczyk 

250 Methods of Teaching Elementary Health and 
Physical Education Examination of history and 
philosophies of teaching elementary health and 
physical education. Principles, methods, and 
strategies for teaching elementary health and 
physical education will be investigated. Students 
explore lesson planning, classroom management 
intervention, and assessment strategies. 

Staff 

251 Methods of Teaching Secondary Health and 
Physical Education Examination ot history and 
philosophies of teaching secondary health and 
physical education. Principles, methods, and 
strategies for teaching secondary health and 
physical education are investigated. Students 
explore lesson planning, classroom 
management intervention, and assessment 
strategies. 

Staff 

309 Exercise Physiology Study of integration of 
the body systems in performance ofexerci.se, 
work, and sports activities. Both acute and 
chronic stresses are considered. Performance of 
exercise activities by the body under 
environmental stress situations. Laboratory 
experiences include the measurement of 
physiological parameters under exercise 
conditions. Prerequisites: HES 209, 210. 
Mr D. Petrie 



310 Clinical Exercise Physiology Provides an 
understanding of exercise prescription for 
healthy adults and those with coronary heart 
disease risk factors. Standard fitness testing 
techniques are demonstrated in supplemental 
laboratory sessions. All exercise testing and 
prescription considerations are taught in 
accordance with guidelines established by the 
ACSM. Prerequisite: HES 309 or permission of 
instructor. 
Mr. D. Petrie 

320 Corrective and Adapted Physical Education 

Provides instruction, experiences, and 
observations of the school environment and of 
school children. Specific abnormalities of 
people are studied, and exercises are adapted 
for individuals to allow more complete 
personality and physical development through 
activity. A laboratory experience allows students 
to gain first-hand experience in working with a 
special needs person. 
Ms. Wris^ht 

332 Measurement and Evaluation in Health and 
Physical Education Concentration on test 
preparation in the cognitive, psychomotor, and 
affective domains; application of measurement 
and evaluation optics; analysis of data through 
the use of computers; and participation in field 
experiences with standardized testing. 

342 Biomechanical Analysis of Sport Skills 

Study of the science that investigates the 
mechanics of the human body at rest or in 
mofion. Course covers basic mechanical 
principles of statics and dynamics and 
application of these in the analysis of sport 
activities. Laboratory experiences include an 
analysis of a .selected sport skill. 
Mr D. Petrie 

36 1 Athletic Training II Study of sports injury 
assessment process. Primary assessment, first 
aid, CPR, and basic taping procedures are 
assumed competencies. The NATA competencies 
dealing with the cognitive and psychomotor 
competencies of assessment and evaluation of 
the upper and lower extremities are examined 
in depth. Professional interaction with doctors 
and other allied health professionals is required. 
Prerequisites: HES 209, 210, 214. 

Mr. Donolli 

362 Therapeutic Exercise Advanced course 
concerning therapeutic exercise and 
rehabilitation/reconditioning of athletes. 
Intended for students majoring in Health and 



Exercise Sciences with an emphasis in athletic 
training. C'ourse consists of lectures and 
laboratory experiences that explain the 
theory and application of therapeutic exercise 
and equipment used for rehabilitation and 
reconditioning athletes. Prerequisites: 
HES 209, 210/214. 
Mr. Fees 

363 Therapeutic Modalities The study of 
therapeutic modalities for the treatment and 
rehabilitation of injuries. This course will 
provide the necessary information for the Allied 
Health student to develop problem solving and 
application skills of therapeutic modalities for 
the treatment of injuries. Prerequisites: HES 
209, 210, 214, 
Mr. Fees 

376 Advanced Exercise Physiology In-depth study 
of various factors affecting human performance, 
with emphasis on regulation of various bodily 
functions at rest and during physical activity. 
Laboratory activities acquaint students with 
equipment and testing procedures used in 
measuring physiological parameters. 
Prerequisite: HES 309. 
Mr D. Petrie 

420 Senior Seminar in Athletic Training Special 
medical topics, pathology-related topics, 
administration in the athletic training setting. 
Prerequisite: HES 361. 
Mr. DonoUi 

449 Introduction to Research Provides 
theoretical basis for conducting, interpreting, 
and analyzing research in physical education 
and exercise science. Course focuses on 
problem identification, project planning and 
instrumentation, and data collection. Written 
senior thesis presented to HES faculty is 
required. Prerequisite: HES 332, Math 107, Bio 
260, Psych 205, or permission of instructor. 
Staff 

464 Honors Thesis Course allows selected senior 
HES majors to conduct original research under 
the direction of a thesis committee. Upon 
completion of a formal thesis, each student 
orally presents the nature and results of the 
study to the entire HES staff. Successful 
completion of the prcjgram entitles the student 
to receive credit for one course that can be 
applied toward the HES major. Prerequisites: HES 
449 and invitation of the department. 



HISTORY 



Professors Birkner (Chairperson), Boritt, and Gallman 

Associate Professors Bowman, Chiteji, and Sanchez 

Assistant Professors Shannon and Loivy 

Instructor Skok 

Adjunct Assistant Professor Colburn 

Adjunct Instructors Ericson and Brasher 

Overview 

The department aims to acquaint students with 
the concept of history as an organized body of 
knowledge and interpretation that shapes "the 
memory of things said and done." Mastery 
within this broad field provides an appreciation 
of history as literature, an imderstanding of out 
heritage, and a perspective by which one may 
thoughtfully evaluate our own time. Through 
classroom lectures and discussions, an 
introduction to research, and seminars, the 
department encourages the student to develop 
as a liberally educated person. History courses 
help prepare students for graduate study and 
for careers in teaching, law, the ministry, public 
service, business, and other fields. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Requirements for a major are ten courses, 
including a 100-level history course. History 300 
(in the sophomore year), and one of the senior 
research seminars. All majors must pass at least 
three additional 300-level courses and three 
courses at the 200 or 300 level chosen from at 
least three of four groups: American, European. 
African, or Asian history. (Hist. 345 and CWES 
205 may not both count toward the major.) 
Senior research seminars, numbered 408 to 41S, 
are normally restricted to history majors, for 
whom one is required. A selection from the list 
of seminars is offered each year. They provide 
students with an opportimity to work in small 
groups with a faculty member in research upon 
a selected topic. Typically, participants are 
expected to engage in reading, discussion, oral 
reports, writing of formal papers based on 
individual research, and critiques of each 
other's work. 

The minor in history consists of six history 
courses, of which no more than two may be at 
the 100 level and at least two must be at the 300 
level. One course may be among the courses of 
other departments listed below. No courses 
taken S/U may be included. 

Greek 251 (Greek History) and Latin 251 
(Roman History) may be counted toward the 
ten-counse requirement for the history major. A 
student who has declared a double major in 



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history and a modern language may, with 
special permission hom the chairperson of the 
department of history, count one of the following 
courses toward the ten-course requirement for 
the history major (but not toward the 300-level 
requirement): French 211; German 311, 312; 
Spanish 310, 311. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

All courses fulfill the Liberal Arts Core 
requirement in the humanities. History 104, 
221-224, 271, 272, and 373 satisfy the 
requirement in non-Western culture. 

103 Europe, Asia, and Africa: 1750-1930 

Introduction to the history of the modern world 
(app. 1750-1930). Focus is on the comparative 
global history of Asia, Africa, and Europe 
during this period. Course examines economic, 
political, and cultural interactions between these 
three continents, and includes some history of 
the Americas to round out the picture of world 
history. Themes include global economics (slave 
trade, industrial revolution (s), world markets), 
imperialism, nationalism, and world war. Course 
is intended as an introductory history class for 
all students and fulfills one of the Humanities 
requirements. Course also fulfills the global 
history requirement for majors. 
Mr. Bowman 

104 History of the Islamic World to 1800 

Introduction to the Islamic world from the 
origins of Islam to the decline of the Ottoman 
Empire. Course examines the geographical 
spread of Islam, terms of encounter with 
regional populations, and resulting exchanges. 
Students read the work of a Muslim historian 
and explore the role of Sufism in winning 
converts. 
Ms. Powers 

105 The Age of Discoveries, 1 300-1 600 Course 
focuses on cultural and economic interactions 
between Europe, Asia, the Muslim world, and 
the Americas, and places great "discoveries" of 
Western history-the new World, conquests, 
the'Vebirth" of antiquity, and the beginnings of 
modern science-within their context of cross- 
cultural exchange. Students consider literary, 
scientific, and religious influences on individual 
encounters, as well as historians' explanations 
for long-term global realignments during a 
dynamic period in world history. 

Ms. Sanchez, Ms. Brasher 



1 06 The Atlantic World, 1600-1850 Examinadon 
of the development of an Atlantic world system 
that connects Europe, Africa, and the Americas. 
Students study Adantic communities in a 
comparative context that emphasizes 
international trade and communication, 
encounters between native and colonial 
peoples, the rise and fall of New World slavery, 
and the development of new national identities. 
Mr. Shannon 

1 10 The Twentieth-Century World Historical 
change in the global setting, from the 
a.scendancy of the pre-First World War empires 
to the present. Topics include technological 
development, imperialism and decolonization, 
world wars, political revolutions, social and 
economic forces, and the reshaping of thought 
and the arts in the diverse cultures of humanity. 
Mr. Birkner, Mr. Chiteji, Ms. Ericson, Ms. Lours, 
Ms. Skok 

203, 204 History of the British Isles Survey of 
British history from ancient times to the present. 
Includes Ireland, Scotland, and the overseas 
empire. Dividing point between the two courses 
is 1800. 
Mr. Shannon 

206 Spain and the New World Examination of 
the social, cultural, and political history of Spain 
and the New World from 1450 to 1700. Special 
attention is given to the effects which the 
discovery of the New World had on Spain and 
Latin America and the manner in which Spain 
imparted its institutions, culture, and beliefs to 
the peoples it conquered. 
Ms. Sanchez 

209 Women's History since 1 500 Survey of the 
history ot women since 1500, with particular 
attention given to women's participation in the 
political, economic, cultural, and familial 
realms. Focus is primarily on European women, 
with occasional comparisons to the United 
States. 

Ms. Sanchez 

210 History of Early Modern France 

Examination of major themes in French social, 
economic, and cultural history, from the reign 
of Francis I and the emergence of the 
Renaissance state to the Revolution with its 
sweeping away of the order associated with that 
state. Course concentrates on the changing 
social and economic structure of the period, as 
well as on the contemporaneous evolution of 
"popular" and political culture. 
Staff 



216 Modern Russia and the Soviet Union 

Introduction to the history of niodern Russia 
and the Soviet Union. Course follows political, 
economic, cultural, and social developments in 
Russia from the time of Catherine the Great and 
the French Revolution to the collapse of the 
former SoNdet Union. Topics include Tsarist 
Russia, Russia in World War I, the Russian 
Revolution of 1917, Stalinism, the Cold War, the 
Post-1945 period, and Gorbachev and the end 
of single-party rule. Course also addresses the 
role of women, minorities, and social classses in 
the history of modern Russia. 
Mr. Bounnan 

218 Modern Germany Introduction to the 
histor\ of modern Germany, addressing 
political, economic, cultural, and social 
developments since 1800, with special attention 
given to the Bismarckian and Wilhelminian era. 
World War I, the Weimar and Nazi periods. 
World War II, the Holocaust, and the era of the 
two Germanys. Students may not receive credit for 
this course and Hist-C218 taught in Cologne. 
Mr. Bowman 

22 1 , 222 History of East Asia Survey of East Asian 
civilizations to app. 1800 (in 221), and of East 
Asian political, social, and intellectual develop- 
ments since the beginning of the Qing D\Tiasty. 
Ms. Lowy 

223 Modern China Study of Chinese history since 
the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, with 
emphasis on transformations of the nineteenth 
centiuy and the Nationalist and Communist 
revolutions. 

Ms. Lowy 

224 Modern Japan Examination of Japanese 
history and culture from the beginning of the 
Tokugawa period (ca. 1600) to the present. 
Explores Japan's attempts at constructing a 
nation that would meet the challenges of 
modernity, while at the same time preserving 
Japanese traditions. 

Ms. Lowy 

230 The Native American-European Encounter in 
North America C>ourse focuses on encounters 
and adaptations between native American and 
Einopean peoples in North America from 1500 
to the present. Topics include the demographic 
consequences of contact; impact of European 
trade, religion, and war on native societies; 
relations between native Americans and the U.S. 
government; and the question of native 
American identity in the modern world. 
Mr. Shannon 



236 Urbanism in American History Introduction 
to American history from the perspective of 
urbanism. Beginning with the colonial town and 
continuing to the megalopolis of the late 
twentieth century, students investigate the 
nature of urban life and its influence on the 
course of American development. 
Ms. Skok 

238 African American History: A Survey Focus on 
aspects of the African American experience, 
from the seventeenth century to the present. 
Special attention is given to the slave experience, 
emancipation and reconstruction, racial 
attitudes, the northward migration of African 
Americans in the twentieth century, and the 
Ci\il Rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s. 
Mr. Birkner 

245 Gender and the American Civil War Study of 
the experiences of women and men during the 
Civil War era (app. 1840-1 870s), with particular 
attention given to the following questions: How 
did the public role of women evolve during 
these decades? How did the experiences of 
women and men vary according to race, class, 
condition of servitude and location? How did 
the war illuminate or challenge existing gender 
roles? How did the military experiences of the 
war shape notions of masculinity? 
Mr Gallman 

248 Poverty and Welfare in American History 

Survey of the history of poverty and responses 
to poverty in America, from the colonial period 
to the passage of recent welfare reforms. Class 
focuses on three interrelated clusters of 
questions. Who were the poor and how have 
they lived? Wliat have Americans thought aboiu 
poverty? And what have been the public and 
private policy responses to poverty? Course has a 
required service-learning component 
Mr. Gallman, Ms. Skok 

27 1 , 272 African History and Society Study of 
African histor)' from the pre-colonial era to the 
present. First semester covers traditional 
societies, state formations, Africa's relationship 
to the world economy, and European exploration 
and conquest. Second semester examines 
developments leading to the colonization of 
Africa, changes in African societies under colonial 
rule, African responses to colonialism, African 
nationalist movements, and post-colonial 
socioeconomic and political experiments. 
Mr Chiteji 



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300 Historical Method Course introduces majors 
to the techniques of historical investigation, 
considers the nature of history, and examines 
the relation of history to other fields of study. 
Prerequisite: Two courses in history. 
Mr Birkner 

308 Women, Power, and Politics in Early Modern 
Europe Study of women's access to political 
power and their participation in politics in early 
modern and modern Europe. Consideration is 
given to different ways women exercised 
authority and influence and how they expressed 
a political voice. Includes an analysis of 
perceptions of politically powerful women. 
Ms. Sanchez 

3 1 1 Medieval Europe Survey of the period from 
the breakdown of Roman institutions in the 
West to the coming of the Black Death in 1347. 
Special emphasis is given to political, cultural, 
and social developments, including such topics 
as the Germanic invasions, the reign of 
Charlemagne, the struggle between secular 
rulers and the papacy, the Crusades, and the 
twelfth-century renaissance. 
Ms. Sanchez 

3 1 3 Renaissance and Reformation Study of the 
gradual transition from the medieval to the 
early modern world, from ca. 1350 to the end of 
the sixteenth century. Course covers the cultural, 
political, economic, and religious changes and 
discusses such seminal figures as Petrarch, 
Machiavelli, Luther, Calvin, and Loyola. 

Ms. Sanchez 

314 Early Modern Europe, 1550-1750 Course 
begins with the sixteenth-century wars of 
religion and continues with a study of the 
Habsburgs' attempts to dominate Europe, the 
emergence of France to predominance, and the 
development of the absolute state. The cultural 
and social impact of those political changes 
form a central part of the class. 

Ms. Sanchez 

3 1 5 Europe and the Age of Revolution hitensive 
analysis of the origins and implications of the 
French Revolution. Cotnse explores the 
differing aspirations of the nobles and peasants, 
lawyers and artisans, clerics and women, soldiers 
and philosophers whose world was transformed 
during the revolutionary decades. Students 
assess diverse interpretations of the revolution's 
causes and its consequences for the 
development of modern political culture. 
Staff 



3 1 6 Transformations in Nineteenth-Century 
Europe In-depth analysis of the history of 
nineteenth-century Europe. Course follows 
political, economic, cultural, and social 
developments in Europe beginning with the 
Ancien Regime and the French Revolution. 
Focus is on the transformations in the 
nineteenth century that brought Europe and 
much of the world into the modern era. Topics 
include the industrial revolution, Napoleon, 
political ideologies, the creation of new social 
classes, and scientific and medical revoltuions. 
Course emphasizes the differences between the 
world before 1789 and the world in which we 
live today. 

Mr. Boivman 

317 Europe 187 1 -1 919 Period from the Paris 
Commune of 1871 to the setdement of the 
Great War in 1919. Course explores 
transformations in European economies, states, 
foreign relations, society, and thought that 
formed the backdrop for the Great War. 

Mr. Bowman 

3 1 8 Europe and the Tv/o World Wars Studies of 
selected aspects oi European history from the 
outbreak of the First World War in 1914 to the 
end of the Second World War in 1945. 

Mr. Bowman 

319 Europe since 1945 Perspectives on postwar 
Eiuope: reconstruction, de-Nazification, de- 
Stalinization, the end of the colonial empires, 
nationalism and European integration, and the 
role of the state and of religion, with the 
reflection of these in culture and society. 

Mr Bozumnn 

324 Japanese Imperialism, 1853-1945 

Examination of the origines and evolution of 
Japaneses imperialism from the "opening" of 
Japan to the end of World War II. Topics 
include the origins of Japanese imperialism, the 
process of colonizatin, the nature of colonial 
rule, and the effects of imperialism of Japan. 
Prerequisite: History 222, 224, or permission of 
instructor. 
Staff 

335, 336 American Social and Cultural History 

Cjourse traces America's major social, religious, 
artistic, and philosophical movements and their 
immediate and long-range impact on American 
life and culture. Beginning with the American 
Revolution, History 335 covers the period to the 
Civil War. History 336 continues from that 
period to the present. Offered alternate years. 
Ms. Skok 



341 Colonial America Examination ot the 
colonization of North American from ca. 
1500-1750, with emphasis on the European- 
Indian encounter, the origins of slavery, and 
comparative analysis of family, gender, and labor 
relauons. Students also study provincial American 
culture from different regional perspectives and 
within a wider British-Atlantic world. 

Mr. Slid niton 

342 Revolutionary America Examination of the 
origins, conduct, and results of the American 
Revolution, from ca. 1750-1790. Emphasis is on 
the social and cultural transformation of 
American life and the polidcal ideology of the 
revolutionaries. War for hidependence is 
explored from the perspectives of soldiers, 
ci\'ilians, women, African Americans, loyalists, 
and Indians. 

Mr. Shannon 

343 Jeffersonian-Jacksonian Era Course covers 
the period from the 1790s to the Mexican War 
and explores currents of American national life 
and secdonal interests under such influences as 
Jefferson's agrarian republicanism and the new 
democratic movements of thejacksonian period. 
Mr Birkner 

345 Civil War The trauma of America from the 
end of the Mexican War to Appomattox, moral 
judgments in history, political cultine, 
economic interests, diplomacy, and war. 
Mr Boiitt 

348 Early Twentieth-Century America Focus is 
jjrimarih on the major political, economic, and 
social developments in the U.S. from about 
1900 to 1945. Some attention is given to the role 
of the U.S. in the world during this period. 

Mr. Birkner 

349 The United States Since 1945 Examinadon of 
major polidcal, economic, and sociid developments 
in the U.S. since 1945, including demands made 
on the U.S. as a leading world power. 

Mr. Birkner 

373 History of Sub-Sahara Africa in the Twentieth 
Century Study of the impact of European 
colonial rule on African cultures, African 
responses to colonialism, and the impact of the 
colonial experience on contemporary African 
nations. Course also examine various methods of 
African resistance to colonial rule. 
Mr. Chiteji 



SENIOR RESEARCH SEMINARS: 
408 The Reformation 

A/,s. Sanchez 

4 1 Abraham Lincoln 

Mr Boritt 

412 Eisenhower and His Times 

Mr Birkner 

413 Decolonization in Africa 

Mr Chiteji 

417 Meaning of Independence 

Mr Shannon 

418 Nazism 

Mr Bou'man 

Individualized Study Individual tutorial, research 
project, or internship, requiring the permission 
of an instructor who supervises the project. 
Instructor can supply a copy of the statement 
of departmental policy regarding grading and 
major credit for different types of projects. 
Either semester. 
Staff 

INTERDEPARTMENTAL STUDIES 

Professor Cushing-Daniels (Chairpeison) 

Associate Professor Powers 

Adjunct Instructors Lindeman and Lane 

The Committee on Interdepartmental Studies 
offers courses and coordinates specialized 
interdepartmental programs. These may include 
internadonal programs and global/area studies. 

Among other opportunities for InterdeparUiiental 
Studies is the special major: a student, with the 
consent of two supervising faculty members 
from different departments, may design a 
coherent program of at least ten courses focusing 
on a particular issue or area not adequately 
included within a single department. It may be 
based on any grouping of courses drawai from 
any part of the curriculum so long as the proposed 
major is coherent, serves a carefully defined 
academic purpose, and includes no fewer than 
eight courses above the 100 level, three or more 
courses at the 300 level, and a 400-level 
individualized study course. The Committee on 
Interdepartmental Studies has final responsibilitv- 
for approving special majors. (See "Special Major" 
for a fuller description.) 

By nature of their objectives and content. 
Interdepartmental Studies courses cross the 
lines of departments and specialized disciplines. 



< 



For example, some of these courses attempt to 
provide the common body of knowledge 
traditionally associated with a liberal education; 
others attempt to integrate the understanding 
of different kinds of subject matter; and still 
others combine methodologies from diverse 
departments and disciplines. Most notably, the 
Senior Scholars' Seminar challenges an invited 
group of seniors, representing as many academic 
departments as possible, to apply their skills to 
the investigation of a problem that crosses the 
boundaries of, and demands the methods of, 
several disciplines. (See "Senior Scholars' Seminar" 
for a fuller description.) 

In addition to the courses listed below, courses 
of an interdepartmental nature can be found in 
this catalog under the African American Studies 
program, the Environmental Studies program, 
the Latin American Studies program, and the 
Women's Studies program. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

IDS 103, 104, 161, 211, 216, 229, 239, 241, 243, 
244, 246, 247, 249, 260, and 272 fulfill the 
Liberal Arts Core requirement in the humanities. 
IDS 229, 239, and 268 satisfy the requirement in 
non-Western culture. IDS 267 fulfills the 
requirement in the arts. 

103, 104 Literary Foundations of Western 
Culture Study of selected major literary works 
of Western culture. Authors range from 
Homer and Plato, St. Augustine and Dante, to 
Shakespeare, Milton, and Goethe. Through 
reading and discussion of complete works, the 
student is introduced to those humanistic skills 
and critical methods that have traditionally 
distinguished the liberally educated person. 
Mr. Lane, Ms. Lindeman 

161 Introduction to Jewish Studies: The People of 
the Book Introduction to the wide range of 
Jewish experience from the biblical period to 
the present. Given the diversity' of the 
experience, students are encouraged to develop 
and articulate their own answers to the 
question: How have various historical, cultural, 
political, and economic contexts affected 
Judaism and how has Judaism affected them in 
turn. Students study historical materials, as well 
as religious, cultural, and political artifacts. 
Staff 

2 1 1 Perspectives on Death and Dying Study of 
death and dying from a variety of perspectives: 
psychological, medical, economic, legal, and 
theological. Dignity in dying, what happens after 



death, euthanasia, body disposal, AIDS, and 
other such problems are examined. May be 
counted in requirements for a religion major. 
Prerequisite: permission of instructor. 
Mr C. Myers 

2 1 6 Visions of Reconstruction Examination of the 
theme of Reconstruction, rather than just the era. 
Course is interdisciplinary in its examination of a 
variety of texts and documents, including histories, 
legal documents, political cartoons, films, music, 
and literature. Students develop an imderstanding 
of what Reconsti'uction meant to the people who 
experienced it, and what it has continued to mean 
in American literature and culture into the 
twentieth century. 
Mr. Harmon 

229 South Asia: Contemporary Issues in Historical 
Perspective Sturh of contemporaiy cultural issues 
in the Indian sub-continent, viewed through the 
historical events and texts that have generated 
them. Alternate years. Offered spring 2001. 
Ms. Pawns 

239 South Asian Literature Study of major South 
Asian literary works in translation, including 
epics from North and South India, Sanskrit 
drama, Muslim literature, modern novels and 
short stories. Complete works read from an 
interdisciplinary perspective, using criticism 
from Western and South Asian sources. 
.Alternate years. Offered spring 2000. 
Ms. Powers 

241 Modern Irish Drama Exploration of the 
evolutit)n of modern Irish theatre within the 
matrix of the esthetic and political revolutions 
that occurred, and continue to occur, in 
twentieth-century Ireland. Irish dramatists have 
produced a body of literature remarkable for 
both its unparalleled artistic achievement and 
its acute political and social responsiveness. 
Major emphasis is accorded W. B. Yeats, Lady 
Augusta Gregory, John M. Synge, Sean O'Casey, 
Samuel Beckett, and Brian Friel. Not offered 
every year. 
Mr. J. P. Myers fr 

243 Anglo-American Folk Song Study of the 
Anglo-American tradition of folk song in the 
U.S. After defining traditional folk song and 
looking at its place in the cultural history of this 
country, course briefly surveys the history of 
folksong scholarship, then undertakes an in- 
depth study of three broad types of folk music — 
ballads, lyrical songs, and instrumental music. 
Song types are examined from a thematic 



perspective, based on the content of the lyrics. 
Students engage in some musical analysis, but 
no prior musical knowledge is required. Not 
offered every year. 
Mr. Winans 

244 Introduction to American Folklore Course 
begins with discussions of the nature of folklore 
and some sense of the history of the discipline, 
then focuses on materials on the folk group, the 
folk process, the folk performance, the nature 
of folk world-views, and guidance on doing 
folklore research. Emphasis next shifts to 
children's folklore, urban legends, Gettysburg 
ghost stories, gender-related folklore, African- 
American folklore in historical context, and a 
final section on folk song and folk music. Not 
offered every year. 
Mr. Winans 

246 Irish Quest for identity: The Irish Literary 
Revival Study of the culture and history of 
Ireland as reflected in its literature in English, c. 
1880-c. 1940. Course explores how Ireland, 
principally through her writers, succeeded in 
reviving and asserting her unique Gaelic identity 
during the decades immediately preceding and 
following the War of Independence (1916-1921). 
Authors studied include Augusta Gregory, W. B. 
Yeats, J. M. Synge, Sean O'Casey, and James 
Joyce. Not offered every year. 

Mr J. P. Myers Jr. 

247 Maintaining Irish Identity: Modern Irish 
Literature Siuvey of Irish literatiu e since the 
1940s. Course examines how poets, dramatists, 
and writers of fiction have responded to the 
problems of maintaining an Irish identity on a 
partitioned island and in the contemporary 
world. Special attention is given to the 
interrelationship of Catholic and Protestant and 
riual and urban traditions. Authors studied 
include dramatists such as Samuel Beckett, poets 
such as Seamus Heaney, and fiction writers such 
as Sean O'Faolain. Not offered every year. 

Mr J. P. Myers Jr. 

249 Jewish Writing in the Modern World 

Introduction to a wide-ranging variety of Jewish 
wilting fiom the past 100 yeais, including religious, 
political, philosophical and literary texts. 
Course explores such questions as: What makes 
a text Jewish? How do writers express, repress, 
redefine the meanings of Jewishness/Judaism? 
What is Jewish self-hatred? Students examine 
different stages of Jewish immigrant life and 



ways that films (such as The Jazz Singer, Fiddler on 
the Roof, and Goodbye, Columbus) are both a product 
and a recorder of that experience. 
A/5. Berg, Mr. Goldberg 

252, 253 Area Studies Seminar: East Asia 

Interdisciplinary study of contemporary issues 
in East Asia, including relations between China, 
Japan, and the two Koreas; their role in global 
economies; militarization; women's issues; 
cultural integrity; and human rights. 
Coursework includes visiting lecturers and films 
of the 2001-2002 East Asia Aiea Studies 
Symposium. Offered 2001-2002. 
Staff 

255 Science, Technology, and Nuclear Weapons 

Study of the effect of technology on the many 
issues related to nuclear weapons. Coverage 
includes nuclear weapons effects, strategic 
arsenals, past and current attempts at arms 
control, nuclear proliferation, and nuclear 
disarmament. Special emphasis is given toward 
understanding future technological trends in 
the post cold war climate. 
Mr: Pella 

260 The Holocaust and the Third Reich Intensive 
study of selected writings (poetry, prose, drama) 
that demonstrate possibilities of literary 
expressions in response to the Holocaust. 
Students read various writings in English by 
German and non-German writers, including 
Heinrich Boll, Ilona Karmel, Gi'mter Grass, and 
Elie Wiesel. Course also includes such films as 
The Tin Drum, The White Rose, and Night and Fog. 
Knowledge of German is not required. Not 
offered every year. 
Ms. Armster 

267 Theatre and Religion Investigation of the 
theatre's role in various Western and non-Western 
religions. Students gain an understanding of 
and an appreciation for the function of 
performance and design in worship, liturgy, and 
ritual. They also develop a critical sense of the 
theatre's effectiveness as a teaching de\ice 
within a religious context. A significant effort is 
made in asses.sing religion's impact on the 
theatre's evolution in form, style, and purpose. 
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. 

Mr Hanson 

268 The Arts, Environment, and Religions of 
Indonesia Study of the arts, cultural traditions, 
environmental issues, and religious practices of 
the people of Bali. Students live with local 
families, where they experience the significance 



4 



of the family structure in Balinese life, art, and 
religion. Students witness a vast assortment of 
art-based experiences, including theatrical and 
dance programs and participation in master 
classes with painters, dancers, musicians, 
carvers, and actors. Offered annually, mid-May 
to mid-June. One class unit of credit. Prerequisite: 
Permission of instructor. 
Mr Hanson 

272 Gods, Heroes, and Wagner Study of the 
artistic and philosophical thought of Richard 
Wagner as expressed in Der Ring des Nibelungen — 
an adaptation of the myths and legends of the 
Germanic past used to dissect European reality 
in the nineteenth century. Utilizing various 
approaches (biographical, mythological, literary, 
political/historical, aesthetic, musical, 
psychological), course investigates Wagner's 
position in his own age, as well as his impact on 
succeeding generations, including the ideolog)' 
of national socialism. Knowledge of German or 
background in music not required. 
Mr. McCardle 

322 I. W. Foundation Public Policy Seminar. 

Interdisciplinary public policy seminar offered 
on a specific topic each year. Seminar 
encompasses an examination of the decision- 
making process from the original articulation of 
needs through official responses and on to 
measuring the impacts of those decisions in the 
public domain. A prominent authority in the 
field of public affairs is invited to direct the 
seminar each year, with the focus of each course 
being determined by that person's field of 
endeavor and expertise. 

Topic for spring 2001: Public Policy: The Politics 
of Interest Groups, taught by Ms. Warshaiv and Mr. 
Statler. 

325-L England and the Birth of the Modern 
World Study of a wide range of cultural, 
economic, and political developments of 
England and the modern world. Topics include 
the English industrial revolution and its 
consequences, the evolution of parliamentary 
democracy, experiments in urban design and 
planning, and changes in elite and popular 
culture. Students analyze how modern London 
dealt with disease, crime, and the coming of war 
and study how Engli.sh writers and artists 
interpreted and reacted to the coming of the 
modern world with all of its possibilities and 
problems. Offered fall 2001 and taught by Mr. 
Bowman. 



401 Senior Scholars' Seminar: The Future of 
Humanity Seminar for selected senior students 
addressing an important contemporary issue 
affecting the future of humanity. Approach to 
this issue is multidisciplinary. Authorities of 
national stature are invited to serve as resource 
persons, and seminar participants present a 
final report on the topics discussed. Topic for 
spring 2001 is A Tale of Two Cities: Berlin and 
Vienna, 1860-1933, taught by Ms. Armster and Mr. 
Bowman. (.W Senior Scholars' Seminar section for 
additional details. ) 

SPECIAL PROGRAMS 
American Studies 

Gettysburg College offers a variety of courses 
analyzing Ainerican life and thought, which 
provide students with many opportunities for 
creating special majors in American Studies. 
Such majors may emphasize behavioral analyses, 
historical perspectives, literary and artistic 
dimensions, or coherent combinations of such 
approaches as they are reflected in courses from 
several departments. For example, special majors 
could be designed in the areas of early-American 
culture, modern American social stratification, 
ethnicity, or the religious and economic values 
of the American people. Students should seek 
assistance in planning an American Studies 
special major from Professors Birkner (History) 
or Winans (English), or other faculty members 
who teach courses in these areas, or from the 
Committee on Interdepartmental Studies. 

Asian Studies 

Gettvsbui g College offers a number of courses 
for students wanting a sound introduction to 
Asian culture as part of their liberal arts 
curriculum. Each Asian Studies course fulfills a 
distribution requirement. These courses are 
presented by members of various departments, 
persons with interests and competence in Asian 
Studies. A student may minor in East Asian 
Studies by compledng the following: One core 
course, three courses in one's country of 
specializadon (China or Japan), one year of 
Japanese or Chinese language, one course 
offering a comparative perspective within East 
Asia, and one elective course. Students 
interested in the minor in East Asian Studies 
should consult with Professors Gaenslen 
(political science), Sommer (Religion), or 
Hogan (Japanese). A student may construct a 
special major with concentration in Asian 
Studies. Students should seek assistance in 
planning an Asian Studies special major from 
Professors Gaenslen, Hogan, Powers (IDS), or 



Sonimer, or other faculty members who teach 
courses in this area, or from the Committee on 
Interdepartmental Studies. Course offerings 
suitable for special majors in Asian Studies are 
found under many departmental listings. 

Comparative Literature 

Gettysburg College offers courses in many 
literatures in the original languages (ancient 
Greek, Latin, Italian, Spanish, French, German, 
English, and Japanese). In addition, a number 
of comses are offered in foreign literature in 
translation (Classics, IDS, Japanese). Students 
who work in more than one language (e.g., 
English and Spanish) are encouraged to 
consider creating a special major in 
Comparative Literature in consultation with 
faculty in the appropriate departments. The 
study of comparative literature enables students 
to emphasize a particular period, theme, or 
genre across cultures, instead of the traditional 
focus on the chronological study of a national 
literature. A particular theoretical approach can 
also be cultivated (such as feminist, reader- 
response, suiicturalist, Marxist, and Freudian). 
Special courses, such as Art Song may also count 
towards a special major in Comparative 
Literature. Students who wish more information 
are encouraged to consult with any of the 
following advisors to the program: Professors 
Gaboon and Zabrowski (classics) ; Allaire 
(Italian); Fee (Old Norse; Middle German); N. 
Cushing-Daniels (Spanish and IDS); Armster, 
McCardle, and Ritterson (German); 
Tannenbaum and R. Viti (French); Hogan 
(Japanese); and Rolon (Spanish). Professor 
Powers (IDS; Indian literature) and Professor 
Myers (English; Irish literature) are also advisors 
to the program, as are many members of the 
English and Theater departments. 

Global Studies/Area Studies 

Gettysbiug College offers an array of courses in 
global studies through the course offerings of 
several departments and through its yearly Area 
Studies program. Each year the College 
arranges a program of films, lectures, syinposia, 
and special events focused on an area of critical 
interest in the world. The program has dealt 
with such topics as Central America, Vietnam 
Ten Years After, and Struggle in Southern 
Africa. Most recently, Area Studies has focused 
on China in Revolution, Mexico, the Caribbean, 
Japan, South Asia, Latin America, Eastern 
Europe, and the Middle East. The focus of the 
2001-02 Area Studies program is on East Asia. 
To enhance the academic offerings in these 
areas of study, the College has the pri\'ilege of 



scholars-in-residence from various areas of the 
world. Scholars-in-residence offer comses and 
guide individualized studies for students in their 
areas of interest. Often several specific courses 
are available that study the area focused on for 
the year. Students may enroll in IDS 252, 253, 
the Area Studies course, in either or both 
semesters. These tutorial courses require 
participation in the several aspects of the Area 
Studies Symposiimi. 

Law, Ethics, and Society 

Gettysburg College offers several law-related 
courses which present students the opportimity 
to explore fundamental aspects of the law as 
part of the liberal arts curricuhmi: civil rights 
and liberties, constitutional law, the criminal 
justice system, ethical issues and the law, legal 
reasoning, business law, environmental law, and 
criminology. Through such interdisciplinary 
study, students explore the close interplay of 
law, ethics, and the society from which law 
springs and which it serves. Special majors may 
be designed that emphasize the law within its 
social and historical context and that, combined 
with internships, research opportimities or off- 
campus study (such as our affiliated program 
with American University) , give students a rich 
appreciation for the law in its many dimensions. 
Students who wish more information may 
contact any of the following advisors to the 
program: Professors Mott (political science), 
Portmess (philo.sophy), and Hinrichs 
(sociology), and Dean Nordvall (college life). 

INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS CONCENTRATION 

Donald M. Borock, Director 

Overview 

The International Affairs Concentration (lAC) 
exposes students to factors and forces that have 
shaped the contemporary world. The program 
promotes a multidisciplinary approach to the 
study of international relations by focusing on 
issues facing the international community and 
the interactions of states and other actors as 
they attempt to achieve their foreign policies or 
goals. Students pursuing careers connected with 
international issues or interested in graduate 
school should find this program attractive. 

The program provides students with an 
opportunity' to gain specialization in the 
multidisciplinary field of international relations, 
while at the same time developing a disciplinary 
foundation within their major concentration. 
LAC primarily serves the departments and 
programs whose majors display an interest in 



4 



international relations. These are economics, 
environmental studies, French, German, history, 
management, political science, sociology, and 
Spanish. Students majoring in other disciplines, 
such as English and philosophy, may also 
participate in the lAC. Their specific programs 
will be developed with the assistance of their 
major adviser and lAC adviser. lAC students are 
also able to develop a specific regional track, 
such as Latin America, Europe, Africa, or Asia. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The lAC consists of nine core courses drawn 
from the departments of economics, history, 
and political science, as well as a series of 
electives available from other departments. 
Study of a language beyond the College 
requirement and study abroad are not required, 
but are strongly encouraged. Students 
interested in lAC should begin taking core 
courses in their first or second yean Application 
for the program is made through the lAC 
director. Students should apply for the LAC 
between the second semester of their first year 
and the end of their sophomore year. To be 
accepted into the program, students must have 
a GPA of 2.0 or above overall and in their major. 
To remain in the program, students must have a 
GPA of 2.0 or above in the major, the lAC 
courses, and other College courses. 

All lAC students must take the following Core 
Courses: 

Economics 1 03 Principles of Microeconomics 
Economics 104 Principles of Macroeconomics 
Economics 251 International Economics 
History 1 1 Twentieth Century World 
Select Concentration Elective in History (100-, 

200-level coiuse) 
Select Concentration in History (200-, 300-level 

coiuse) 
Political Science 103 Introduction to 

International Relations 
Political Science 242 I'.S. Foreign Policy 
Select Concentration Elective in Political 

Science 

All core courses in a student's major department 
shall count toward their major requirements 
only. Economics, history, and political science 
majors will therefore complete their nine course 
requirement by taking three Select Concentration 
Electives outside of their major program in at 
least two different disciplines. All other majors 
will take the six core courses, two Select 
Concentration Electives in history, and one in 
political science. A list of electives is available 
from the director of lAC and the lAC Web page. 



ITALIAN STUDIES 



Assistant Professors Allaire and Biagini 

Cotuses offered are designed to provide the 
student with a basic understanding of spoken 
and written Italian. No major or minor is 
ciurently offered in this area. Students may use 
Italian (through the 202 level) to fulfill the 
language distribution requirement. The 
Committee on Interdepartmental Studies 
oversees the administration of the Italian 
language program. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Italian 222 fulfills the Liberal Arts Core 
requirement in the humanities. 

101, 102 Elementary Italian Fundamentals of 
Italian grammar, composition, pronunciation. 
Emphasis on oral comprehension, verbal 
communication, reading, and writing. 
Classroom interaction stresses aural-oral 
method of language learning. Regular 
laboratory work reinforces grammar and writing 
skills and is required of all students. Course 
includes use of audio-visual materials and 
introduction to important aspects of Italian 
cultiue. 
Ms. Allaire, Ms. Biagini 

201,202 Intermediate Italian Review of Italian 
grammar as well as further development of 
speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills. 
Text includes culturally authentic excerpts from 
Italian newspapers and magazines. Course 
content helps students learn about modern 
Italian civilization and current social problems. 
Regular compositions develop students' writing 
skills; audiovisual materials and required 
listening assignments improve listening and 
speaking abilities. Prerequisite for 201 : Itsilian 102 
or equivalent. For 202: Italian 201 or equivalent. 
Ms. Allaire, Ms. Biagini 

222 Introduction to Italian Cinema 

Chronological and stylistic survey of Italy's 
contributions to world cinema. Films selected 
also draw attention to major historical events 
and cultiual developments in Italy. Course 
examines neorealism and reactions to it, and 
presents the work of noted auteurs Antonioni, 
Bertolucci, Fellini, Pasolini, and Wertmiiller. 
Weekly screening of films on video in Italian 
with English subtides; lectures and discussions 
conducted in English. Not offered every year. 
Ms. Allaire 



JAPANESE STUDIES 



Assistant Professor Iloh 
Instructors Hogan and Tazawa 

The College offers a full four-year program in 
Japanese language, as well as courses in Japanese 
history, literature, religion, political science, 
anthropology, theatre, art history, and economics, 
which provide students opportunities for 
considerable breadth and depth in the study of 
Japan. Students may design a major or minor in 
Japanese studies based on tlieir particular interests, 
or they may focus their attention on Japan as 
part of the minor in East Asian studies. Students 
may also choose to study at Kansai Gaidai 
University in Japan (see below). Academic work 
in Japanese studies on campus is enriched by 
the activities of the Japan Club, which fosters 
interest in Japanese culture by sponsoring lectures 
on Japanese topics, Japanese films, and other events. 
For current information on Japanese studies, 
please consult the Japanese Studies Web page at 
http://wwvv.gett)'sburg.edu/homepage/ 
academics/gusource.html. 

Students who have completed at least one year 
of Japanese language are strongly encouraged 
to study at the College's affiliated program at 
Kansai Gaidai University in Japan for one 
semester or a full academic year. Located in 
Hirakata City, between the business and indusuial 
center of Osaka and the ancient capital city of 
Kyoto, Kansai Gaidai University offers instruction 
in Japanese language, as well as a full range of 
courses on Japanese topics taught in English — 
including history, business, economics, art, 
literature, religion, theatre, and political science. 
The program at Kansai Gaidai also provides 
many opportimities for students outside the 
classroom: living with a Japanese host family, 
field trips to cultural and historical sites, study of 
traditional arts, and visits to Japanese businesses, 
and others. Credit for courses taken at Kansai 
Gaidai may be transferred to Gettysburg College 
and counted toward major and/or minor and 
distribution requirements. 

Japanese Language Courses 

Japanese language instruction is offered at all 
levels, from beginning to advanced. Language 
courses are designed to train students in the 
skills of listening, speaking, reading, and 
writing, and to develop the cultural knowledge 
and sensitivity necessary to communicate 
effectively in Japanese. The Japanese language 
emphasizes interaction for students with native 
speakers of Japanese both in the classroom and 
in informal settings outside cla.ss time. 



Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Japanese 202 fulfills the Liberal Arts Core 
requirement in foreign language.Japane.se 150, 
225, 238, 247 and 347 satisfy the non-Western 
requirement. Japanese 150 and 225 fulfill the 
requirement in social science, and Japanese 238 
fulfills the requirement in the humanities. 

101, 102 Beginning Japanese Introducdon to the 
fundamentals of speaking, listening, reading, 
and writing. Students develop a fimctional 
knowledge of the structures of spoken and written 
Japanese, master the phonetic writing system, 
and begin the study of Chinese characters as 
they are used to write Japanese. Beginning 
Japanese also acquaints students with patterns 
of Japanese .social custom and other cultural 
phenomena, as they pertain to the language use. 
Ms. Hogan, Mr. Tazawa 

201, 202 Intermediate Japanese Builds on the 
fundamentals covered in BeginningJapanese to 
develop skills in spoken and written expression, 
comprehension of authentic materials, and 
knowledge of Japanese culture. Course 
emphasizes the acquisition of communication 
strategies effective in Japanese contexts. 
Ms. Iloh. Mr. Tazawa 

301, 302 Advanced Japanese Development of 
spoken language, as well as reading and writing 
ability. Course refines and integrates skills 
acquired in Intermediate Japanese to allow 
students to handle more complex oral 
communications and comprehend more 
advanced readings on Japanese society. 
Ms. Itoh, Mr. Tazawa 

303, 304 Advanced Readings, Composition, and 
Conversation in Japanese Integrates fiu ther the 
skills covered in Advanced Japanese. Course 
emphasizes the refinement of comprehension 
and expression skills in oral and written 
Japanese and expansion of knowledge of 
Japanese culture through reading, classroom 
discussion, and analysis of works of literature, 
newspapers, and magazine articles. Course 
prepares students to use Japanese effectively in 
academic, business, and other settings. 
Ms. Itoh 

COURSES ON JAPAN 

150 Contemporary Japanese Culture and Society 

Introduction to themes, issues, and institutions 
in contemporary Japan, as seen through the 
lens of Japanese culture and examined from an 
anthropological perspective. Major topics 
include cultural notions used in the 
construction of the self and gender; family, 
marital, and kinship relationships; social 



> 



organizations; education; work; and religious 
and ritual practice. 
Ms. Iloh 

225 Anthropology of Japanese Women 

Examination of the lives of women and the 
dynamics of gender in Japanese society. Course 
explores various aspects of Japanese women's 
roles and their relations with men and other 
women and critically assesses the ways in which 
Japanese women's roles are shaped by such 
factors as family and kinship relationships, 
education, work, class, and religion. 
Ms. Itoh 

238 Pre-Modern Japanese Literature Survey of 
Japanese literature, beginning with the creation 
myth recorded in 712 and continuing to the 
dramatic arts of the 1600s. Course examines 
legends, folk tales, fairy tales, poetic anthologies, 
diaries and fiction. Lecture/discussion format. 
Readings in English; no knowledge of Japanese 
required. 
Ms. Hogan 

lAllZ^l What is Real? Extraordinary Fiction in 
Japan and the World Study of various 
permutations of the science fiction genre — 
legends, fairy tales, myths, supernatural and 
futinistic short stories, and novels. Major 
emphasis is on Japanese works, with cross- 
cultural comparisons to offer diverse 
perspectives. Course focuses on the literary 
analysis of the individual texts, while exploring 
the real purpose served by these unreal 
creations. Readings in English. 
^A^ 347 is the same course asJPN 247, but with extra 
readings, and assignments. Designed for Japanese 
Studies Majors. 
Ms. Hogan 

LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 

Enielio Betances, Coordinator 

Overview 

Gettysburg College offers a minor in Latin 
American Studies. The minor consists of a 
variety of courses in several departments in the 
social sciences and in the humanities. Students 
who choose this minor are encouraged to study 
abroad for a semester or a year. 

The College provides an intellectual environment 
for the study of Latin America. Program of 
activities includes a lecture series, panel discussions, 
art exhibits, films, field trips, and service learning 
opportunities in Latin America, as well as in the 
local Latino community. In this environment 



students develop an understanding of Latin 
America and the Caribbean and come closer to 
an appreciation of our hemispheric neighbors. 

A year-long colloquium on Latin American 
issues is offered for interested faculty and 
students. The Colloquium meets three to four 
times each semester to explore the different 
cultural, historical, economic, and political 
a.spects of Latin America today. Each meeting 
has a speaker, either from the college community 
or from other institutions, who discusses his or 
her own research on Latin America. Students 
who have studied in Latin America or who have 
had service learning experience in Latin 
America are encouraged to present reflections 
on their experiences. The Colloquium is 
intended to be a forum for lively discussion of 
contemporary Latin American realities. 

Off-campus programs in Latin America and the 
Caribbean offer students opportunities to 
broaden and deepen their knowledge of the 
region. Students interested in a special major in 
Latin American Studies may combine courses in 
the minor with additional courses in political 
science, economics, sociology, anthropology, 
Spanish, history, management, environmental 
studies, and women studies. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Latin American Studies 140, 147, 220-229, 261 
fulfill the Liberal Arts Core requirement in the 
humanities, and LAS 262, 267 fulfill the 
requirement in the social sciences. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

For the minor, students must fulfill the language 
distribution requirement in Spanish and take six 
LAS courses — two Core courses and four 
Distribution courses. 

Core Courses: 
LAS 140 Introduction to Latin American 

Studies 
LAS 331 Reinventing Latin America Societies 
LAS 300 Topics in Latin American Studies 

Distribution Courses: 

In addition to the four Distribution courses, 
students are expected to take courses in at least 
two of the College's divisions. These courses can 
be in history, political science, sociology/ 
anthropology, Spanish, women's studies, a study- 
abroad program, or a first-year seminar focusing 
on Latin America. 
LAS 147 Contemporary Latin America Culture 
LAS 221 Undressing Frontiers: Gender Issues 
in Latin American Literature 



LAS 26 1 Colonial Latin America 

LAS 262 Social Development in Latin America 

LAS 266 Brazilian Culture and Society 

LAS 267 Politics and Society in Latin America: 

The Case of the Dominican Republic 
LAS 270 Latin America and the hiternational 

Commimity 
LAS 272 Mexican Democracy and Development 
LAS 461 hidi\idualized Study 
Anthro 232 Pre-Ck)lunibian Civilizations of 

Mesoamerica 
Anthro 236 Pre-Colimibian Civilizations of 

South .\merica 
Anthro 237 African and Afro-Latino Cultures: 

Studies in Ritual and Power 
Pol Sci 275 Latin American Politics 
Pol Sci 412 Women and the Political Economy 

of Development 
Span 3 1 1 Latin .\merican Civilization 

(in Spanish) 
Span 315 Introduction to Hispanic 

Cinema (in Spanish) 
Span 319 Hispanic Theater (in Spanish) 
Span 320 LvtIc Poetry (in Spanish) 
Span 324 Latin America Contemporary Prose 

(in Spanish) 
Span 327 Colonial to Nineteenth-Century 

Latin American Literature 
Women Studies 22 1 Bridging the Borders: 

Latina and Latin American Women's 

Literature 

140 Introduction to Latin America Study of the 
peoples and civilization (jf pre-Columbian 
America, and of the institutions, economy, 
history, and culture of Latin America and the 
Caribbean, from the Spanish conquest to the 
present. Course reviews several case studies and 
examines how modern Latin America responds 
to underdevelopment in its struggle for 
political and cultural integration. 
Mr. Betances 

220-229 Special Topics in Latin American 
Literature and the Arts Study of Latin American 
literatiue and related arts from varying 
perspectives. Taught in English 
Staff 

221 Undressing Frontiers: Gender Issues in Latin 
American Literature Examination of Latin 
American narratives that question sexual 
difference while engaging and representing 
sociohistorical contexts of crisis and change. 
Ms. Ramos 



261 Colonial Latin America History of Latin 
America, from the arrival of Colimibus to the 
independence movement in the early decades 
of the nineteenth century. Course explores the 
building of a colonial order as a unique experience 
of two different societies coming together. 

Mr. Bet an res 

262 Social Development of Latin America Study 
of the formation of Latin American republics, 
focusing on the interplay between internal 
processes and external influences. Students 
examine the Latin Americans' struggle for 
political and cultural integration to overcome 
their colonial heritage and to build nation states. 
Mr. Betances 

267 Society and Politics in Latin America: A Case 
Study of the Dominican Republic Study of the 
sociopolitical evokuion of nineteenth- and 
twentieth-century Dominican Republic. Course 
examine the tension between dictatorship and 
democracy, changing economic patterns of 
Dominican life, and the influence of the U.S. 
military interventions of 1916-1924 and 
1965-1967 on the modern Dominican state. 
Emphasis is placed on how the Dominican 
Republic mirrors contemporary Caribbean 
socio-political development. 
Mr. Betances 

33 1 Reinventing Latin American Societies Study 
of the changing role of the state in twentieth- 
centiuy Latin America. Course explores why 
Latin American states shifted from promoting 
national development to preparing the region 
for globalization. Issues of social movements, 
political control, citizenship, and neoliberalism 
are examined in the context of a widespread 
economic, social, and political restructuring of 
Latin American Societies. Prerequisite: LAS 140 
or any course focusing on Latin America. 
Staff 



MANAGEMENT 



Professors Bobko, Gilbert, Rosenbach, and Schein 
Associate Professors Frey, Redding, and Walton 
Assistant Professor Samaras 
Instructors Ozag and Volkmar 

Overview 

The deparanent provides a distinctive curriculum 
designed to engender understanding of the role 
of management in a variety of organizational 
settings: public, private, local, national, and 
international. In order to develop the breadth 
of imderstanding appropriate for a liberal arts 
education, the curriculum is integrative. The 
curriculum incorporates the historical and 
social contexts within which managerial decisions 
are made and brings into clear focus the moral 
and ethical dimensions of such decisions. Students 
are encouraged and equipped to become 
informed decision-makers, who employ carefully 
considered values and the aesthetic and intuitive 
components of leadership, as well as the relevant 
analytic and technical skills. Most importantly, 
the curriculum and the manner in which it is 
taught foster the qualities of critical, creative 
thinking; the entrepreneurial disposition to be 
intellectually bold, independent, and innovative; 
the zest for lifelong learning; and the values so 
important to vital and socially responsible 
management in our public and private enteiprises. 

Requirements 

Majors in management are required to 
complete ten core courses, plus a minimum 
of two electives and/or senior seminars. At least 
one of these two additional courses must be a 
senior seminar. The ten core courses are as 
follows: Math 104 (or Math 105-106 or 111), 
Economics 103, 104, and 241, and Management 
153, 266, 270, 365, 385, and 400. Students 
anticipating a management major are 
encouraged to take Economics 103-104 in the 
first year. 

To qualify for departmental honors in 
management, a student must 1) satisfactorily 
complete Management 400 during the senior year 
with a grade of B or better; 2) be recommended 
by his or her adviser; and 3) have earned a 3.3 
departmental grade point average. 

153 Financial Accounting Study of basic 
principles, concepts, and problems in recording, 
summarizing, reporting, and analyzing financial 
data. Emphasis is placed on reports used by 
decision-makers, both inside and outside the 
firm. Prerequisite: Sophomore status. 
Staff 



1 54 Managerial Accounting Study of accounting 
concepts for planning, control, motivation, 
reporting, and evaluation by management of 
the firm. A«w/«Mife.- Management 153. 

147 Management Information Systems 

Introduction to information technology and 
management of information systems. Focus is 
on the management of change, computer 
applications, and information technology 
applications. Prerequisite: Management 266 or 
permission of instructor. 
Staff 

266 Management and Organization Introducdon 
to management ideas, processes and techniques 
used in botli profit and not-for-profit organizations. 
Focus is on the challenge of managing different 
organizations in contemporary society. 
Prerequisites: Sophomore status or higher. 

Staff 

267 Finance Emphasis on financial planning, 
investment analysis, assets management, and 
.sources and costs of capital Prerequisites: 
Economics 103, 104, 241, and Management 153. 
Recommended: Economics 243. [Same as Economics 
267.] 

Staff 

270 Organizational Behavior Theory of 
behavioral science applied to the organization, 
with emphasis on the interaction of the 
individual and the organization. Topics range 
from individual attitudes and behavior to 
organizational change. Prerequisite: Management 
266 or permission of instructor. 
Staff 

360 Organizational Ethics Exploration of the 
relationship bet\veen law and ethics, of ethical 
factors and restraints, recognition of ethical 
dilemmas affecting managerial decision-making, 
and policy in private and public sector 
organizations; examination of a variety of 
ethical issues, .such as those relevant to the 
environment, consimier protection, discrimination 
in the workplace, conflict of interest, global 
economy, social responsibilit)' of organizations, 
and professionalism; emphasis on case study 
method. Prerequisite: junior status or higher. 

365 Human Resources Management Major 
principles of human resource management, 
from the perspectives of both organizational 
demands and individual interests. Basic theoretical 
and applied concepts are covered, including 



recruitment, selection, performance appraisal, 
labor relations, compensation, training, and 
productivity improvement. Focus is also on 
relevant issues of the decade, such as the work/ 
family interface, privacy, cultural diversity, 
workplace discrimination, and legal issues. Project 
work with organizations required. Prerequisites: 
Management 266 and 270. 
Staff 

385 International Management Examination of 
problems and opportunities confrondng business 
enterprises that operate across national borders, 
with emphasis on adaptation to different cultural, 
legal, political, and economic environments. 
Prerequisites: Management 153 and 266, plus 
Statistics (Economics 241, Mathematics 107, or 
Psychology 205). 
Staff 

400 Policy and Strategy Integrative capstone 
course concerned with the role of senior 
executives in business enterprises. Course 
focuses on problems of strategy formuladon, 
organization design, and organization renewal. 
Required of all seniors. Prerequisites: Senior 
status plus completion of all core courses. 
Staff 

410 Senior Seminar Investigation of 
contemporary problems and special topics of 
current importance in the field of management. 
Specific issues to be addressed are determined 
by instructor. Topics of senior seminars vary 
across the semesters. Possible topics include 
leadership and followership, communication, 
organizational structure, diversity in 
management, planning and information 
systems, human resources accounting. Seminars 
are integrative and build upon prior course 
work. Most include significant writing, 
presentation, and/or research components. 
Prerequisite: Senior status. 
^toff 

460 Individualized Study Topics of an advanced 
nature pursued by well qualified students through 
individual reading and research, imder the 
supervision of a facult)' member Students 
wishing to pursue independent study must 
present a proposal at least one month before 
the end of the semester preceding the semester 
in which the independent study is to be 
imdertaken. Prerequisite: Permission of 
supervising faculty member. 
Please note that the department and College have 
policies for students interested in credit for their 
internship experience. Students interested in this 



option should obtain a copy of the procedures and 
must discuss the internship with a faculty advisor 
prior to the internship experience. 
Staff 

MATHEMATICS 

Associate Professors Bajnok, DeSilva, and 

Flesner (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professors Egge, Krerner, and Walz 
Adjunct Assistant Professor Washinger 
Adjunct Instructors Fiscus and Y. Niiro 

Overview 

A knowledge of mathematics is an essential 
part of what it means to be a liberally educated 
person. Mathematics is both an art and a 
science. It possesses an inherent beauty and a 
purity of expression not foimd to the same 
degree in any other discipline. 

Beyond its intrinsic value, mathematics is 
indispensable in both the natural and social 
sciences. It occupies a position of increasing 
importance in many other fields. The computer 
has played a major role in this mathematical 
renaissance. Thus, it is essential that mathematics 
majors, as well as other students who will apply 
mathematics, learn how to use the computer as 
a problem-solving tool. 

The mathematics curriculum provides a 
foundation for students who specialize in 
mathematics or in fields that use mathematics. 
By a careful selection of courses, a student can 
prepare for graduate study in mathematics, for 
secondary school teaching, or for a career in a 
mathematically related field. Indeed, a major in 
mathematics provides a good backgroimd for 
virtually any career Recent graduates have 
fotmd careers in government, law, management, 
medicine, and qualit)' control, as well as in more 
traditional areas of employment for mathematics 
graduates. No matter what the student's objectives, 
the curriculum provides courses appropriate for 
the study of mathematics within the context of 
the liberal arts. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Major Requirements: Mathematics majors must 
complete six core courses, plus five additional 
300-level courses. The core courses are 
Mathematics 111 (or 105-106 or exemption), 
112 (orexemption),211,212, 215 (by end of 
junior year), and Computer Science 103 or 104 
(by end of sophomore year) . In addition to the 
core program, majors must take one of 
Mathematics 315, 321, or 331, plus four other 
300-level mathematics courses. 



Students considering graduate study in 
madiematics are adxised to take both Mathematics 
321 and Mathematics 331. Department honors 
in mathematics require participation in the 
cocurricular activities of the department, an 
overall grade point average of at least 3.0, and a 
mathematics grade point average of at least 3.5. 

Minor Requirements: A minor in mathematics 
consists of six mathematics courses numbered 111 
or above. At least one of these courses must be 
at the 300 level. 

Grade Requirements: All courses taken to satisfy 
the requirements for the major or minor must 
be taken using the A-F grading system. To 
advance to a course with prerequisites, a 
minimum grade of C- is required for each 
prerequisite course. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Any mathematics course fulfills the Liberal Arts 
Core requirement in quantitative reasoning. 

103 Mathematical Reasoning Introduction to the 
power and scope of mathematical reasoning by 
investigating several particular topics. Topics 
vary among sections. Examples of topics include 
basic madiematical modeling, dynamic geometry, 
puzzles and recreational mathemadcs, linear 
programming, game theory, voting power, 
legisladve representadon, and cryptology. Course 
is intended for first-year and sophomore students 
in the arts, humanities, and social sciences who 
do not plan to take calculus. Students who have 
already completed a Mathematics course at 
Gettysburg College may not enroll in 103. 

No prerequisites. 
Staff 

1 04 Quantitative Methods Designed for students 
in the social sciences. Topics include equations, 
graphs and functions, systems of linear 
equations, and an introduction to the derivative 
and its applications. No prerequisites. Students 
who have completed Mathematics 105-106 or 
Mathematics 111 may not enroll in 104. 

Staff 

105-106 Calculus with Precalculus I, II Study of 
differential and integral calculus with 
precalculus. Topics include basic algebraic 
concepts, equations and inequalities, functions, 
introduction to limits, continuity, the derivative, 
and the definite integral. No prerequisites. 
Staff 

107 Applied Statistics Introduction to statistical 
methods, with applications from social, 
biological, and health sciences. Topics include 



descriptive statistics, fundamentals of probabilit) 
theory, probability distribudons, hypothesis 
testing, linear regression and correlation, 
analysis of categorical data, and analysis of 
variance. An important aspect of the course is 
the use of a statistical package on the computer. 
Credit is not granted for more than one of the 
following: Mathematics 107, Biology 260, 
Economics 241, and Psychology 205. 
Staff 

111-112 Calculus I, II Differential and integral 
calculus of one real variable. Topics include 
introduction to limits, continuity, the derivative, 
the definite integral, and series. Applications 
are drawn from the natural and social sciences. 
No prior experience with calculus is assumed. 
Students who have received credit for 
Mathematics 105-106 cannot also receive credit 
for Mathematics 111. These students may 
register for Mathematics 112. 
Stnff 

208 Discrete Structures Study of mathematical 
structures essential to the study of discrete 
phenomena with an emphasis on an algorithmic 
approach to problem solving using these 
structures. Topics include sets, truth tables, 
methods of proof (including induction), 
functions, relations, arithmetic in other bases, 
graphs and trees, matrix algebra, elementary 
combinatorics, probability, and Markov chains. 
Examples are chosen from a variety of 
disciplines, with emphasis on solutions that 
are algorithmic and computational in nature. 
Prerequisite: M?i\hem^a.nc^ 111 or 105-106. 
Staff 

2 1 1 Multivariable Calculus Vectors, vector 
functions, functions of several variables, partial 
differentiation, optimization, multiple integration, 
transformation of coordinates, line and surface 
integrals, and Green's and Stokes' theorems. 
Prerequisite: Mathematics 112. 

Staff 

212 Linear Algebra Systems of linear equations, 
algebra of matrices, determinants, abstract 
vector spaces, linear transformations, eigenvalues, 
and quadratic forms. Prerequisite: Mathematics 
112. 

Staff 

215 Abstract Mathematics I Introduction to 
abstract mathematical thinking, emphasizing 
mathematical rea.soning and exposition. Students 
study elementary logic and basic set theory with 
rigorous definitions and proofs. This foundation 
is then used to explore one of several optional 



topics chosen by the instructor. Prerequisite: 
Mathematics 112. 

308 Introduction to Combinatorics Topics 
selected from graph theory, enumeration, 
recursion, partially ordered sets, and design and 
coding theory. Applications are chosen from 
computer science, optimization, and the social 
and life ^cxences.Prerequisite: Mathematics 215 or 
208. 
Staff 

315 Abstract Mathematics II Further development 

of the skills of abstract mathematical reasoning 
and writing proofs. Course is grounded in a 
particular subject area chosen by the instructor 
Possible areas include topology, number theory, 
and combinatorics. Prerequisite: Mathematics 215. 

321 Real Analysis Rigorous treatment of concepts 
studied in elementary calculus and an introduction 
to more advanced topics in analysis. Topics 
include elements of logic and set tlieory, properties 
of real numbers, elements of metric space 
topology, condnuity, the derivative, the Riemann 
integral, sequences and series, and uniform 
convergence. Prerequisite: Mathematics 315 or 
permission of instructor. Alternate years. 
Offered 2001-02. 
Staff 

33 1 Abstract Algebra Study of basic structures 
of modern abstract algebra, including groups, 
rings, fields, and vector spaces. Prerequisite: 
Mathematics 315 or permission of instructor. 
Alternate years. Offered 2000-01. 
Staff 

343 Topics in Geometry Study of both synthetic 
and analytic approaches to geometry. Topics 
include axiomatic systems, Euclidean geometry, 
non-Euclidean geometries, projective geometry, 
and subgeometries of projective geometry. 
Prerequisites: Mathematics 212 and 215. Alternate 
years. Offered 2000-01. 
Staff 

351 Mathematical Probability Combinatorics, 
discrete and continuous random variables and 
their distributions, expected value and variance, 
functions of random variables, the Law of Large 
Niunbers, the Central Limit Theorem, 
generating functions, and applicadons such as 
Markov chains, random walks, and games of 
chance. Prerequisite: Mathematics 211 and 
Mathematics 215 (or 212). 
Staff 



352 Mathematical Statistics Expectadon, 
special probability distributions and densities, 
bivariate and multivariate distributions, 
sampling distributions, theory and applications 
of estimation, hypothesis testing, regression, 
correlation, analysis of variance, and 
nonparametric methods. Prerequisite: 
Mathematics 351. 
Sinff 

362 Operations Research Study of techniques 
and tools used in mathematical models applied 
to the biological and social sciences. Topics 
include optimization, linear and nonlinear 
programming, transportation problems, network 
analysis, d)iiamic programming, and game 
theory. Prerequisite: Mathematics 212. Alternate 
years. Offered 2001-02. 

Staff 

363 Differential Equations Analydcal, numerical, 
and qualitative approaches to differential 
equations. Topics include linear equations and 
systems, series solutions, Laplace transform, 
Fourier series, nonlinear equations, phase 
plane analysis, and an introduction to partial 
differential equations. Prerequisite: Mathematics 
212. 

Staff 

364 Complex Analysis Complex numbers, analytic 
functions, complex integration, Cauchy's 
Theorem, Taylor and Lament series, contour 
integrals, the residue theorem, and conformal 
mapping. Prerequisite: Mathematics 211. 
Alternate years. Offered 2000-01. 

Staff 

366 Numerical Analysis Numerical techniques 
for solving mathematical problems. Topics 
include solutions of equadons, solutions of 
simultaneous linear equations, interpolation 
and approximation, numerical differentiation 
and integration, the eigenvalue problem, 
numerical solutions of ordinary differential 
equations, and error analysis. Prerequisites: 
Mathematics 212 and CompiUer Science 103 or 
104. Alternate years. Offered 2001-02. 
Staff 

38 1 , 382 Selected Topics Study of an advanced 
phase of mathematics not otherwise in the 
curriculum. Subject matter and frequency of 
offering depend on student interest. Possible 
areas for study are point set topology, graph 
theory, combinatorics, partial differential 
equations, differential geometry, and number 
theory. Prerequisite: Permission of department. 
Staff ' 




Individualized Study Pursuit of topics of an 
advanced nature by qualified students through 
individual reading, research, or internship, 
under supervision of a faculty member. 
Prerequisite: Permission of department. 
Staff 

MUSIC 

Associate Professors Gratto, Jones (Chairperson), and 

Matsinko 
Assistant Professors Koster, Natter, and Robertson 
Adjunct Assistant Professors Bowers and Botterbusch 
Adjunct Instructors Fahnestock, Freund, Honlz, 

Henry, T.Jones, Ryon, Wertz, Yoshikami, and 

Zeshonsky 

Overview 

The department endeavors to introduce 
students to the historical significance of Western 
music and to the variety of world music .so that 
they have an understanding of their musical 
heritage and knowledge of current musical 
trends. Familiarity with the basic elements of 
music and discovery of their own abilities through 
direct contact with and creative manipulation of 
materials is basic to the program. The music 
curriculum also involves the student in an 
intensive study of applied music. This encompasses 
individual and ensemble experience, hi the 
practice room, studio, and recital hall the student 
has an opportunity to refine techniques for 
musical performance. In the small and large 
ensemble the individual must work within a 
greater social context to achieve a common 
musical goal. The program also provides courses 
for the student who plans to enter the field of 
music education based on competencies 
prescribed by the Pennsylvania Department of 
Education. The music department offers 
programs leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree 
in music and a Bachelor of Science degree in 
music education. Also available is a minor in 
music, as well as a major in music within the 
elementary education certification program, 
which leads to a Bachelor of Aits degree. 

Bachelor of Science Program 

Prospective teachers of music in the elementary 
and secondary schools should complete the 
program for the degree of Bachelor of Science 
in music education. This requires successful 
completion of 35 courses, exclusive of courses in 
applied music and health and exercise sciences. 
A quarter course in fitness/ recreational .skill 
activities is required. 

The program includes twelve courses in music: 
Music Theory (141, 142, 241, 242, 341, and 342); 



Music History (244, 313, and 314); Conducting 
(205 and 206); and Applied Music (456). 

In addition to the typical four or five full courses 
per semester, students also carry several quarter- 
courses in applied music. As many as 19 quarter- 
courses may be taken during the four-year 
program; however, they do not count toward the 
35 course graduation requirement. 

Applied music areas taken as quarter-courses 
include: 121-129Q (major performance area: 
voice, piano, organ, guitar, wind, percussion, or 
string orchestral instruments) and 150-156Q 
(instruments of the band and orchestra) . 

Five units in music education are also required: 
Music 320, 321 (for two units) and 474 (for 
three units), as well as one 1/4 course. Music 
149. Four other courses are required for 
certification: Psychology 101 and Education 201, 
209, and 303. 

Participation for four years in an authorized 
music ensemble and presentation of a recital in 
the senior year are required. 

The successful completion of the program 
leading to the Bachelor of Science degree in 
music education satisfies the certification 
requirements for teaching instrumental and 
vocal music in elementary and secondary 
schools. 

Students interested in pursuing the Bachelor of 
Science program should consult with the mu.sic 
department as early as possible. 

Bachelor of Arts Program 

Major Requirements: Requirements for a major in 
music leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree 
con.sist often full courses (Mu.sic 141, 142, 205, 
241, 242, 244, 313, 314, 342, and 456) plus 
quarter courses in the student's major applied 
area (7 quarter courses). The major must also 
participate for four years in an authorized 
departmental ensemble and present a recital in 
the senior year. 

Music majors in the elementary education 
program must meet the same requirements as 
the B.A. degree candidate, with the exception 
of Music 342. 

Minor Requirements: A minor in music consists of 
Music 141, 142; Music 205; two courses selected 
from Music 244, 313, or 314; Music 241 or the 
remaining music history course. Also required 
are four consecutive semesters of applied 
lessons on the same instrument or voice and 
four consecutive semesters of participation in a 
performance ensemble. 



Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

The Liberal Aits Core requirement in the arts 
may be fulfilled by one of the following: Music 
101-112, 141,244, 313, and 314. Music 102 also 
fulfills the non-Western requirement. 

101 Introduction to Music Listening 

Consideration of the principal music forms 
against the background of the other arts and in 
the context of historical events. Active listening 
is an essential part of the coiuse. Repeated 
spring semester. 
Staff 

1 02 World Music Survey Studv of music found 
in cultures art)und the world, including sub- 
Saharan Africa, the Middle-East, and Asia, as 
well as selected ethnic cultures within the 
Americas. Related arts are examined in relation 
to the cultural contexts in which they are found. 
Music making activities and small group projects 
are part of the course. Special event attendance 
is required. 

Ms. Robertson, Ms. Gratto 

103 Music of the Classical Period Study of the 
major composers — Haydn, Mozart, and 
Beethoven — and the significant genres of the 
late eighteenth and early nineteenth centiuies. 
Musical achievements of this period are studied 
within the social and economic milieu. Listening 
and analyzing musical compositions will be an 
integral part of the course. 

Staff 

1 04 Opera Study of opera history and producdon 
through .selected operatic works as examples of 
total music drama. Related genres of operetta, 
musical, and oratorio are also included. 
Extensive listening and viewing assignments are 
required. An opera field trip is usually planned. 
Ms. Gratto. Mr. Koster 

105 Introduction to Contemporary Music 

Study of music from a variety of Western and 
non-Western genres from the beginning of the 
twentieth century to the present. Emphasis is 
placed on the development of perceptive 
listening skills and the analysis of cultiual 
context. 
Ms. Robertson 

106 Art Song Study of the history, interpretation, 
and style of the art song. Literature includes 
German, French, English, and American art 
songs. Extensive listening assignments are 
required. 

Mr. Matsinko, Mr. Natter 



107 Music of the Romantic Era Study of the 
philosophical background for nineteenth- 
century music and its stylistic features. Extensive 
listening is done in the areas of orchestral, 
vocal, and chamber music. 

Staff 

108 Women in Music Study of women's 
contribiUion to music from the Middle Ages to 
the present. Extensive listening assignments 
required. 

Staff 

1 09 Mozart: The Man and His Music Study of 
Mozart's music, with a focus on his life, times, 
and musical analysis. Extensive listening 
assignments required. 

Mr. Matsinko 

1 10 Survey of Jazz Study of America's 
indigenous musical art form from early blues 
and Dixieland through current trends. A "live" 
jazz quartet is an integral part of style analysis. 
Concert attendance and listening assignments 
are necessary to attain an understanding of the 
genesis and development of jazz. 

Mr Jones 

1 1 1 Fundamentals of Music Study of the 
fundamentals of music through reading, 
writing, singing, listening, instrument playing, 
and compiUer technology. Emphsis is on the 
development of skills and understanding related 
to a thorough knowledge of music notation. 
Course is intended for non-majors with little 
theory backgroimd and for minors or majors in 
need of remedial help prior to beginning the 
regular music theory sequence. 

Mr Koster 

1 1 2 Two Musics of Japan Study of the two musics 
of contemporary Japan, ho-gaku (pre-Western 
Japanese music) and Japanese music of Western 
influence. Course examines the historical roots 
of ho-gaku in religious kagura and Buddhist 
chants, as well as the secular music genres of 
gagaku, biwa, noh, shamisen, shakuhachi, 
percussion, and koto music to determine what is 
quintessentially Japanese. A comparative study 
of ho-gaku and Western music aims to show a 
synthesis of the two cultures. 

Ms. Yoshikami 

141 Theory I Fimdamentals of basic theory, 
notation, and nomenclature; introduction to 
writing skills and music technolog)'; elementary 
analytic technique; melodic analysis; correlated 
sight-singing (using a moveable DO Kodaly- 



based system), keyboard playing, movement 
(Dalcroze Eurhythmies), and aural perception 
skills. Prerequisite: ability to read music and 
permission of instructor. 
Ms. Gratto, Ms. Robertson 

142 Theory II Continuation of Theory I writing 
skills; focus on analysis and writing of chorales; 
correlated sight-singing and aural perception 
skills; movement; and keyboard harmony. 
Prerequisite: Grade of C- or better in Theory I. 
Ms Robertson, Ms. Gratto 

149 Introduction to Music Education 

Introductory study of the field of music education 
to prepare for K-12 certification to teach music. 
Focus is on current trends and issues in the 
field, including advocacy, special learners, arts 
assessments, multicultural music, curriculum 
integration, copyright, standards, and music 
technology. Students observe school music 
classes at the elementary and secondary level. 
Ms. Gratto, Mr. Koster 

205 Conducting I Development of basic 
conducting techniques, with an emphasis on 
choral music. Areas of study include conducting 
gestures, rehearsal planning and execution, 
score analysis and interpretation, ear training, 
diction, group vocal technique, concert 
programming, and management of a choral 
program. A unit on basic instrumental 
conducting is included. Prerequisite: Music 142 
or permission of instructor. Alternate years. 

Mr. Natter 

206 Conducting II Concentration on advanced 
conducting skills, with an emphasis on 
instrumental score study. Areas of study include 
advanced conducting techniques, advanced 
interpretive and rehearsal techniques, the 
instrumental program, and supplemental 
materials. A unit on choral music with 
instruments is included. Preiequisite: Music 205. 
Alternate years. 

Mr. Jones 

221/222 Vocal Literature and Diction Study of 
classical vocal literature from 1600 to the 
present with emphasis on singing in Italian and 
English (221) or German and French (222). 
Extensive listening assignments and class 
performances reqmred. Prerequisite: ability to 
read music and concurrent registration for 
applied voice or voice class. 
Mr Fahnestock 



241 Theory III Study of the common practice 
period; extensive written and analytic projects; 
study of musical structure through small forms; 
correlated sight-singing, aural perception skills, 
and keyboard harmony are included. 

Mr. Jones 

242 Theory IV Study of chromatic harmony from 
1850 to the present. Analysis of standard forms 
and compositional techniques. Correlated sight- 
singing, aural perception skills, and keyboard 
harmony are included. 

Mr. Jones 

244 Introduction to Music Literature Cross 
cultural study of major genres, styles, and 
composers of Western and non- Western music. 
Extensive use of recorded materials is included, 
with emphasis on the development of critical 
skills in thinking, writing, and listening to music. 
Mr. Matsinko, Ms. Robertson, Staff 

261 Technology in Music Study of technology as it 
pertains to nuisic applications, including the 
historical uses of technology in music, 
theoretical and practical uses of computers for 
music, MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital 
Interface) hardware and software, recording 
technology', and music notation software. 
Prerequisites: Music 142 and consent of insUuctor. 
Mr Natter 

304 Eighteenth-Century Counterpoint 

Introduction to contrapuntal st)'le of the 
eighteenth century and an analysis of the 
Baroque forms, with attention to linear motion 
and fundamental harmonic progression. 
Composition in the various forms is required. 
Mr Jones 

313 History of Medieval, Renaissance, and 
Baroque Music Study of principal st)'les, genres, 
composers, and their cultiual context from the 
Greek era through the eighteenth century. 
Extensive use of musical examples and 
recordings is included. Alternate years. 

Ms. Robertson 

314 Music in the Classic, Romantic, and 
Contemporary Periods Study of principal styles, 
genres, composers, and their cultural context 
from c. 1770 to the present. Extensive use of 
musical examples and recordings is included. 
Alternate years. 

Ms. Robertson 

320 Principles and Procedures of Teaching Music 
in the Elementary School Study and evaluation 
of methods, materials, and techniques of 
teaching music in the elementary grades. 



Various approaches to guiding children to listen 
to, understand, create, and perform music are 
included. Classroom instrument competencies 
are developed. Alternate years. 
Ms. Gratlo 

321 Principles and Procedures of Teaching Music 
in the Secondary School Study and evaluation of 
methods, materials, and techniques of teaching 
music in the secondary grades. A personal 
philosophy of music education is developed, as 
are competencies in selected classroom 
instruments. Alternate years. 
Ms. Gratto 

34 1 Theory V (Orchestration) Study of 
capabilities and limitations of the standard wind, 
.string, and percussion instruments. Included is 
score study, transposition, and emphasis on 
applied orchestration projects for laboratory 
performance and critique. Alternate years. 

Mr: Jones 

342 Theory VI (Seminar) In-depth study of the 
analytical methodologies of musicology, music 
theory, and musical education, as applied to the 
unifying theme of the seminar. Substantial 
writing and analysis projects are the foundation 
of this capstone analytical course. 

Ms. Robertson 

476 Student Teaching Teaching in public schools 
in cooperation with and under the supervision 
of experienced teachers. Individual conferences 
and seminars with the College supervisor and 
supervising teacher are required. Offered 
spring semester. Fall semester with permission 
only. Three Course Units 
Ms. Gratto, Mr. Koster 

Individualized Study Prerequisite: Approval of 
department and directing faculty member. 

Staff 

Applied Music and Performing Organizations 

The department offers instruction in voice, 
piano, organ, guitar, and standard band and 
orchestral instruments. The repertoire is 
adapted to the student's ability. One-quarter 
course credit is given for one half-hour private 
lesson per week, per .semester. Some piano and 
voice instruction may be in group classes. 

Students majoring in music who are candidates 
for the Bachelor of Aits degree are entitled to 
eight quarter-courses of private instruction, and 
those who are candidates for the degree of 
Bachelor of Science in Music Education are 
entitled to 12 quarter-comses of private 
instruction at no additional cost beyond the 



comprehensive fee. Public performance is 
required of those majoring in this area of 
concentration. 

The department also sponsors various music 
organizations, including the College Choir, 
Concert Choir, Band, and Orchestra, as well as a 
variety of small ensembles. All college students 
are eligible to audition for any of these groups, 
either at the beginning of the school year or at 
other times by appointment. 

121 Voice Private instruction in singing 
technique, with emphasis on breath support, 
resonance, tone quality, diction and 
interpretation. Study includes song literature in 
various styles and languages. Repeated spring 
semester. 

1/4 Course 

Mr Natter, Mr Fahnestock 

122 Voice Class Group instruction in singing 
technique, with emphasis on breath support, 
resonance, tone quality, diction and 
interpretation. Study includes song literature in 
various styles and languages. Repeated spring 
semester. 

1/4 Course 
Mr. Natter 

123 Piano Private instruction in the development 
of the necessary techniques for facilit)' in reading 
and interpreting a musical score accurately at 
the keyboard. Literature includes representative 
compositions of various styles and periods. 

1/4 Course 
Mr Matsinko 

124 Class Piano Emphasis on sight-reading, 
ensemble playing, and harmonizing melodies 
with various types of accompaniment, as well as 
playing some standard piano literature. 

1/4 Course 
Mr Matsinko 

125 Organ Private instiuction designed to 
include literature of various periods, sight- 
reading, hymn-playing, chant and anthem 
accompaniment. Prerequisites: satisfactory 
performance of all major and minor scales (two 
octaves) and a Bach Invention. 

1/4 Course 
Ms. Freund 

127 Band Instrument Instruction Private 
instruction emphasizing fundamentals and 
repertoire for the performance of woodwind, 
brass, and percussion instruments. 
1/4 Course 



n 

^^^ 



Ms. Bowers, Mr. Hamm, Mr. Jones, Mr. Moore, 
Mr. Ryon, Mr. Wertz 

128 Guitar Private instruction emphasizing skills 
of technique, interpretation, reading, and 
fretboard knowledge. Classical and other styles 
are offered according to needs of students. 

1/4 Course 
Staff 

129 String Instrument Instruction Private 
instruction, emphasizing both fundamentals of 
string playing and repertory. 

1/4 Course 

Mr Botterbusch, Ms. Zeshonsky 

1 30 Band "Bullet" Marching Band performs 
a corps style show at home football games. 
Symphonic Band performs a wide variety of 
wind literature, including reorchestrated 
masteipieces and contempoi'ary works. Symphonic 
Band and Wind Ensemble present campus 
concerts and a spring tour of Pennsylvania and 
neighboring states. Symphonic Band prerequisites: 
Membership in "Bullet" Marching Band and/or 
permission of the conductor 

Mr. Jones 

130 College Choir Premiere choral ensemble, 
which performs sacred and secular choral 
literature from all periods of music history. 
Performances on campus and in the region, 
with an annual spring concert tour Prerequisite: 
audition and permission of instructor. May be 
taken and repeated for one course credit, with a 
maximum of one course unit toxuard graduation. 
Mr Natter 

1 30 Concert Choir Performs sacred and secular 
choral music written for large choirs. Rehearsals 
Monday evenings from 7:30-9:30; one to t\vo 
major concerts per semester. Faculty, staff, and 
community members are welcome to 
participate. May be taken and repeated for one course 
credit, with a maximum of one course unit toward 
graduation. Prerequisite: simple audition and 
permission of instructors. 
Mr. Natter, Ms. Gratto 

1 30 Orchestra Study and performance of 
orchestral music of all areas. Membership is 
open to all students of qualifying ability. Wedne.sday 
evening rehearsal 7:00-9:30. May be taken for 1/4 
course credit, with a maximum of 1 course unit 
toward graduation. 
Mr Botteibusch 

1 32 Instrumental Chamber Ensembles Perform a 
wide variety of music representing all historical 
periods. Emphasis is on "one-to-a-part" playing. 



Ensemble choices may include brass quintet, 
percussion ensemble, flute ensemble, woodwind 
quintet, saxophone quartet, and other 
combinations available on student demand. 
Prerequisite: membership in College Band and 
permission of instructor. 
Ms. Gratto, Mr Jones, Mr Koster, Staff 

132 Jazz Ensemble Group of 17-20 musicians 
dedicated to preser\ing and advancing 
America's indigenous musical art form. All styles 
of jazz are studied from big band swing through 
contemporary fusion. Campus community and 
fesival performances, including an annual 
concert with a nationally recognized soloist. 
Etiropean tour every four years. Prerequisite: by 
audition and open to members of the College 
Band. 
Mr Jones 

132 Camerata Advanced ensemble of 12-16 
singers performing music written for small 
ensembles, from madrigals to vocal jazz. 
Ensemble performs in major choral concerts 
and/or in other campus or community 
performances. One hour-long rehearsal weekly. 
Prerequisite: concurrent membership in College 
Choir or Concert Choir, and permission of 
instructor. No credit. 
Mr. Natter 

1 32 Women's Choir Advanced ensemble 
performing choral music for women's voices 
from various periods and styles. Ensemble 
performs in major choral concerts each 
semester and/or in other campus or community 
performances. One hour-long rehearsal weekly. 
Prerequisite: concurrent membership in College 
Choir or Concert Choir, and permission of 
instructor. No credit. 
Ms. Gratto 

1 32 World Music Ensemble Performs vocal music 
from various world cultures, including those 
within the United States. One hour-long 
rehearsal weekly. Prerequisite: concurrent 
membership in College Choir or Concert Choir, 
and permission of instructor. No credit. 
Ms. Gratto 

150-151 Woodwind Instrument Class Instruction 
in the technique of teaching and playing 
woodwind instruments, using the clarinet as the 
basic instrument. 

Two 1/4 Courses 
Mr Koster 



152-153 Brass Instrument Class Instruction in 
the technique of teaching and playing brass 
instruments. Trumpet or cornet is used as the 
basic brass instrument. 
Two 1/4 Courses 
Mr. Koster 

154-155 Stringed Instrument Class histruction 
and practice in tlie techniques of teaching and 
playing stringed instruments and the 
organization of a string section. 
Tiuo 1/4 Coursps 
Mr. Botterhusch 

156 Percussion Class Organization of practical 
and theoretical materials concerning all 
percussion instruments, their performance 
techniques, and teaching procedures. 
1/4 Course 
Mr Kostn- 

456 Senior Recital Solo presentation of 
representadve literattue of various stylistic periods 
of die student's major applied area, widi emphasis 
on historical performance practice. Prerequisite: 
permission of instructor and music faculty. 
Staff 

PHILOSOPHY 

Professors Portmess (Chairperson) and Walters 

Assistant Professors Gimbel and Hansen 

Adjunct Professors Carrick, Hammann, and Richer t 

Overview 

Departmental objectives are to promote inqtiiry 
into perennial philosophical questions such as 
the nature of justice, happiness, knowledge, and 
freedom; to produce awareness of the answers 
that have been proposed to the.se questions; to 
teach the tools for the analysis of the 
assumptions and values that imderlie different 
intellectual disciplines; and to promote the 
application of philosophical analysis to issues of 
public policy, law, and morality. The study of 
philosophy encourages the student to develop 
the ability to analyze problems, imderstand 
central issues, and develop alternative solutions. 
It challenges the student to reflect upon 
problems involving values, to examine prcjblems 
in an interdisciplinary way, to examine 
alternative world views and forms of knowledge, 
and to develop an awareness of intellectual 
history and diverse philosophical traditions. 
Classes encourage discussion and writing. The 
study of philosophy is an integral part of an 
education in the liberal arts tradition. 



A major in philo.sophy is excellent preparation 
for graduate school or for professional schools 
in almost any field. It will also prove valuable in 
any profession that demands clear thinking and 
the ability to understand the points of view of 
other people. Individually, philosophy courses 
are useftd supplements to course work in other 
areas. The department is interested in assisting 
and encouraging students to design special 
majors in which philosophy is an integral part. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Philosophy 101, 103, 105, 107, and 211 have 
no prerequisites. Any 100-level course is 
prerequisite for a 200- or 300-level course, 
though the instructor may grant permission to 
enroll on an individual basis to equivalently 
prepared students. 

A philosophy minor consists of any six courses 
in the department, only two of which may be 
100-level courses. A philo.sophy major consists of 
nine courses in philosophy, including 211; at 
least two out of 205, 206, 207, and 208; 400 
(Senior Seminar) and 460 (Senior Thesis). No 
more than two 100-level courses may be coimted 
toward the major, and the major must include 
at least one 300-level course. 

Distribution/Liberal Arts Requirements 

All phil(jsophy coiuses except 103 and 211 fulfill 
the liberal arts core himianities requirement. 
Philosophy 211 fulfills the liberal arts quantitadve 
reasoning requirement. All other courses count 
toward the liberal arts himianities requirement. 

101 Introduction to Philosophy Study of selected 
philosophical texts, which deal with such 
themes as knowledge, happiness, justice, death, 
and the nature of reality. Goal is to develop an 
ability to read about, reflect on, and comment 
on philosophical issues. 
Staff 

103 Critical Thinking Informal logic course 
designed to help students reflect on and 
enhance their ability to think analytically and 
creatively. Discussions and exercises focus on 
techniques characteristic of informal logic 
(classification of arguments, analysis and 
evaluation of argtmients, identif>ing informal 
fallacies, etc.), as well as strategies for intuitive 
and creative thinking. 
Mr. Gimbel 



105 Contemporary Moral Issues Study of moral 
problems and larger philosophical questions 
they raise about such issues as the defensible use 
of violence, limits of freedom, extent of our 
obligadons to others and to nature, rightful 
state authority, and the nature of duties and 
obligations. Selected readings focus on moral 
disputes as they arise in law and medicine, in 
international affairs, and in private moral 
reflection. Particular attention is given to ethical 
theories and to worldviews that shape positions 
on moral issues and guide moral decision-making. 
Staff 

107 Environmental Ethics Exploration of ethical 
issues that arise regarding what responsibilities 
human beings have to the natural world. Specific 
issues such as population, land use, wilderness 
preservation, biodiversity, and our treatment of 
animals are examined in light of larger 
philosophical questions regarding nature and 
human purpose, obligations to future generations, 
the aesthetic and religious value of nature, and 
the possibility of an environmental ethic. 
■*>>'// 

205 Ancient Philosophy Study of philosophers 
and philosophies of ancient Greece and Rome. 
Emphasis is on the Pre-Socratics, Plato, 
Aristotle, Stoicism, and Skepticism. 

Ms. Hansen 

206 Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy Study 
of leading thinkers in the western philosophical 
tradition, from the fifth to the fifteenth century. 
Special emphasis is on such figiues as 
Augustine, Bonaventure, Anselm, Thomas 
Aquinas, and Pico della Mirandola. 

Mr. Walters 

207 Early Modern Philosophy Study of such 
major figures as Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, 
Himie, and Kant in seventeenth- and 
eighteenth- century European philosophy. 
Mr Gimbel 

208. Kant and Nineteenth Century Philosophy 

Study of the philosophy of Immanuel Kant and 
selected nineteenth-centiny Eiuopean 
philosophers such as Hegel and Nietzsche. 
Mr Hansen 

21 1 Logic hitroduction to formal logic and a 
study of the formal uses of language, with 
particular reference to the nature of inference 
from premises to conclusion; rules for deductive 
inference; construction of formal proofs in 
sentential and predicate logic; and the nature of 
language. 
Mr Gimbel 



1 1 6 Philosophy and Human Nature Study of 
different theories of hiunan nature and the self, 
both historically and cross-culturally and in light 
of contemporary research in sociobiology, 
artificial intelligence, psychology, and gender 
and cultinal studies. 
Ms. Portmess 

230 Ethical Theory Study of major figures and 
schools in the Western ethical tradition. Attention 
is paid to selections from representative 
philosophers, from Plato through Rawls. 
Specific issues examined include the nature of 
rights and responsibilities, virtue, and moral 
obligation. 
Mr Gimbel 

240 World Philosophy Study of selected writings 
from the world's philosophical traditions. Such 
themes as self and world, knowledge and its 
limits, the meaning and purpose of life, the 
nature of reality and ideals of moral perfection 
are explored in diverse philosophical traditions. 
Ms. Portmess 

333 Philosophy and Science Study of what 
philosophy has to say about science and what 
science has to say aboiu philosophy. Course 
examines such questions as: Wliat is the 
relationship between science and truth? Does 
truth extend beyond science? Is the purpose 
of a scientific theory merely to predict, or to 
explain? Do we live in a determined world or 
a chaotic one? What are the philosophical 
implications of such theories as quantum 
mechanics, evoliuion, and relativity? 

Mr Gimbel 

334 Philosophy of Art Survey of important 
problems and issues in the history of philosophical 
aesthetics, inlcuding the natme and fimction of 
art, the social role of art, and the relationship of 
aesthetics to other branches of philosophy. 

Mr Hansen 

337 Philosophy of Religion Study of 
philosophical efforts to luiderstand and justify 
religious beliefs. Course examines writings of 
philosophers who have answered such questions 
as: What is Religion? What is the importance or 
significance of specifically religious experiences? 
WTiat account can we give of the meaning of 
religious claims? How can we mediate between 
apparently conflicting religious beliefs? 
Mr Walters 



338 Philosophy of Law Study of enduring tliemes 
of legal philosophy, such as the nature of law, 
law and morality, liberty, responsibility, and 
justice, as well as such specific issues as civil 
disobedience, freedom of expression, privacy, 
compensation, and punishment. Emphasis is 
placed on differing philosophical perspectives 
that imderlie disagreements about the law and 
on ethical questions that arise from the practice 
of law. 
Ms. Portmess 

340 American Philosophy Study of major figures 
in colonial, early republic, nineteenth- and 
twentieth-century U.S. philosophy. Detailed 
attention is given to four primary schools of 
thought: deism, transcendentalism, pragmatism 
and historicism. hnportant secondaiy movements 
such as puritanism and evolutionism are also 
considered. 

Mr. Wallers 

34 1 Contemporary Continental Philosophy Study 
of contemporary European and European- 
influenced philosophy. Course readings may 
include works by Heidegger, Derrida, Foucault, 
the French Nietzscheans (Bataille, Blanchot, 
Klossowski, Haar, Deleuze), French feminists 
(Kristeva, Irigaray, Cixous), and critical theorists 
(Adorno, Horkheimer) . Course explores the 
interreladons between philosophy and 
disciplines — such as literature, psychoanalysis, 
political theory, and cultural criticism — and the 
ways in which contemporary condnental 
philosophers both take up and alter the historical 
traditions of philosophy. 

Mr. Hansen 

400 Senior Seminar Discussion of philosophical 
theories of the emotions, the validity of the 
traditional opposition between reason and 
passion, the relation of emotion to morality, and 
philosophical issues related to specific emotions 
such as envy, jealousy, and embarrassment. 
Mr. DeNicola 

460 Senior Thesis hidividualized study project 
involving the research of a topic and 
preparation of a major paper. Normally done 
during fall or spring semester of the senior year. 
Prerequisite: major or minor in philosophy. 
Staff 



PHYSICS 



Professors Cowan, Marschall, and Pella (Chairperson) 
Associate Professors Aldinger and Good 
Assistant Professors Stephenson and Crawford 
Laboratory Instructors Cooper and Hayden 

Overview 

The physics ciuriculum introduces students to 
concepts and techniques basic to our present 
understanding of the physical universe. Diverse 
courses emphasize theories and principles that 
give a broad, unifying description of nature and 
develop the analytical reasoning needed for 
their use. Probing the interrelationships 
between matter and energy, students and faculty 
explore such fields as astronomy, 
electromagnetism, optics, elementary particles, 
relativit)', quantum mechanics, and atomic and 
nuclear physics. Laboratory training stresses the 
design of experiments, the techniques of precise 
measurement, the interpretation of data, and 
wiitten and oral communication. In advanced 
courses, students apply their skills through 
independent studies and research with facultv', 
in contrast to programs at larger institutions. 
Our physics faculty is dedicated to teaching, 
while remaining actively engaged in research. 
Mentoring relationships between facult)' and 
students are the norm. 

The physics major is flexible. The possibility of a 
double major is limited only by interests, 
dedication, and imagination. Gettysburg 
College physics majors have succeeded in 
diverse careers, including government, law, and 
management, as well as engineering, pardcle 
physics, and molecular biology. Our majors who 
choose graduate study have been well prepared 
for study in a wide range of fields, including 
astronomy; astrophysics; biophysics; business; 
geophysics; environmental, electrical, nuclear, 
and ocean engineering physics; and 
physiological psychologv'. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The department offers both a Bachelor of 
Science and Bachelor of Arts degree for the 
major. 

B.A. requirements: A- mm\m\i\n of nine physics 
courses is required for the major. This includes 
the following six core courses: Physics 111, 112, 
213, 255, 310, 325, and three additional courses 
at the 200-level or higher, at least one of which 
must be from: Physics 312, 319, 330, and 341. In 
addition, majors are required to complete 



mathematics courses through Mathematics 212 
or its equivalent. This diverse, flexible major is 
well suited for a variety of post graduation 
careers, including secondary school physics 
teaching, industrial research, and graduate 
school in such fields as engineering, computer 
science, law, and medicine. 

First-year students who are considering a major 
should enroll in Physics 111, 112, and 
Mathematics 111 and 112 if possible. Those 
planning on attending graduate school in 
physics should plan to take the additional 
courses listed under the B.S. requirement below. 
Those considering graduate work in astronomy, 
engineering, or related fields are encouraged to 
augment their physics major with additional 
courses in mathematics, computer science, and 
chemistry. Students are not permitted to take 
more than twelve courses in the department 
without permission of the department, unle.ss 
the thirteenth course is Physics 462 (Independent 
Study). 

B.S. requirements: In addition to the six core 
courses mentioned above, the B.S. degree 
requires Physics 462, at least three courses from 
Physics 312, 319, 330, 341, and any two courses 
at the 200-level or above. Candidates for the B.S. 
degree must also complete Mathematics 363. 

Minor requirements: A minor in physics consists of 
Physics 111, 112, 213, 255, and two additional 
courses in physics at the 200-level or above. The 
minor represents an appropriate complement 
to a variety of majors, including mathematics 
and computer science. 

Prerequisites are meant only as guides. Any course is 
open to students who have permission of the 
department. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

The Liberal Arts Core requirement in the 
natural sciences may be satisfied by any course 
listed imder physics or astronomy. 

Special Facilities 

In addition to well-equipped laboiatories in 
nuclear physics, atomic physics, electronics, 
optics, and plasma physics, the facilities of the 
department include a planetarium and an 
observatory. The observatory featiues a 16" 
Cassegrain telescope with a computer-controlled 
drive, a UBV photometer, and a research-grade 
CCD camera. 



Computadonal resources include microcomputer- 
equipped laboratories, a microcomputer room, 
several Sun workstations, and terminals to access 
the College mainframe computers. In addition, 
the department is networked to all other 
computing resources on campus, including 
Internet. 

Support facilities in Masters Hall include the 
physics library, a machine shop, and an 
electronics shop. 

Engineering 

The department administers the Dual-Degree 
Engineering Program with Columbia University, 
Washington University in St. Louis, and 
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Students 
selecting this program graduate from Gettysburg 
College with a major in physics upon successful 
completion of an engineering degree at 
Columbia University, Washington University in 
St. Louis, or RPI. 

More details regarding the physics and the Dual- 
Degree Engineering Program are described in 
the Handbook for Students prepared by the 
physics department. Majors and prospective 
majors should request a copy from the physics 
department office or check the department's 
Web page. 

1 1 Solar System Astronomy Overview of 
behavior and properties of planets, satellites, 
and minor members of the solar system. 
Subjects include basic phenomena of the visible 
sky, gravitation and orbital mechanics, results of 
telescopic and space research, and theories of 
the origin and evolution of the solar system. 
Course satisfies science distribution requirement 
for nonscience majors. Three classes and a 
laboratory. 

Mr Marschall 

102 Stellar Astronomy Overview of current 
knowledge about the universe beyond the solar 
system from a physical and evolutionary 
standpoint. Subjects include observational 
properties of stars, methods of observation and 
analysis of light, nature of stellar systems and 
interstellar material, principles of stellar 
structure and evolution, and overall structure 
and development of the physical universe. 
Course satisfies laboratory science distribution 
requirement for nonscience majors. Three 
classes and a laboratory. 

Mr. Marschall 



1 1 The Evolving Universe Overview of the 
fundamental principles of classical physics 
(including gravitation and electromagnetism), 
the theory of relativity, and quantum physics. 
Course includes a discussion of the four 
fundamental forces of nature; nuclear and 
atomic physics; elementary particles; grand 
unified theories; and cosmology, including the 
origin and fate of the universe. Does not coimt 
toward the major. Three class hours. 

Mr. Aldinger 

102 Contemporary Physics Designed for 
nonscience majors. Course concentrates on the 
relationship between physical principles, 
modern technology, and the world in which we 
live. Topics include heat and thermodynamics, 
lasers and other optical instruments, electricity 
and circuits, medical diagnostics, and radiation 
effects. Not appropriate for students taking 
Math 112. Three class hours and three 
laboratory hours. No prerequisite. 

Mr. Crmi'ford 

103-104 Elementary Physics I and II General 
coverage of the fields of classical and modern 
physics. Course is structured for students in 
biology, environmental science, the health 
professions, etc. While particularly useful for 
biology majors, the two-course sequence serves 
any student as an introduction to a wide range 
of topics in physics. Prerequisite: Facility in 
algebra and geometry. Three class hours and 
three laboratory hours. 
Staff 

1 1 1 Mechanics and Heat Introduction to 
classical mechanics and heat: laws of motion; 
conservation of energy, linear momentimi, and 
angular momentum; laws of thermodynamics; 
kinetic theory and ideal gas laws. Differential 
and integral calculus is introduced and used. 
Prerequisite: Mathematics 111, which may be 
taken concurrently, or permission of instructor. 
Four class hours and three laboratory hours. 
Mr. Good 

1 12 Waves and Electricity and Magnetism 

Electrostatic fields, currents, magnetic fields, 
magnetic induction, and Maxwell's equations. 
Other topics include waves, light as a propagating 
electromagnetic disturbance, and optics. 
Prerequisite: Physics 111. Four class hours and 
three laboratory hours. 
Mk Aldinger 



213 Relativity and Modern Physics Special 
theory of relativity, including four-vector 
notation. Other topics include black body 
radiation, photoelectric and Compton effects, 
Bohr theory, uncertainty principle, wave 
packets, and introductions to nuclear physics 
and particle physics. Prerequisite: Physics 112. 
Three class hours and three laboratory hours. 
Mr Pella 

240 Electronics Principles of electronic devices 
and circuits using integrated circuits, both 
analog and digital, including amplifiers, 
oscillators, and logic circuits. Prerequisite: Physics 
112. Two class hours and six laboratory hours. 
Mr Good 

255 Mathematical Techniques for Physicists 

Intermediate treatment of mathematical 
methods used in physics. Topics include elements 
of vector calculus, complex variables, ordinary 
and partial differential equations, solution of 
Laplace's equation, special functions, 
determinants, and matrices. Prerequisites: Physics 
112 and Mathematics 112. Three class hours. 
Mr Aldinger 

310 Atomic and Nuclear Physics Introducfion to 
quantum mechanics. Potential wells, barriers, 
one electron atoms, and multielectron atoms 
are studied. Other topics include nuclear 
models, decay, and nuclear reactions. Three 
class hours and three laboratory hours. 
Prerequisite: Physics 213. 
Mr Pella 

312 Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics 

Temperature, heat, first and second laws of 
thermodynamics, and introductory statistical 
mechanics of physical systems based on the 
principle of maximum entropy. Topics include 
the ideal gas, Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein 
"gases," electrons in metals, blackbody radiation, 
low temperatiue physics, and elements of 
transport theory. Prerequisite: Physics 213. 
Three class hours. 
Mr. Aldinger 

319 Classical Mechanics Intermediate-level 
course in mechanics for upperclass physics 
majors. Topics include chaos, nonlinear 
dynamics, central forces, oscillations, and the 
formalisms of Lagrange and Hamilton. 
Prerequisites: Physics 213, 255, and Mathematics 
211. Three class hours. 
Staff 



325 Advanced Physics Laboratory Laboratory 
course with experiments drawn from various 
areas of physics, such as optics, electiomagnetism, 
atomic physics, iuid nucleiir physics, widi paiticular 
emphasis on contemporary methods. Error 
analysis, experimental techniques, and wiitten 
and oral communicadon are sUessed. Prerequisite: 
Physics 310. 
Staff 

330 Electricity and Magnetism Intermediate 
course in electromagnetism, including vector 
fields and vector calculus, electrostatic field 
theory, dielectrics, magnetic phenomena, fields 
in matter, Maxwell's equations, Laplace's 
equation and boundary value problems, and 
electromagnetic waves. Prerequisites: Physic?, 112 
and Physics 255. Three class hours. 
Mr Aldinger 

34! Quantum Mechanics Introduction to the 
Schrodinger and Heisenberg formulations of 
quantum mechanics. Topics include free 
particles, harmonic oscillator, angular 
momentum, hydrogen atom, matrix mechanics, 
spin wave functions, helium atom, and 
perturbation theory. Prerequisites: Physics 310 
and 319, Mathematics 363. Three class hours. 
Staff 

352 Optics and Laser Physics Intermediate 
treatment of physical optics and laser physics. 
Topics include electromagnetic theory of light, 
interference, diffraction, coherence, 
holography, Fourier optics, fundamentals of 
laser operations, laser spectroscopy, and fiber 
optics. Three class hours and six laboratory 
hours. Prerequisites: Physics 213 and Mathematics 
211 or permission of instructor. 
Mr. Good 

38 1 Special Topics in Physics Topics in physics 
not covered in the usual curriculum. Topics vary 
from year to year and may include relativity; 
astrophysics; advanced topics in modern optics, 
solid state physics and electromagnetism; 
fundamental particles and nuclear structure; 
the physics of plasmas and various mathematical 
topics in physics (topology, special functions, 
fractals). Prerequisites: Upper division standing 
and approval by instructor. Three class hours. 
^toff 

452 Tutorials: Special Topics Designed to cover 
physics or physics-related topics not otherwise 
available in the curriculum. Open to upperclass 
physics majors who arrange with a staff member 
for supervision. Possible areas of study include 



advanced electronics, medical physics, astrophysics, 
acoustics, and optics. Prerequisite: Approval by 
department. 
Staff 

462 Independent Study in Physics and Astronomy 

Experimental or theoretical investigation of a 
research-level problem selected by a student in 
consultation with a faculty member. Students 
should arrange for supervision by the end of 
the junior year. Open only to second semester 
senior physics majors. Results of the investigation 
are reported in a departmental colloquium. 
Prerequisite: Approval by department. 
Staff 

474 Internship Research participation during 
the summer at a recognized research laboratory 
such as Argonne National Labs, Department of 
Energy Laboratories, or Oak Ridge. Individual 
students are responsible for obtaining 
acceptance to these programs. In most cases 
students will be required to describe their 
participation in a departmental colloquium. 
Prerequisite: Completion of sophomore year and 
departmental approval. 
Mr. Pella 

POLITICAL SCIENCE 

Professors Molt and Warshaiu 

Associate Professors Borock, Gaenslen, lannello, 

D. Tannenbaum, and Dawes (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professors Bohrer and Hartzell 

Overview 

The department aims at providing an 
understanding of the study of politics, emphasizing 
the methods and approaches of political science 
and the workings of political systems in various 
domestic, foreign, and international settings. 

The program provides balance between the 
needs of specialists who intend to pursue 
graduate or professional training and those who 
do not. Courses offered in the department help 
prepare the student for careers in politics, 
federal, state, and local government, public and 
private interest groups, business, journalism, 
law, and teaching. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Major requirements: A minimum of eleven courses 
in political science. Majors are required to take 
four introductory courses: Political Science 101, 
102, 103, and 104. These courses are designed 
to introduce students to the discipline and to 
the types of issues that are important to political 
scientists. The 100-leveI courses may be taken in 



any order, and should be completed by the end 
of the sophomore year. All students must take 
Political Science 215 (Political Science Research 
Methods) as sophomores or first-semester 
juniors. Among die six courses needed to complete 
the major, students must take three courses in 
three different subfields at the 200 level, and 
two cotuses within two of those subfields at the 
300-400 level. The remaining requirement may 
be satisfied with any upper level course. 

Students are encouraged to take internships 
for academic course credit, but they are graded 
S/U and do not count toward the major 
requirements. Political science courses taken off 
campus will satisfy 200-level requirements only. 

Minor requirements: Successful completion of any 
two 100-level courses and any four upper-level 
courses that normally count toward the major, 
provided they do not all fall into the same subfield. 

Departmental honors in political science are 
awarded to graduating majors who have 
achieved an average of 3.5 in political science 
courses and who have successfully completed a 
significant research project in the senior year. 
Students wishing to qualify for honors are 
responsible for choosing a faculty member to 
direct the project. A second faculty member will 
act as a reader of the completed work. Those 
who achieve honors are expected to present 
their work in a public forum. 

Students interested in political science are 
urged to take basic cotuses in history and 
economics during their first two years. In the 
jimior and senior years, majors are urged to 
participate in departmental seminars, 
individualized study, and internships. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

.*\ny of the following cotuses may be counted 
towards the Liberal Arts Core requirement in 
the social sciences: 101, 102, 103, and 104. The 
following courses may be counted toward the 
Liberal Arts Core requirement in non-Western 
culture: 270, 271, 362, and 363. 

Special Programs 

Qualified students may participate in off-campus 
programs, such as the Washington Semester, 
The Lhiited Nations Semester, and Study Abroad. 

INTRODUCTORY COURSES 
101 American Government Examinafion of 
the institutional structure and policy-making 
process of national government as reflections 



of assumpuons of liberal democracy and the 
American social and economic systems. In 
addition to the legislative, executive, and judicial 
branches of government, political parties, 
interest groups, and elections are considered. 
Mr. Dawes, Ms. lannello, Mr. Moll, Ms. Warshaio 

102 Introduction to Political Thought Analysis of 

political philosophies relating to fimdamental 
problems of poliucal association, past and 
present. Course examines concepts of power, 
authority, freedom, equality, social justice, and 
order, as expressed in works of major political 
philosophers. 
Mr. Tannenbaum 

103 Introduction to International Relations 

Examination of the beha\ior of states and non- 
state actors in the international system. Topics 
include systems analysis, nationalism, power, 
foreign policy, international institutions, 
interdependence and tlie world economy, conflict 
and cooperation, global environmental and 
ecological issues. 
Mr. Borock, Ms. Harlzell 

104 Introduction to Comparative Politics 

Introduction to structures and processes of 
political institiuions in major types of political 
systems, including parliamentary systems, 
countries of the former Soviet Bloc system, and 
systems in developing countries. 
Mr. Bohrer, Mr. Gaenslen 

METHODOLOGY 

215 Political Science Research Methods 

Introduction to quantitative research methods 
and their application to the study of politics. 
Topics include empiricism, sinvey research and 
polling, electoral behavior, and public opinion. 
Special attention is given to research design, 
data collection, data processing, and statistical 
analysis. Prerequisites: Completion of three of the 
following: PoliUcal Science 101, 102, 103, and 
104, or permission of instructor. 
Mr. Bohrer, Mr Dawes 

AMERICAN GOVERNMENT 
220 Urban Politics Study of the changing 
patterns in .American urban life. Particular 
attention is given to the governing of urban 
America in the past, present, and future, and 
the structure of power that has affected urban 
policy decisions. Prerequisite: Political Science 
lOI or permission of instructor. 
Staff 



223 U.S. Congress Study of the United States 
Congress, focusing on theories of 
representation, nomination and electoral 
processes, internal organization of Congress, 
influences on Congressional policy-making, 
and Congressional interaction with other 
participants in the policy process. Prerequisites: 
Political Science 101 or permission of instructor. 
Ms. Warshaw 

224 The American Presidency Study of the 
presidency in the American political system, 
including presidential selection, presidential 
leadership and decision-making, the president's 
advisors, and the role of the presidency in the 
policy-making process. Prerequisites: Political 
Science 101 or permission of instructor. 

Ms. Warshaw 

225 American Constitutional Law Study of the 
judicial process in the U.S., with particular focus 
on the Supreme Court and its historical role in 
nation-building, establishing principles of 
federalism and the separation of powers, and 
determining the scope of personal and property 
rights. Prerequisites: Political Science 101 or 
permission of instructor. 

Mr Mott 

322 Civil Rights and Liberties Study of selected 
problems involving interpretations of the Bill of 
Rights. Attention will be given to both the 
evolution and current standing of issues treated 
by the Supreme Court. Prerequisites: Political 
Science 101 and 225, or permission of instructor. 
Mr. Mott 

33 1 Political Parties in American Politics 

Examination of political parties, their role in 
democracy, and the nature of the party system 
in relation to other social and political processes. 
Aspects of voting behavior and campaign 
techniques are considered. Prerequisites: Political 
Science 101 and 215, or permission of insuuctor. 
Mr Dawes 

INTERNATIONAL POLITICS 

242 United States Foreign Policy Examination of 
the sources, goals and patterns of foreign policy. 
Attention is given to the processes by which 
policy is formulated and implemented and to 
the evaluation of the effectiveness of policy. 
Topics include decision making, foreign economic 
policy, deterrence, instruments of foreign policy, 
regionalism, multilateralism, and the development 
of post-Cold War objectives. Prerequisite: Political 
Science 103 or permission of instructor. 
Mr Borock 



251 Political Economy of Advanced Industrial 
Societies (bourse explores scope and implications 
of interdependence among advanced industrial 
societies in the global system, as well as political 
determinants of international economic 
developments. Alternative theoretical perspectives 
on international political economy are examined, 
as well as the nature of the structure and 
management of the international economic 
system that was created by the industrialized 
countries after World War II. Prerequisite: Political 
Science 103 or permission of instructor. 

Ms. Hartzell 

252 North-South Dialogue Course investigates 
the political economy of North-South relations. 
Examining the distribution of wealth between 
the developed and developing countries of the 
world, course focuses on political and economic 
factors that have made global inequality a 
central characteristic of the relationship 
between the North and South. Important issues 
of the contemporary period such as North- 
South trade, the debt crisis, foreign aid, and 
famine are investigated and the developmental 
prospects for the SoiUh are assessed. Prerequisite: 
Political Science 103 or permission of instructor. 
Ms. Hartzell 

340 Models and Policy Analysis Examination 
of national/regional policy options and 
consequences, using a global computer model 
to develop scenarios that focus on present or 
future international issues. Scenario topics 
include global warming, North-South disparities, 
environmental and ecological issues, economic 
development and trade, arms racing, and 
nuclear proliferation. Prerequisite: ]un\OT or 
seniors status, or permission of instructor. 
Mr. Borock 

344 U.S. National Security Policy Examination 
of the domestic and foreign policies developed 
by the U.S. to defend itself and its interests. 
Attention is given to the structure within which 
policy is formulated and implemented and the 
transition to post-Cold War defense objectives 
and strategies. Topics include decision making, 
defen.se spending, military intervention and 
peacekeeping, regionalism, terrorism, nuclear 
proliferation, and war fighting strategies. 
Prerequisite: Political Science 103 or permission 
of instructor. Political Science 242 is 
recommended. 
Mr Borock 



346 Approaches to International Relations 

Examination of tiie study of intfinational 
relations from tfie perspective of tfie realist/ 
neorealist and liberal/neoliberal theoretical 
tradidons. AttenUon is also given to the theories' 
impact on policy making. Topics include power, 
war, peace, integradon, international organization 
and law. Prerequisite: Political Science 103 or 
permission of instructor. 
Mr. Borock 

COMPARATIVE POLITICS 
260 West European Politics Study of the 
government and politics of France, Germany, 
and Great Britain. Analysis of the development 
of their political institutions, social and cultural 
factors affecting their political systems, 
alignment of political forces, and structures and 
processes of decision making. Prerequisite: 
Political Science 104 or permission of instructor. 
Mr Bohrer 

270 Government and Politics in China 

Introduction to the domestic politics of China, 
particularly since 1949. Topics include the 
historical legacy, ideology, political institutions, 
elite-mass relations, policy process, 
developmental strategies, and efforts at reform. 
Prerequisite: Political Science 104 or permission 
of instructor. 
Mr Gaenslen 

27 1 Government and Politics in Japan 

Introduction to post-World War II Japanese 
politics, involving comparison with political 
patterns elsewhere in the industrialized world. 
Topics include the historical legacy, political 
structures and processes, elite-mass relations, 
and the nature of the connection between 
business and government. Prerequisite: Political 
Science 104 or permission of instructor. 
Mr. Gaenslen 

275 Latin American Politics Introduction to 
Latin American politics. Focus is on political 
issues siuTounding economic development in 
the Latin American context: political 
preconditions, policy choices of Latin American 
regimes and leaders, and political consequences 
of development in general, and of those policy 
choices in particular. Course also compares the 
polidcal systems and development trajectories of 
Latin American countries to other countries in 
the world. Prerequisite: Political Science 104 or 
permission of instructor. 
Ms. Hartzell 



362 Peasants, Politics, and Rebellion Peasants as 
political actors, with a focus on rural ecology 
and economy, peasant mentality and culture, 
and theories of rebellion and revolution. 
Prerequisite: Political Science 1 04 or permission 
of instructor. 

Mr Gaenslen 

363 The Politics of Developing Areas 

Introduction to the study of political 
development and underdevelopment, including 
approaches to Third World politics, nature of 
traditional politics, disruptions caused by 
colonialism and imperialism, reformation of 
domestic politics, and contemporary political 
processes and problems. Prerequisite: Political 
Science 104 or permission of instructor. 
Mr Gaenslen 

POLITICAL THEORY 

280 Modern Political Ideologies Study of the 
philosophical content and the role of political 
ideologies in the modern world, with emphasis 
on liberalism, conservatism, socialism, feminism, 
anarchism, Marxism, communism, and fascism. 
Concept of ideology, historical development, 
and intersection and overlap of ideologies are 
also considered, as is the influence of political 
philosophy on ideologies and of ideologies on 
political behavior. Prerequisite: Political Science 
102 or permission of instructor. 
Mr Tajinenhaum 

38 1 American Political Thought Study of the 
development of political thought in America 
from the colonial period to the present. Course 
examines indixadual writers and movements, 
and considers the relationship of the ideas 
examined both to current issues and politics 
and to the broader tradition of political 
philosophy. Prerequisite: Political Science 102 or 
permission of instructor. 

Mr. Tan nen hail m 

382 Feminist Theory in American Politics Course 
examines the role of feminist political thought 
in American politics. Topics include various 
strains of feminist theory, including liberal, 
Marxist, radical, and anarchist theories, with 
particular emphasis on kinds of feminist 
political participation that emerge from liberal 
and anarchist political ideals. Course also 
provides a context in which key concepts such 
as politics and power may be reconceptualized 
from an American feminist point of view. 
Prerequisite: Political Science 102 or permission 
of instructor. 

Ms. lannello 



200, 300 Topics in Political Science Exploration 
of an announced topic cliosen each year or 
every other year by the department. Ainong the 
Special Topics currently offered are the following: 

200 The Holocaust and Modern Political Thought 

Study of the ideas of modern political thinkers 
from Machiavelli to Marx, Camus, and Wiesel, 
which provide insight into human behavior 
during the Holocaust — the systematic 
destruction of six million European Jews, and 
other targeted populations, by the Nazi German 
regime and their collaborators during the 1930s 
and 1940s. Prerequisites: Political Science 102 or 
permission of instructor. 
Mr Daws 

308 State Politics and Policy Comparative 
analysis of politics in the fifty states. An empirical 
analysis of the operation and functions of state 
political systems. Prerequisite: Political Science 
101 and 215 or permission of instructor. 
Mr Dawes 

400 Seminars Advanced study of domestic, 
foreign, or world politics, or political theory. A 
common core of reading and written reports by 
each student is provided. Topics differ each 
year, but several seminars are offered routinely 
and are listed below. 

401 Executive Policy Making Study of the 
constraints in the presidential policy-making 
process. Included is an examination of the 
bureaucratic, constituent, and congressional 
impact on the development of policy options 
in executive decision making. Students are 
responsible for a major term paper, which 
involves considerable independent research. 
Prerequisite: Political Science 101 and 224 or 
permission of instructor. 

Ms. Warshaw 

402 American Voting Behavior and Electoral 
Politics Survey of research on political 
participation and vote choice in the U.S. Also 
considered are various functions elections serve 
in a democracy, as well as the relative merits of 
aggregate and individual level approaches to 
the study of the politics of the mass electorate. 
Emphasizes contemporary American politics, 
but also includes analysis of historical and 
comparative aspects of voting beha\aor. Prerequisite: 
Political Science 101 or permission of instructor 
Mr Daxoes 

405 Executive-Legislative Relations Examination 
of the complex institutional and political 
relationship between the Executive and 



Legislative branches of the Federal government. 
Prerequisite: Political Science 101 and 224. 
Ms. Warshaiu 

406 Politics of Poverty Consideration of the 
definitions of poverty and the location of the 
problem within the federal polidcal system. 
Attention is given to competing 
ideologies/ theories of the development of 
poverty in urban areas and corresponding 
proposals/solutions offered by each perspective. 
Prerequisite: Political Science 101 or permission 
of instructor. 
Ms. lann.ello 

412 Women and the Political Economy of 
Development Examination of the central role 
that women in developing countries perform 
in the development process, as well as of the 
impact that development has on women. 
Analysis of the role that women play in household 
production, in the care of their families and 
their participation in both the formal and 
informal economies. Perspectives ranging from 
economists' efforts to accurately measure women's 
contributions to development, to political 
scientists' focus on the political power of 
women, to feminist critiques of mainstream 
development theories are employed. Prerequisites: 
Political Science 103 or permission of instructor. 
Ms. Harttzell 

414 Europe in Transition Focus on the profound 
political, social, and economic changes in the 
post-World War II era in West European politics. 
Topics include the crisis of the welfare state, 
immigration and the rise of parties of the far- 
right, the enlargement and enhancement of the 
European Union, the integration of East- 
Central Europe after the Cold War, and the 
devolution of power from national to sub- 
national bodies. Prerequisite: Political Science 104 
or permission of instructor. Political Science 260 
recommended. 
Mr Bohrer 

Individualized Study Intensive research on an 
approved topic presented in oral or written 
reports, under the supervision of a faculty 
member. 

Staff 

Internship Minimum six weeks of on-site 
participation in administration with a public or 
private organization under the supervision of a 
faculty member. Available fall or spring semesters 
or the summer. 
Staff 



Honors Opportunity for highly qualified 
students to participate in a program of original 
research under the supervision of a faculty 
member. Each student completes a thesis and 
presents her or his research in a public forum. 
Staff 

PSYCHOLOGY 

Professors Bomstein, D'Agostino, Pittman, and 

Riggs (Chairperson) 
Associate Professors Arterberry, Cain, Fincher-Kiefer, 

and Siviy 
Assistant Professor McCall 
Adjunct Associate Professor Stangor 
Adjunct Assistant Professor Goubet 

Overview 

The department emphasizes an empirical 
approach to psychology in all of its course 
offerings. The objective of the department is to 
promote knowledge of die causes of behavior, widi 
emphasis on the formation of a scientific 
attitude toward behavior and appreciation of 
the complexity of human personality. This 
objective is approached by providing a 
representative array of courses in psychology, 
including seminars, special topics, independent 
reading, and independent research, and by 
providing selected opportunities for field work. 
Direct experience with the major methods, 
instruments, and dieoretical tools of die discipline 
is emphasized throughout. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Psychology 101 is a prerequisite for all other 
courses in the department. Requirements for a 
major include Psychology 101, 205, 305, 341, 
two advanced psychology laboratory courses, 
one from each of the following two groups: (a) 
314, 321, 327, 328 and (b) 315, 316, 317, 336; 
three addidonal courses in psychology, and two 
laboratory courses taken in sequence within the 
same department in the Division of Natural 
Sciences. Most psychology laboratory courses 
have a 200-level course as a prerequisite. Majors 
must earn a grade of C or better in both 
Psychology 205 and 305. (Psychology 205 may not 
be repeated for the major.) Majors are strongly 
encouraged to take Computer Science 104. 

An individualized study, as well as experience in 
the use of the computer and/or training in 
computer science, are highly recommended for 
those planning to go on to graduate work. 
Students should consult with their advisers for 
specific information on the prerequisites for 
work at the graduate level in the specialized 
areas of psychology'. 



Honors Research Program 

This program provides outstanding students 
with an intensive research experience. Invitadons 
for participation may be extended to students 
who have a GPA of 3.5 in Psychology 101, 205, 
and 305. These courses should be completed by 
the end of the sophomore year. 

Students in this program take two advanced 
laboratory courses in the junior year (priority 
wdll be given at registration), and enroll in 
Psychology 464 (Honors Research) in their 
senior year (an honors thesis may he substituted 
for Psychology 464; see Honors Thesis course 
description below). Results of these honors 
research projects are presented at the Spring 
Undergraduate Research Colloquium. Students 
are also expected to attend departmental 
colloquia and other departmental events. 

Requirements for Departmental Honors 

Departmental Honors are awarded to graduating 
majors who, in the combined judgement of the 
staff, have demonstrated academic excellence in 
course-work in die major, imd who have completed 
the individualized empirical research project, 
honors research, or an honors thesis. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Psychology 101 and all 2004evel courses (except 
Psychology 205) may be used to fulfill the 
Liberal Aits Core requirement in social 
sciences. Psychology 205, open only to majors, 
may be used to satisfy the quantitative reasoning 
requirement. 

101 General Psychology Introducdon to basic 
scientific logic, facts, theories, and principles 
of psychology, including the study of human 
motivation, learning, emotion, perception, 
thought, intelligence, and personality'. Repeated 
spring semester. 
Staff 

205 Introduction to Statistics Introduction to 
descriptive and inferential statistical methods. 
Laboratory work involves the use of a computer 
software package that allows for the application 
of statistical procedures. Credit may not be 
granted for this course and Mathematics 107, 
Biology 260, or Economics 241. Offered each 
semester. Prerequisite: High school algebra. 
Required of all majors; open only to declared 
majors. Three class hours and three laboratory 
hours. 
Ms. Arterberry, Ms. Cain, Mr. Siviy 



214 Social Psychology Review of current psycho- 
logical theory and research in social psychology. 
Topics include atdtude and behavior change, 
conformity, attraction, interpersonal perception, 
and psychological aspects of social interaction. 
Ms. Riggs, Mr. Piltman, Mr. Stangor 

215 Human Cognition hitroduction to cognitive 
psychology. Topics covered include perception, 
attention, memory, learning, forgetting, language 
comprehension, reasoning, and problem solving. 
Theories are presented concerning cognitive 
processes, and empirical evidence is considered 
that might challenge or support these theories. 
Ms. Fincher-Kiefer 

2 1 6 Sensation and Perception Explores 
phenomena of sensation and perception from 
the perspective of experimental psychology. 
Emphasis is on understanding the mechanisms 
and processes that underlie our experiences of 
the material world. Small discussion groups 
explore special topics and areas of current 
research. Prerequisite: Psychology 101 or Biolog)' 
101 or 111. 

Mr McCall 

221 Basic Dynamics of Personality Introduction 
to major approaches to personality, including 
psychodynamic, behavioral, humanistic, and 
trait models. General issues and problems that 
arise in the study of personality are considered, 
and the importance of empirical evidence is 
emphasized. 
Mr. Bornsteiu 

225 Developmental Psychology: Infancy and 
Childhood Psychological development of the 
individual, from conception up to adolescence. 
Theory, methodology, and research are presented 
in the areas of perception, learning, cognition, 
language, social, emotional, and moral 
development. May not taken with Psychology 
227 or 228. 
Ms. Arterberry, i\Is. Cain 

236 Introduction to Brain and Behavior 

Introduction to the anatomical, physiological, 
and biochemical bases of himian behavior. 
Topics include sleep and dreams, development, 
learning and memory, motivation and emotions, 
language and other higher functions, and 
psychopathology. Emphasis is on developing 
an ability to conceptualize psychological 
phenomena in biological terms. 
Mr Siviy 



237 Psychopharmacology Examination of how 
psychoactive compounds affect the brain, 
behavior, and cognition. The major 
neurochemical systems of the brain and how 
psychoactive compoimds affect these systems 
are discussed at length. Topics include both 
recreational and psychotherapeutic agents. 
Methods used in psychopharmacology research 
are emphasized throughout the course. 
Mr Siiiiy 

305 Experimental Methods Introduction to 
scientific method and experimental design. 
Emphasis is on the logical development of 
new ideas, kinds and sources of error in 
experimentation, methods of control, design 
and analysis of experiments, and scientific 
commimication. Prere(fuisites: Psychology 101 
and 205. Three class hours and three 
laboratory hours. 
Ms. Riggs, Mr D Agostino, 
Mr Pitt man, Ms. Fincher-Kiefer 

314 Experimental Social Psychology Study of 
specific content areas in social psychology. 
Current theories and empirical data are used 
to illustrate experimental designs and relevant 
methodological considerations. Laboratory 
work includes design, execution, and analysis 
of two original experiments. Prerequisites: 
Psychology 214 and 305. Three class hours and 
the equivalent of three laboratory hours. 

Ms. Riggs, Mr Pittman 

315 Thinking and Cognition In-depth examination 
of the cognitive processes involved in memory, 
language comprehension, problem solving, and 
reasoning. Current research and existing theories 
are surveyed. Research is conducted in one area 
of investigation. Prerequisites: Psychology 215 and 
305. Three class hours and three laboratory hours. 
Ms. Fincher-Kiefer 

316 Perception Investigation of current topics in 
perception, with particular emphasis on high- 
level vision. Examples include object and face 
recognition, depth perception, visually guided 
reaching, and locomotion. These and other 
phenomena are analyzed, asking: What problems 
do human perceivers solve? How are these 
problems solved? How do perceptual abilities 
develop? Prerequisites: Psychology 216 and 305. 
Three class hours and the equivalent of diree 
laboratory hours. 

Ms. Arterberry, Mr. McCall 



317 Memory and Social Cognition Introduction 
to human memory and social cognition. Focus 
is on the cognitive structures and processes 
involved in social judgment. Errors and biases in 
human judgment are also examined. Prerequisite: 
Psychology .S05. Three class hours and three 
laboratory hours. 
Mr. D Agostino 

32 1 Assessment of Personality, Psychopathology, 
and Intelligence Introduction to methodological 
and conceptual issues involved in the 
construction and use of personality tests and 
measures of psychopathology. Survey of literature 
on test development and validation is followed 
by in-depth study of selected topics in 
personality, psychopatholog)', and intelligence. 
Each student also designs, conducts, analyzes, 
and writes up an experiment evaluating some 
aspect of a personality test or measure. 
Prerequisites: Psychology 221 and 305. Three class 
hours and the equivalent of three laboratory 
hours. 
Mj: Bornstri)} 

326 Abnormal Psychology Introduction to 
psychopathology and abnormal behavior, with 
paiticular attention to conceptual, mediodological, 
and ethical issues involved in the study of 
abnormal psychology. Models of psychopathology 
and psychodiagnosis are discussed, with an 
emphasis on the empirical evidence for different 
models. Prerequisite: Psychology 221. 

Mr Bornstein 

327 Experimental Cognitive Development 

Intensive suidy of one or more areas of 
cognitive development. Emphasis is on the 
unique characteristics of research with children. 
Laboratory work is conducted in a preschool or 
day care center. Design, execution, and analysis 
of a research project is required. Prerequisites: 
Psychology 225; Psychology 305. Three class 
hours and three laboratory hours. 
Ms. Arterberry, Mr. McCall 

328 Laboratory in Social Development Intensive 
study ofOne or more areas of social and 
personalit)' development, utilizing observational 
and experimental methods. Emphasis is on the 
unique characteristics of research with children. 
Laboratory work is conducted in a preschool or 
day care center and includes the design, execution, 
and analysis of a research project. Prerequisites: 
Psychology 225; Psychology 205 and 305. Three 
class hours and three laboratory hours. 

Ms. Cain 



336 Behavioral Neuroscience Advanced discussion 
of topics included in Psychology 236, as well as 
an in-depth treatment of brain development 
and the neurochemical basis of behavior. 
Prerequisites: Psychology 236 or 237 and Psycholog\ 
305 or permission of the instructor. Three class 
hours and three laboratory hours. 
Mr Siviy 

34 1 History of Experimental Psychology Review 
of the historical development of scientific 
psychology. Emphases are on early foundations 
of major conceptual issues and on the role of 
the reference experiment in setting the course 
of modern psychological research. Prerequisite: 
Psychology 305. 
Ms. Cain, Mr. McCall 

400 Seminar Opportunity to work on a selected 
topic in a small group under the guidance of a 
faculty member. Not offered every year. Topic 
for a given semester is atmounced in advance. 
Enrollment by permission of instructor. May 
be repeated. 
Staff 

450 Individualized Study Tutorial opportunity 
to do intensive and critical reading and to write 
a term paper on a topic of special interest. 
Student is expected to become thoroughly 
familiar with reference books, microfilms, and 
scientific journals available for library research 
in the field of psychology. Prerequisite: 
Permission of instructor. May be repeated. 
Staff 

460 Individualized Empirical Research Design 
and execution of an empirical study involving 
the collection and analysis of data in relation to 
some psychological problem under the supervi.sion 
of a faculty member. Students are required to 
present an acceptable research proposal no 
later than four weeks following the beginning 
of the semester or to withdraw from the course. 
Research culminates in a paper. Prerequisite: 
Permission of instructor. May be repeated. 

464 Honors Research Students in the Honors 
Research Program take this course in their 
senior year. Course has two components: (a) a 
research project, similar to that described under 
Individualized Empirical Research, in which 
each student designs and executes an empirical 
study under the supervision of a staff member; 
and (b) an honors seminar in which honors 
students present and discuss their research 
projects. Students may elect to do their research 
project in either the fall or spring semester. 



Seminar meets both semesters, and all students 
participate in all of the seminar meetings. One 
course credit is given in the spring semester. 
Prerequisites: Participation in the Honors Research 
Program and completion of two advanced 
laboratory courses. 
Staff 

466 Honors Thesis Designed to meet needs of 
the clearly superior student. During the senior 
year each participant engages in an original 
program of research under the direction of a 
thesis committee. In addition to completing a 
formal thesis, each student presents and 
discusses his or her research before the entire 
staff. Successful completion of the program 
entitles the student to receive credit for two 
courses that can be applied towards a psychology 
major. Prerequisite: By invitation of the 
department only. 
Staff 

473 Internship A minimum of 160 hoius of on- 
the-job experience on a mental health, human 
resource, or research position. Students must be 
sponsored by a faculty member, and receive 
approval by the internship coordinator. Available 
during the fall or spring semesters or during the 
summer. Course does not count toward minimum 
requirements in a major or minor; graded S/U. 

RELIGION 

Distinguished Visiting Professor Aftab 
Associate Professor C. Myers (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professors Gray and Sommer 
Instructor Altieri 
Adjunct Instructor Jiang 

Overview 

Essential to an understanding of the past and 
the present is a study of the varied religious 
experiences and traditions of humankind. 
The department offers courses in sacred texts, 
historical traditions, and religious thought and 
institutions, all of which investigate the complex 
phenomenon of religion. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

A major consists of ten courses. Two may be 
taken outside the department; two must be at 
the 200-level; one must be a 300- or a second 
400-level course. A major must also take at least 
one of the following: Religion 460, 470, or 474. 
The department encourages qualified students 
to consider internships and/or overseas study, 
including the junior year abroad. 



A minor consists of six courses. One of the six 
may be outside the department, but not in a 
student's major; at least one must be at the 200- 
level and at least one must be at the 300- or 400- 
level. 

Any of the following courses, outside the 
department may be counted toward either a 
major or minor. Other courses may be possible 
with the permission of the department. 

Classics 230 Classical Mythology 

Greek 204 New Testament Greek 

Hist. 3 1 1 Medieval Europe 

Hist. 3 1 3 Renaissance and Reformation 

IDS 2 1 1 Perspectives on Death and Dying 

IDS 229 South Asia: Contemporary Issues 

in Historical Perspective 
IDS 239 Survey of Soiuh Asian Literature 
IDS 267 Theatre and Religion 
Latin 306 St. Augustine 
Phil. 105 Contemporary Moral Issues 
Phil. 205 Ancient Philosophy 
Phil. 337 Philosophy of Religion 

The department's rationale for numbering 
courses is as follows: 

lOO-level courses tend to be topical and thematic. 

200-lniel courses are surveys that usually take a 
historical approach. Neither 100 nor 200 courses 
have a prerequisite. 

300-level courses are more narrowly focused or 
specialized, often examining in greater detail an 
issue or area treated more generally in other 
courses. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

All religion courses can be counted toward 
satisfying the three-course humanities 
requirement in the Liberal Arts Core. The 
following religon courses meet the Liberal Arts 
Core requirement in non-Western culture: 248, 
249, 250, 251 , 252, 256, 340, 350. 

101 Introduction to Religion Inuoduction to basic 
elements entailed in the study of religion such as 
sacred space, sacred time, ritual, pilgrimage, 
cosmology, ritual, scripture, and the afterlife. 
Course explores case studies from various cultural 
uaditions diroughout the world. 
Ms. Altieri 

105 The Bible and Modern Moral Issues 

Investigation of the relevance of the Bible for 
life in the twentieth cenmry. Some issues studied 
from a biblical perspective include sex roles and 
sexual relations, economic inequities, and legal 



injustices. Among topics to be covered are 
marriage and divorce, homosexuality, women's 
rights, poverty, war, and peace. Three class hours. 
No prerequisites. Open to first-year students 
and sophomores only. 
Mr. C. Myers 

1 17 Topics in Biblical Studies Intensive study of a 
religious topic, problem, writer, or theme in the 
field of biblical studies. Offered at the discretion 
of department. 
Staff 

127 Topics in History of Religions Intensive study 
of a religious topic, problem, writer, or theme in 
the field of the history of religions. Offered at 
discretion of department. 

Staff 

1 27A Topics: Introduction to Islam Exploration 
of the sacred text of Islam, the Koran, and a 
survey of the origins and development of 
Islamic institutions from inception to the 
present. Course presents Islam as it is 
incorporated into the daily lives of its followers, 
and considers the growth and development of 
the cidtiual, political, legal, theological, and 
mystical aspects of Islam from the early to the 
modern periods. Course readings emphasize 
primary source materials. 
Ms. Aftab 

129 Introduction to Judaism Overview of ancient 
and contemporary Jewish belief and practice 
through an examination of sacred texts, theology, 
and history. Special attention is given to Jewish 
theology, holidays, and life-cycle. 
Staff 

1 37 Topics in Religious Thought Intensive study 
of a religious topic, problem, writer, or theme 
in the field of religious thought. Offered at 
discretion of department. 

Staff 

1 37A Topics: Gender Equity and Peace in Islam 

Consideration of issues of great debate based on 
the Koran and the Sunna and exploration of 
such issues as the concept of a gender-free idea 
of the force of the creation of God. How were 
these issues carried into the Arabian and Asian 
traditions of Islam? What does it mean to have a 
genderless society? Course also explores notions 
of peace and conflict resolution framed in the 
Koran and examines the transformation of 
these notions from passages in the Koran and 
considers how they are put into practice today. 
Ms. Aftab 



1 37B Topics: Images of Islam in Art and 
Architecture Survey of the early growth and 
later developments of Islamic art and 
architecture, painting, calligraphy, and book 
illumination. Course focuses on the 
development of Islamic art and architecture and 
their relationship to the Muslim faith. How is 
creativity described in the Koran? How does 
Islam shape the images of the modern skyline in 
Muslim countries, and what messages are 
conveyed by those images? 
Ms. Aftab 

141 Religion and Culture in the U.S. Study of how 
"religion" and "cultiue" intersect, using methods 
and insights from the academic study of religion, 
anthropology, folklore studies, and Native 
American studies to see how scholars have 
(mis) represented indigenous traditions. Trickster 
narratives serve as a window to see firsthand that 
ideas about culture shape ideas about religion 
(and vice versa) . 
Ms. Altieri 

144 Ritual Thinking: Ritual Doing Examination of 
such questions as how religious ritual differs 
from everyday routine or how the academic 
study of religion makes such a distinction — and 
why? Course pursues such questions by means of 
Western and non-Western case studies, seeing 
that ritual is always connected to particular 
commimities of belief — communities with their 
own histories, traditions, and contexts; with 
their own tmderstandings of space, time, and 
qualifies of being in the world. 
Ms. Altieri 

204 History, Literature, and Religion of the 
Hebrew Scriptures Study of the history, 
literature, and religion of the Hebrews from the 
fime of Abraham to about 500 B.C.E. History 
and culture of Israel are related to those of 
surrounding nations, with special emphasis on 
the relevancy of archeological data. 

Mr. C. Myers 

205 History, Literature, and Religion of the New 
Testament Introduction to writings of the New 
Testament as they originated in their Greco- 
Roman milieu. Emphasis is on the distinctive 
piuposes and main content of each writing. Use 
of source, form, and redaction criticism as tools 
for the academic study of the New Testament is 
demonstrated. 

Mr. C. Myers 



^^^ 



224 Religions of African Americans Same as 
AAS 224. (See African American Studies.) 

225 Religion in the Civil Rights Movement 

Exploration of religion's function during the 
Civil Rights Movement. Course examines the 
historical context that gave birth to the Civil 
Rights Movement and assesses the Church's 
vacillation and religion's ability to bring 
constructive, humane change. Considerable 
attention is given to the efforts of African 
.\merican Christian women, Martin Luther King 
Jr., and Malcolm X. Intersection of Christianity, 
Judaism, Islam, Black Nationalism, agnosticism, 
and atheism is also discussed. 
Mr. Gray 

24 1 Religions of South Asia Survey of the 
religions of South Asia — Hinduism, Buddhism, 
Jainism, Sikhism, and Islam. These traditions 
are considered in their original forms and in 
their growth and development over the centuries. 
Course is historically based, but attention is also 
given to the modern period. Course materials 
include translations of original texts and films. 
Much attention is given to India, with some 
consideration also given to the traditions of 
Nepal and other South Asian countries. 
Ms. Aftab 

244 Introduction to Buddhism Introduction to 
the beliefs and practices of the Buddhist 
tradition, from their origins in ancient India to 
their modern interpretations in the writings of 
the Beat generation in twentieth-century 
America. Course surveys the development of 
Buddhism in China, Tibet, and Japan, with 
attention given to both primary texts and 
historical studies. 
Mr. Jiang 

248 Religions of China General introduction 
to major religious traditions of China through 
textual, historical, and social studies of 
Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. 
Attention is also given to an assessment of 
their contemporary viabilitv'. 

A/5. Somrner 

249 The Religions of Japan Special emphasis on 
understanding the religious thinking of the 
Japanese, ancient and modern, through textual, 
historical, and cultiual study of religious 
traditions: Shinto and folk beliefs. Buddhism, 
Confucianism, and Taoism. 

Ms. Sommer 



251 Looking for the Tao Introduction to the 
major texts of classical Chinese thought. Course 
surveys the works, in English translation, of the 
most important thinkers of the Confucian, 
Taoist, Legalist, and Mohist schools of the fifth 
to the third centuries B.C.E and explores their 
significance for social, educational, and 
environmental concerns in modern East Asia. 
Ms. Sommer 

252 Women in Buddhism Historical survey of 
writings aboiu women, both human and divine, 
in Buddhism in SoiUh and East Asia. Course 
considers the religious beliefs and practices of 
women in their positions as nuns, abbesses, 
laywomen, and social activists. Al.so explores the 
attributes of goddesses, demonesses, and other 
conceptualizations of the divine female in Asian 
religions. 

Ms. Sommer 

254 Confucianism Survey of the religious and 
philosophical traditions of Confucianism in East 
Asia from ancient to modern times. Course 
explores such notions as ritual, education, human 
nature, self-cultivation, and quiet sitdng. Attention 
is also given to women's learning and women's 
education in ancient and later imperial times. 
Ms. Sommer 

256 Introduction to African Religion Exploration 
of the history and practice of African religion, 
from its origin in ancient Africa to manifestations 
in Africa and the Americas. Examines the Twa, 
Ethiopia, Kemet, Moors, Dogon, Ifa, Voudim, 
Candomble, religious belief and practice during 
enslavement, Moorish Science Temple, Islam 
among African Americans, African American 
Christianity, and African Centered Spirituality. 
Philosophical content, myths, rituals, consequential 
personalities and movements, societal place, 
and music are considered. No prerequisite. 

Mr Gray 

257 Spiritual Power in African Religion 

Examination of spiritual power and its various 
manifestations and functions in African religion. 
Course considers and attempts to answer the 
following and other questions: Wliat is spiritual 
power? Wliere does it come from? How does 
one acquire it? How does it work — in healing, 
through plants, herbs,diet, through words, 
chants/prayers, music, ancestors, totems, 
animals, objects, rituals? What is the relation- 
ship between magic and spiritual power? No 
prerequisite. 
Mr Gray 



3 1 1 Jesus in the First Three Gospels Examination 
of the Jesus tiadition, as inteqareted in the Gospels 
of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, using techniques 
of source, form, redaction, and literary criticism. 
Special attendon is given to the distinctive 
perspective of each Gospel. Prerequisite: Religion 
205 or permission of instructor. Not offered 
every year. 

Mr C. Myers 

312 The Gospel of John Exploration of the 
thought and content of the Fourth Gospel. 
Effort is made to determine the background 
purposes for writing, and the communit)' 
addressed by John's Gospel. The quesdon of its 
relationship to the Synopdc Gospels and the 
Episdes of John is included. Prerequisite: Religion 
205 or permission of instructor. Not offered 
every year. 

Mr C. Myers 

314 The Apostle Paul Study of the life, letters, 
and legacy of the early Christian, Paul, through 
a careful consideradon of primary and selected 
secondary sources. Particular attention is given 
to understanding the Pauline literature in its 
historical context. Ancient and modern 
interpretadons of Paul's life and work are also 
treated. Prerequisite: Religion 205 or permission 
of instructor. Not offered every year. 
Mr C. Myers 

324 Martin and Malcolm Exploration of religion 
in the lives of Mardn Luther King Jr. and 
Malcolm X. Course examines religious and 
social forces that influenced their early 
development and life commitments, and 
considers how their theologies influenced each 
other and impacted our country and globe. 
Course materials include pivotal speeches, 
interviews, books, and live film footage. 
Mr Gray 

340 Cosmolgy of the Body Exploration of the 
religious, symbolic, and magical dimensions of 
cross-cultural concepts of the himian body. 
Course surveys religious attitudes toward such 
topics as resurrection, reincarnation, 
mutilation, cannibalism, fasting, and body 
decoration. Not offered every year. 
Ms. Sommer 

343 Mythology and Religion Mytholog)' and 
religion have always been companions. Course 
aims at understanding this friendship. Students 
familiarize themselves with certain mythological 
artifacts, as well as current "surrogate myths." 



Primary focus is an appreciation of the process 
of "mythmaking," which is approached from 
several cridcal viewpoints. Not offered every year. 

Staff 

350 Buddhist Ethics Critical study of Buddhist 
ethics for students who have completed an 
indoductory study of Buddhism. Course examines 
individual ethical issues such as human rights, 
natural resources, abortion, organ transplant, 
gambling, and child-prostitudon in contemporar\ 
"Buddhist" societies, as well as the scriptural and 
theoredcal foundations of Buddhism. Not 
offered every year. 
Staff 

460 Individualized Study for Majors and Minors 

Senior Project must be approved by department. 

470 Individualized Study and Internships 

Staff 

474 Summer Internships 

Staff 

IDS 2 1 1 Perspectives on Death and Dying For 

course descripdon, see Interdeparmiental Studies. 
Mr C. Myers 

SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY 

Professors Emmons, Heisler, and Hinrichs (Chairperson) 
Associate Professors Betances, Gill, and Potuchek 
Assistant Professors Hendon and Hoiuard 
Adjunct Associate Professor Rosenberg 

Overview 

Studies in the department investigate social 
organization, social action, and the role of 
culture in shaping human behavior. The courses 
explore a variety of approaches that reflect the 
diversity of perspectives used by sociologists and 
anthropologists. Some perspectives start with 
individuals in interaction with each other and 
focus on how they develop meaningful social 
relationships, groups, and institutions. Others 
focus on how individuals are molded by 
insdtutions, groups, and cultural beliefs, while 
yet others examine the funcdonal or conflictual 
relationships among clas.ses and subcultures. By 
emphasizing the scientific and comparative 
study of social institutions and cultures, the 
faculty guide students in analyzing social 
realities, dealing with contemporary problems, 
and promoting social change. The department 
is committed to experiential education, field 
projects, and internships. 



A 



The goals of the department's program are to 
contribute to the liberal arts education at 
Gettysburg College, to acquaint students with 
sociological and anthropological perspectives, 
and to help them meet their academic and 
career needs. The program prepares majors for 
graduate studies and careers in fields such as 
sociology, urban planning, public policy, social 
work, health care, communications, education, 
criminology, law, cultural anthropology, and 
archaeology. 

The department has a chapter of Alpha Kappa 
Delta, the Sociological Honor Society. Majors 
are eligible for the Harry C. and Catherine 
Noffsinger Hartzell Award and the Holly 
Gabriel Award. Students who successfully 
complete a senior project and thesis are eligible 
for honors. Several majors serve as student 
representatives to department faculty meetings 
to provide a voice for students. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Major requirements: The deparUnent offers a 
major in sociology and a combined major in 
anthropology-sociology. Students who major in 
sociology take a minimum of ten full-credit 
courses. Majors must take Sociology 101, 302, 
and 306 and earn a grade of C- or better in diese 
courses. They must also take the capstone 
seminar (Sociology 400) , one of the inequality 
courses (Sociology 202, 209, or 217); one of the 
seminars in sociological theory (Sociology 310, 
311, 312, or 313); and a second 300-level 
department course in methods (either Sociology' 
303 or 323) . The remaining three courses are 
electives chosen from among the sociology' 
course offerings (excluding the Sociology 470 
courses and normally excluding the Sociology 
450 courses), and may include one anthropology- 
course. None of the courses required for the 
major may be taken S/U. 

Students who select the combined major in 
anthropology-sociology take a minimum of ten 
full-credit courses, witli at least four courses in 
each discipline. Anthropology-sociology majors 
must take Anthropology 103 and 105, and 
Sociology 101 and 302, and earn a grade of C- 
or better in each of these courses. They must also 
take a capstone seminar (Anthropology 400 or 
Sociology 400); a second 300-level department 
course in metliods (either Sociology 303, 
Sociology 323, or Anthropology 323); and a 
theory course (Anthropology 308 or Sociology 
306, and earn G- or better) . Students also take 



three electives in anthropology and sociology 
course offerings (excluding the Anthropology or 
Sociology 470 courses and normally excluding 
the 450 courses) . None of the courses required 
for the major may be taken S/U. 

Minor requirements: Students with a major in 
sociology may minor in anthropology, but 
students with the combined major in 
anthropology-sociology may not minor in the 
department. The sociology minor requires six 
courses: Sociology 101, 302, and 306; and three 
electives from the sociology course offerings 
(normally excluding the Sociology 450 and 470 
courses) . Six courses are required for the 
anthropology minor: Anthropology 103 and 
105; either Anthropology 308 or 400; and three 
electives from the Anthropology course 
offerings (one of which may be an 
Anthropology 450 course). 

Prerequisites 

Sociology 101 is a prerequisite for most other 
sociology courses (except as noted in coiuse 
descriptions) . The Sociology 302 methods 
course is a prerequisite for other 300-level 
courses in methods (e.g.. Sociology 303 or 323). 
The Sociology 306 theory course is a 
prerequisite for other 300-level courses in 
theory (Sociology 310, 311, 312, or 313). Both 
Sociology 302 and 306 are prerequisites for 
Sociology 400. 

Most upper-level anthropology courses require 
either die Anthropology 103 or 105 introductory 
courses (except as noted in course 
descriptions). The Sociology 302 methods 
course is required for the Anthropology 309 and 
323 methods courses, and it is strongly 
recommended for the Anthropology 308 theory 
course. Anthropology 308 is a prerequisite for 
the Anthropology 400 seminar. 

Individualized Study 

In response to varying needs, interests, and 
expertise of individual students and faculty 
members, the department provides means for 
students to pursue independent research and 
studies through individual tutorials, fieldwork 
applications or direct experiences, internships, 
and other opportunities to expand specialized 
interests. To receive credit for these projects, 
students confer with a particular faculty 
member in the department and register for 
Anthropology 450s or 470s, Anthropology 460, 
Sociology 450s or 470s, or Sociology 460. 
Students who want to be considered for the 



department's Honors Program are required to 
register for either Anthropology 460 or 
Sociology 460. These students should consult 
with a department facult)' member in their 
junior year. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

All full-credit sociology courses may be used to 
fulfill the College's Liberal Arts Core 
requirement in social sciences, except 300-level 
methods courses (Sociology 302, 303, and 323). 
Sociology 303 satisfies the requirement in 
quantitative reasoning. All full-credit 
anthropolog)' courses may be used to fulfill the 
College's Liberal Aits Core requirement in 
social sciences, except 300-level methods 
courses (Anthropology 309 and 323) . The 
following Anthropolog)' courses fulfill the 
requirement in non-Western cultures: 
Anthropolog)' 103, 220, 228, 232, 234, 235, 236, 
237, and 30 L 

ANTHROPOLOGY 

103 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology 

Comparative study of social practices and 
cultural systems in various societies, using a 
series of case studies and topics dealing mainly 
with non-Western cultures or Western attempts 
to understand them. Course gives an overview 
of the history of cultural anthropology, major 
questions and theoretical debates, fieldwork 
and research methods, and the relevance of 
anthropology to the modern world. No 
prerequisite. 
Ms. Howard 

105 World Prehistory and Human Evolution 

hitroduction to physical anthropology and 
archaeology, the two subdisciplines of 
anthropology that focus on the question of 
human biological and cultural change through 
time. Course examines how anthropologists 
interpret human genetic variation, the behavior 
of nonhuman primates, the evolution of fossils 
hominids, and major developments in technology 
and material culture. No prerequisite. 
Ms. Hendon 

220 World Cultures Study of cultural patterns 
and .social practices around the world, viewing 
them through the distinctive lens of cultural 
anthropology. Course questions models of the 
world and concepts of culture. No prerequisite. 
Ms. Hori'ard 

228 Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Gender and 
Sex Roles Examination of the social roles of 
women and men, the dynamics of sexual 



identity, and the ideologies of gender in various 
societies. Course explores broad theoretical 
issues (such as biological vs. cultural determinants; 
gender stratification and inequality; the effects 
of social, cultural, and economic variables), as 
well as a range of specific societal studies. 
Pr«-^^uw2te' Anthropolog)' 103. 
Ms. Hendon 

232 Precolumbian Civilizations of Mesoamerica 

hitroduction to the organization and 
development of Native American civilizations in 
Mexico and Central America. Evidence from 
archaeological and ethnographic research. 
Native texts and art, and Spanish Colonial 
writings is used to study religious beliefs, 
sociopolitical organization, economic 
relationships, and intellectual achievements of 
such groups as the Olmec, Maya, and Aztecs. 
Period prior to the sixteenth-century Spanish 
conquest is emphasized, but modern indigenous 
cultures are also studied. No prerequisite. 
Ms. Hendon 

234 Principles of Archaeology Study of the 
practice of archaeology — the combination of 
methods and theoretical concepts that together 
result in archaeological interpretations of past 
human behavior and society. Using a case study 
approach, students are introduced to the nature 
of archaeological interpretation. Preiequisitr. 
Anthropology 103, 105, or one 200-level course. 
Ms. Hendon 

235 Early Civilizations in Cross-Cultural 
Perspective Study of the origins and 
development of the earliest urban societies. 
Compares and contrasts examples from 
different parts of the world, including China, 
Mesopotamia, Mesoamerica, Egypt, and South 
Asia. Using archaeological data, written texts, 
art, and other sources, the course studies the 
causes and consequences of the shift to more 
centralized political systems and more 
specialized economic organization. Course takes 
both cross-cultural and historical perspectives. 
Integral to the course is a discussion of how 
civilization and the state have been defined. 
Prerequisite. Anthropolog)' 103, 105, or con.sent 
of instructor. 

Ms. Hendon 

236 Precolumbian Civilizations of South America 

Introduction to the organization and 
development of Native American civilizations in 
South America. Evidence from archaeological 
and ethnographic research. Native texts and art. 



and Spanish Colonial writings is used to study 
religious beliefs, sociopolitical organization, 
economic relationships, and intellectual 
achievements of such groups as the Inka, 
Moche, and Chavin. Period prior to the 
sixteenth-century Spanish conquest is 
emphasized, but modern indigenous cultures 
are also studied. No prerequisite. 
Ms. Hendon 

237 African and Afro-Latino Cultures: Studies in 
Power and Ritual, (^ross-cultural comparisons of 
politics, religion, and identity in Africa and the 
African diaspora of Latin America and the 
Caribbean. Course explores case studies of 
religious rituals and spirit possession, slave 
revolts and wars of independence, cultural 
movements and ethnic mobilization on both 
sides of the southern Atlantic. Prerequisite: Prior 
course in Anthropolog)', African American 
Studies, or Latin American Studies. 

Ms. Hoxuard 

238 The Anthropology of Contemporary Cultural 
Issues Exploration of how anthropologists 
analyze current issues in international affairs 
and industrialized societies, including the 
L'nited States. Case studies illustrate 
anthropological perspectives on topics such as 
nationalist movements and international 
development, immigration and multiculturalism, 
urban gangs and suburban consumers, 
changing gender roles and reproduction 
practices, modern myths and rituals. Coinse also 
discusses challenges of conducting fieldwork in 
diversified societies and ethical dilemmas arising 
in politically sensitive .settings. No prerequisite. 
Ms. Howard 

250-270 Topics in Anthropology Exploration of 
a particular topic, chosen by a facult)' member. 

274 Practicum in Archaeological Analysis 

Practical learning experience in archaeological 
data analysis and research. Working with staff of 
the Gettysburg National Military Park, students 
carry out labwork, including artifact processing 
and classification, data entry, and re.search. 
Exact mix of activities varies from semester to 
semester. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor and 
previous course work in archaeology, history, or 
Ci\'il War Era Studies. One-half credit course; 
may be repeated with consent of instructor. 
(Same as CWES 274.) 
Ms. Hendon 



301 Social Life of Things Cross-cultural 
exploration of how members of various 
societies, past and present, invest objects with 
symbolic meanings as they produce, utilize, and 
exchange them in everyday life. Drawing 
primarily on non-W'estern case studies, the 
course integrates perspectives from studies of 
material culture in fields such as economic 
anthropology, archaeology, and the 
anthropology' of art. These resources illuminate 
the many ways that things acquire a kind of 
metaphorical life in association with the lives of 
people who use them. Prerequisite: Anthropology 
103 or 105, plus another Anthropology course. 
Ms. Hendon, Ms. Howard 

308 History of Anthropological Theory Analysis of 
the rise oi anthropology and development of its 
major theoretical models. Course traces the 
precursors of anthropology', the emergence of 
the field of "anthropology" and its subdisciplines 
in the nineteenth century, the elaboration of 
the culture concept and fieldwork methods in 
the twentieth, and recent trends in post-colonial 
anthropology. Prerequisite: AxUhropology 103 or 
105. Sociology 302 is strongly recommended. 
Offered every other year. 
Ms. Hendon, Ms. Howard 

323 Field Methods in Social Research Seminar on 
how sfjciok)gists and anthropologists conduct 
ethnographic fieldwork. Topics include how 
theory informs research, ethical issues, and 
developing descriptive fieldnotes. Students 
carry out original research projects, using field 
methods such as participant observation and 
qualitative interviewing, and learn how to 
gather data, analyze results, and write up 
ethnographic reports. Prerequisite: C- or better 
in Sociolog)' 302. (Same as Sociology 323.) 
Ms. Howard, Ms. Gill 

400 Anthropology Seminar Intensive culminating 
research experience for anthropology-sociolog)' 
majors. Seminar is designed around particular 
topics or debates, which provide unifying themes 
for students' research projects. Course guides 
students as they consolidate their understanding 
of the anthropological perspective. Prerequisite: 
Anthropology 103, 105, and 308, or consent of 
instructor. Offered every other year. 
Ms. Hendon, Ms. Honiard 

450s, 470s individualized Study Independent 

study in fields of special interest outside the 
scope of regular course offerings. Prerequisite: 
Consent of faculty sponsor. 
Staff 



460 Research Course Individual investigation 
of a research topic in anthropology under the 
guidance of a faculty member. Topic must be 
approved by department. Project culminates in 
written and oral presentations of a formal 
paper to the faculty. Required for departmental 
honors. Student.s must submit a proposal a 
minimum of two weeks before the end of the 
semester preceding the proposed study. 
Prerequisite: Consent of department. Open to 
juniors and seniors only. 
Staff 

SOCIOLOGY 

101 introduction to Sociology Study of basic 
structures and dynamics of human societies, 
focusing on the development of principles and 
concepts used in sociological analysis and 
research. Topics include culture, socialization, 
social institutions, stratification, and social change. 
No prerequisite. 
Staff 

202 Wealth, Power, and Prestige Examination of 
distribution of valued resources and associated 
social ranking and rating systems. Topics include 
social classes, social mobility, economic and 
political power, and informal prestige and fame. 
Prerequisite: SocioXo^ 101. 
Mr. Emmons, Ms. Heisler 

204 Sociology of Mass Media and Popular Culture 

Anal)'sis of broadcast and print media institutions. 
Perspectives include the "production of 
culture," cultural content analysis, socialization 
effects, and media coverage. Various popular 
cultiue genres, both mass and folk, are 
included, with special emphasis on music and 
film. Prerequisite: SocioXo^ 101. 
Mr. Emmons 

206 Sociology of the Family Analysis of the 
family as a social institution. C-ourse takes a 
comparative and sociohistorical approach to 
the study of American families, with a particular 
focus on the interaction between family and 
economy. Topics include intrafamily relations, 
work-family links, and family policy. Prerequisite: 
Sociology 101. 

Ms. Potitrhek 

207 Criminology Inuoduction to die sociological 
study of crime. Course begins with a discussion 
of criminal law and the extent of crime, then 
continues with a comprehensive examination 
of police, courts, and corrections. Theories of 
crime causation, criminal behavior systems, and 



victimology are also examined. Prerequisite: 
Sociology 101. 
Mr. Hinrichs 

209 Race and Ethnic Relations Study of the 
diverse manifestations of race and ethnicity 
around the world, with particular focus on the 
American experience. Topics include 
immigration and assimilation, prejudice and 
discrimination, and the construction and 
reconstruction of ethnic and racial boundaries 
and identities. Prerequisite: Sociology 101. 
Ms. Heisler 

1 1 2 Deviance, Diversity, and Difference 

Examination of the concept of deviance and 
exploration of variotis sociological theories and 
perspectives for viewing deviant phenomena. In- 
depth analysis of alcohol and drug use, 
variations in sextial behavior, pornography, 
violence, child abuse, and homelessness. 
Pr^^^wmte.' Sociology 101. 
Mr. Hinrichs 

217 Gender Inequality Examination of patterns 
of gender stratification in American social 
structures. Course centers on how class, race, 
and gender influence the experiences of women 
and men in families and occupations. Topics 
include images of women in the media, 
constrtiction of gender, and movements for 
change. Pr^e^Mm^f.- Sociology 101. 
Ms. Gill 

23 1 Self in Society Study of theories of social 
psychology, methods of social psychological 
research, the self, socialization, social roles, 
social relationships, communication, and group 
behavior. Emphases include group dynamics 
and differences in male/female perceptions and 
social behaviors. Readings include theoretical 
works and emphasize classic and recent research 
in the field. Prerequisite: Sociology 101. 
Ms. Rosenberg 

233 Science, Knowledge and the New Age 

Exploration of science as a social institution. 
History and ideology of science as an objective 
method are examined, drawing from Merton, 
Kuhn and others. "Antiscience" and "New 
Science" perspectives include postmodernist, 
feminist, and New Age views. UFO studies and 
other paranormal topics receive special 
attention as alternative knowledge systems. 
Prerequisite: Sociology 101 or Anthropology 103 
or consent of instructor. 
Mr. Emmons 



239 Health, Medicine, and Society Analysis of 
social factors that influence health and illness 
and of health care as a social institution. Topics 
include the cultural construction of health and 
illness, the sick role, the effects of social 
inequality on health and illness, health 
occupations and professions, and the social 
organization of health care systems in various 
societies. Prerequisite: Sociology 101. 
Ms. Potuchek 

262 Social Development of Latin America 

Formation of Latin American republics, focusing 
on interplay between internal processes and 
external influences. Students examine Latin 
Americans' struggle for political and cultural 
integration to overcome their colonial heritage 
and to build nation states. Same as LAS 262. 
No prerequisite. 
Mr. Betances 

lil Society and Politics in Latin America: A Case 
Study of the Dominican Republic Study of the 
sociopolitical evolution of the nineteenth- and 
twentieth-century Dominican Republic. Course 
examines the tension between dictatorship and 
democracy, changing economic patterns of 
Dominican life, and influence of the U.S. military 
interventions of 1916-1924 and 1965-1967 on 
the modern Dominican state. Same as LAS 267. 
No prerequisite. 
Mr. Betances 

271 Gay and Lesbian Studies I Introductory 
examination of important issues underlying 
gay and lesbian studies. Discussion focuses on 
homosexuality cross-culturally; the history of the 
gay rights movement in American society' and 
the historical events that have shaped gay, lesbian, 
and bisexual identity; theories of sexuality; 
religion and homosexuality; homophobia; 
structure of the gay and lesbian community, 
including issues related to race and ethnicity; 
"coming out" process; and violence against gays 
and lesbians. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. 
One-half credit course. 
Mr. Hinrichs 

ni Gay and Lesbian Studies 11 Further 
examination of contemporary gay, lesbian, 
and bisexual life styles and the supporting social 
movement. Discussion focuses on society's 
response to the emergence of a more visible gay 
and lesbian community, the impact of AIDS on 
gays and lesbians, constitutional and legal issues, 
gays and the military, gays as parents, current 
radical movements such as Queer Nation and 



ACT UP, and the interaction of feminist theories 
and gay/lesbian/bisexual issues. Prerequisite: 
Consent of instructor One-half credit course. 

Mr Hinrichs 

302 Research Methods Introduction to the logic 
of social science research. Goal is to develop 
student's ability to review and evaluate critically 
social research findings and to prepare for 
planning and carrying out research. A variety of 
qualitative and quantitative designs are examined, 
including survey, experiment, participant 
observadon, and evaluadon research. Issues of 
sampling, measurement, causality, and validity 
are considered. Prerequisite. Sociology 101. 
Staff 

303 Data Analysis and Statistics Study of 
elementary quantitative data analysis, including 
logic, application, and interpretation of 
statistical techniques. Students carry out and 
present original quantitative research projects. 
Includes laboratory. Prerequisite: C- or better in 
Sociology 302 or consent of instructor. 

Ms. Gill, Ms. Rosenberg 

306 Introduction to Sociological Theory 

Exploration of the nature of sociological theory 
and major theoretical orientations (paradigms). 
Course examines the origins and creation of 
these paradigms in the nineteenth and early 
twentieth century — the period of "classical 
sociology" and their development, elaboration, 
and application in contemporary sociology. 
Ms. Heislfr 

310 Seminars in Sociological Theory Examination 
of a topic in sociology from a number of 
theoretical perspectives. Emphasis is on gaining 
an in-depth knowledge of the topic, while also 
learning how theoretical perspectives shape 
research and analysis. Prerequisite: Sociology 306 
or consent of instructor for nonmajors. 

Staff 

3 1 1 Theories of Community Study of 
communities from a sociological perspective, 
with major emphasis on urban areas. Theoretical 
perspectives of Weber, Simmel, Spengler, Park, 
Wirth, Redfield, Duncan, and others are examined 
and used to understand die historical development 
of cities, the ecology of cities, the development 
of suburbs, urbanism as a way of life, city planning, 
metropolitan dynamics, and contemporary 
urban problems. Prerequisite: Sociology 306 or 
consent of instructor for nonmajors. 

Mr. Hinrichs 



312 Theories of Social Change Applications of 
theories of social change to contemporary 
trends and changing norms, values, and 
expectations. Emphasis is on a critical 
examination of recent changes in the economy 
and political structure of U.S. society and on the 
assessment of the efforts by social movements to 
direct social change. Prerequisite: Sociology 306 
or consent of instructor for nonmajors. 

Ms. Gill 

3 1 3 Theories of Politics and Society Analysis of 
the role of power in social and political 
institutions. Course examines the bases, 
distribution, and exercise of power in 
organizations, communities, and nations, as well 
as organized attempts to change existing power 
relationships. Theoretical perspectives include 
Marxism, Weberian theory, elitism and 
pluralism, resource mobilization, and new social 
movements theory. Preiequisite: Sociology 306 or 
consent of instructor for nonmajors. 

Ms. Heisler 

323 Field Methods in Social Research Seminar on 
how sociologists and anthropologists conduct 
ethnographic fieldwork. Topics include how 
theory informs research, ethical issues, and 
developing descriptive fieldnotes. Students carry 
out original research projects, using field 
methods such as participant observation and 
qualitative interviewing, and learn how to gather 
data, analyze results, and write up ethnographic 
reports. Prerequisite: C- or better in Sociology 
302. (Same as Anthropology 323.) 
Ms. Gill Ms. Howard 

33 1 Reinventing Latin American Societies Study 
of the changing role of the state in twentieth- 
century Latin America. Course explores why 
Latin American states shifted from promoting 
national development to preparing the region 
for globalization. Issues of social movements, 
political control, citizenship, and neoliberalism 
are examined in the context of widespread 
economic, social, and political structuring of 
Ladn American societies. Prerequisite: LAS 140 or 
any other course with a focus on Latin America. 
(Same as LAS 331.) 
Mr. Betances 

400 Sociology Seminar Intensive culminating 
experience for sociolog\'-track majors. LInder 
the direction of a faculty member, students work 
to integrate their major and tlieir understanding 
of the sociological perspective. Prerequisite: 
Sociology 302 and 306 or Anthropology 308. 



The second 300-level course is strongly 
recommended for majors. 

Staff 

450s, 470s Individualized Study Independent 
study in fields of special interest, including 
internships, outside the scope of regular course 
offerings. Consent of faculty sponsor. 
Staff 

460 Research Course Individual investigation of 
a research topic in sociology in the student's 
special area of interest under the guidance of a 
faculty member. Topic must be approved by 
department. Project culminates in written and 
oral presentations of a formal paper to the 
departmental faculty. Required for departmental 
honors. Students must submit a proposal to the 
department a minimum of two weeks before the 
end of the semester preceding the proposed study. 
Prerequisite: Consent of department. Open to 
juniors and seniors only. 
Stajf 

SPANISH 

Professors Thompson (Chairperson) and Burgess 
Associate Professors Cushing-Daniels, Olinger, Rolon, 

Vinuela, and Yager 
Assistant Professors Ramos and Valiela 
Instructors Balastequi and Flores-Ocampo 
Lecturer Marin and Moore 
Adjunct Lecturer El orriaga 
Teaching Assistant Aragon 

Overview 

The ability to speak and understand a language 
other than one's own, and to have insight into 
the artistic and cultural heritage of other 
peoples of the world, is considered an integral 
part of a liberal arts education. The department, 
through a strong core of basic courses, gives 
students facility in the use of spoken and written 
Spanish and some knowledge of its literature 
and cultiual history. The oral-aural method of 
modern language teaching is stressed in the 
classroom. Laboratory facilities in the Library 
Learning Center and other audio-visual 
equipment complement classroom instruction. 
Regular laboratory work will be required of 
some students and advised for others. 

Advanced-level courses in literature and 
civilization are designed to give students an 
understanding and appreciation of the literature 
and cultures of the Hispanic peoples. Students 
are encouraged to study in a Spanish-speaking 
country, and opportimities are offered through 
study abroad programs with approved colleges 



and tlirough cooperative agreements with the 
Institute Universitario de Sevilla in Seville, 
Spain, the Foreign Student Study Center at the 
University of Guadalajara in Guadalajara, 
Mexico, and the Universal Language Institute 
in Cuernavaca, Mexico. 

Courses in the department provide soimd 
preparation for graduate study, teaching, or 
careers in government, business, or social work. 
The department works cooperatively with the 
education department in the preparation of 
Spanish teachers. Since the largest minority 
group in the United States is Spanish speaking, 
the department feels that a knowledge of 
Spanish and an understanding of the Hispanic 
cultures is of increasing importance. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Requirements for a major in Spanish include 
eleven courses above the 300-level, at least five 
of which must be taken at Gettysburg College. 
Course requirements are Spanish 301 (except 
for students who demonstrate an exceptional 
command of the Spanish language and petition 
the department to be exempted from this 
requirement); Spanish 302, 303, or 309; Spanish 
345 and three other courses at the 340-level; two 
courses at or above the 350-level; Spanish 400. 

Other courses for the major are elective and 
may include one of the following classes, which 
are taught in English: Anthropology 232, 
Anthropology 237, Anthropology 250, First-Year 
Seminar 1 29, Political Science 275, Economics 
214, any Latin American Studies Class. 

Spanish majors must spend one semester 
studying abroad in a program approved by the 
department. (Students with extensive previous 
experience living or studying abroad may 
petition the department to be exempted from 
this requirement.) Students in the teaching 
certification program must complete Spanish 
330 and 331. Requirements for a minor in 
Spanish include six courses above the 202-level, 
and must include Spanish 301 (except for 
students who demonstrate an exceptional 
command of the Spanish language and petition 
the department to be exempted from this 
requirement) . Students may include Spanish 
202 for the minor if they have begun language 
study at the elementary or intermediate-level at 
Gettysburg College. No courses taken S/U may 
be included. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Prior to their first registration at the College, 
all students receive preregistration materials 



that give detailed instructions on language 
placement and fulfillment of the Liberal Arts 
Core requirement in foreign language. 

Achievement equivalent to 202 may be 
demonstrated by an advanced placement 
examination or a departmental placement 
examination given during orientation before 
the initial week of fall semester. 

The Liberal Arts Core requirement in foreign 
language may be satisfied by successful 
completion of Spanish 202 or 204. (Students 
may not repeat a course in the sequence from 
101 or 103 through 202 or 204 after they have 
passed a subsequent, higher numbered course.) 
All Spanish literature and civilization courses 
satisfy' the Liberal Arts Core requirement in the 
humanities; Spanish 303 and 351 satisfy the 
requirement in the social sciences . 

Intermediate Program Abroad 

Students may complete the distribution 
requirement in foreign languages (third and/or 
fourth semesters) by studying for a semester in 
Seville, Spain, or in Cuernavaca, Mexico (in 
alternate years; fall 2000 in Spain, fall 2001 in 
Mexico). The intermediate program includes a 
two-credit course in Spanish language at the 
appropriate level and a two-credit course that 
integrates the study of Spanish or Mexican 
literature and civilization. A professor from the 
department leads students on an initial 
orientation tour of Spain or Mexico and teaches 
the literature/civilization class. Students live 
with families. 

203-204 Courses in Spanish Language for 
Intermediate-Level Students in Seville, Spain, or 
Cuernavaca, Mexico Practice in oral and written 
expression, grammar review, readings, and 
discussions of Hispanic culture, with an emphasis 
on present-day language usage and contemporary 
Hispanic society. Offered every fall, alternating 
between Spain (2000) and Mexico (2001). For 
intermediate students studying in Cuernavaca, 
Mexico, or in SeNille, Spain. Prerequisite: Spanish 
104 or equivalent; concurrent enrollment in 
Spanish 253-254. One credit each. 
Staff 

253-254 Courses in Spanish Civilization and 
Literature for Intermediate-Level Students in 
Seville, Spain or Cuernavaca, Mexico Integrated 
approach to the study of Hispanic literature and 
civilization. Courses provide an overview of the 
evolution of Hispanic culture and examine the 
origins of the most representative values of 
Hispanic culture in art, literature, and 



contemporary life. Students visit museums and 
historical sites and attend artistic events. Offered 
every fall, alternating between Spain (2000) and 
Mexico (2001). For intermediate students 
studying in Cuernavaca, Mexico, or in Seville, 
Spain. Prerequisite: Spanish 104 or equivalent; 
concurrent enrollment in Spanish 203-204. One 
credit each. 
Staff 

Study Abroad 

Advanced students who have completed Spanish 
301 may study at the Instituto Universitario de 
Sevilla in Seville, Spain, or at the Foreign 
Student Study Center at the University of 
Guadalajara in Guadalajara, Mexico, both of 
which offer a wide variety of courses in Spanish, 
including literature, history, sociology, political 
science, management, and more. See Study 
Abroad, Instituto Universitario de Sevilla; and Study 
Abroad, Foreign Student Study Center, University of 
Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Mexico. 

101-102 Elementary Spanish Elements of 
understanding, speaking, reading, and writing 
Spanish. Use of language laboratory is required. 
Enrollment limited to those who have never 
previously studied Spanish. Students cannot 
receive credit for both 101 and 103; 102 and 104. 
Staff 

103-104 Fundamental Spanish Fundamentals of 
imderstanding, speaking, reading, and writing 
Spanish. Use of language laboratory is required. 
Enrollment is limited to those who have previously 
studied Spanish and who are enrolled according 
to achievement on the Departmental Qualifying 
Examination. Students cannot receive credit for 
both 101 and 103; 102 and 104. 
Staff 

201-202 Intermediate Spanish Practice in oral 
and written expression, grammar review, readings, 
and discussions of writing in Spanish. Prerequisite: 
Spanish 102 or 104 or consent of department. 
Staff 

245 Spanish Conversation Conversation course 
beyond the intermediate level, with emphasis 
on everyday, applied usage of the language for 
nonliterary purposes. Prerequisite: Grade of C 
or better in Spanish 202, or consent of the 
department. Enrollment limited to twelve students. 
Counts toward the minor, but not the major. 
Offered annually. Students whose native 
language is Spanish may not elect this course. 
Staff 



301 Spanish Composition and Conversation 

Exercises in directed and free composition; 
group discussion and presentation of individual 
oral work; review of grammar and syntax at an 
advanced level. Prerequisite: Grade of C or better 
in Spanish 202, or consent of department. 
Grade of C or better in Spanish 301 is required 
to advance to 302. 
Staff 

302 Cultural Images 1: Arts and Humanities 

Advanced composition and conversation course 
focusing on cultural topics in the Hispanic 
world related to arts and the humanities. Uses 
readings, videos, music, and speakers. Prerequisite: 
Grade C or better in Spanish 301, or consent of 
department. Offered annually. 
Staff 

303 Cultural Images II: Social Sciences Advanced 
composition and conversation course focusing 
on cultural topics in the Hispanic world related 
to the social sciences Uses readings, videos, 
music, and speakers. Prerequisite: Grade C or 
better in Spanish 301, or consent of 
department. Offered annually. 

Staff 

305 Service Learning Project in the Hispanic 
Community Students work with a Hispanic 
family for 22 hours throughout the semester to 
help the family learn English, satisfy its needs, 
and generally acculturate to American society. 
Students meet with the insturctor once a week. 
Students learn basic English-as-a-second- 
language teaching techniques, read about the 
immigrant and migrant experience, and 
experience the Hispanic cultures and language 
first-hand. One-half unit of credit. May be 
repeated once. Graded S/U. Does not count 
toward the major or minor. 
Staff 

309 Current Events in the Hispanic World 

Advanced composition and conversation course 
based on current events in the Hispanic world, 
using articles from Hispanic periodicals and 
Spanish language news programs. Prerequisite: 
Grade C or better in Spanish 301, or consent of 
department. Offered annually. 
Staff 

330 Spanish Phonology Introduction to Spanish 
phonetic and phonemic theory and analysis, 
applied to improve pronunciation skills. Study 
of variation in pronunciation in Spain and Latin 
America. Three lecture hours and one laboratory. 
Pierequisite: Spanish 302 or 309 or approval of 
depai-mient. Offered 2001-02. 
Staff 



► 



33 1 Introduction to Spanish Linguistics 

Introduction to linguistic theories, methods, 
and problems as applied to Spanish. Attention is 
also given to typical areas of investigation, such 
as Spanish dialectology, sociolinguistics, and 
bilingualism. Prerequisite: Spanish 302 or 309 or 
approval of department. Offered 2002-03. 

341 Survey of Spanish Literature I Introduction 
to repre.sentative Spanish texts from the Middle 
Ages through the seventeenth century and to 
the cultural and historical contexts in which 
these works were written. Prerequisite: Grade C or 
better in Spanish 301, or consent of department. 
Offered annually. 

Staff 

342 Survey of Spanish Literature II Introduction 
to representative Spanish texts from the 
Enlightenment to the post-Civil War period and 
to the cultural and historical contexts in which 
these works were written. Prerequisite: Grade C or 
better in Spanish 301, or consent of department. 
Offered annually. 

Staff 

343 Survey of Latin American Literature I 

Introduction to representative Spanish- 
American texts from the fifteenth through the 
nineteenth century and to the cultural and 
historical contexts in which these works were 
written. Prerequisite: Grade C or better in Spanish 
301, or consent of department. Offered annually. 
Staff 

344 Survey of Latin American Literature II 

Introduction to representative Spanish- 
American texts from the twentieth century and 
to the cultural and historical contexts in which 
these works were written. Prerequisite: Grade C or 
better in Spanish 301, or consent of department. 
Offered annually. 
Staff 

345 Introduction to Literary Analysis 

Introduction to basic critical approaches to 
the reading of prose fiction, poetry, and drama. 
Through the careful study of works in each 
genre, students acquire a knowledge of analytical 
skills and critical terminology in Spanish. Offered 
annually. Prerequisite: Grade of C or better in 
Spanish 341, 342, 343, or 344, or consent of 
department. 
Staff 

351 Lyric Poetry Study of Spanish lyric poetry 
through the ages. Course concentrates on the 
interrelationship of form, content, and idea, 



noting major influences on the poetry of each 
period. Appreciation is considered a major goal, 
and much poetry is read orally and discu.ssed. 
Alternate years. Prerequisite: Spanish 345 or 
consent of department. Offered 2002-03. 
Staff 

353 Introduction to Hispanic Cinema Study of 
Hispanic cinema from its inception, witli emphasis 
on films made since the advent of revisionary 
cinema around 1960. Course examines the 
development and renovation of cinematography, 
the relationship between cinema and other 
forms of artistic expression, and the historic 
development of Hispanic cinema. Prerequisite: 
Spanish 345 or consent of department. 
Offered 2001-02. 

Staff 

354 Nineteenth-Century Literature in Spain and 
Latin America Study of nineteenth-century 
literature in Spain and Latin America, 
according to the cultural movements and 
transformations of this century. Readings 
include narratives, essays and poetry. Facilitates 
strategies for the interpretation of literature 
grounded on gender conflicts, creation of 
political contexts, and social change. Prerequisite: 
Spanish 345 or consent of department. Offered 
2001-02. 

Staff 

355 Hispanic Theater Study of the drama of 
Spain and Spanish America through the ages. 
Focus varies from semester to semester, based on 
such aspects as literary period, common theme, 
historical development, and dramatic theory. 
Prerequisite: Spanish 345 or consent of department. 
Offered 2001-02. 

Staff 

363 Literature of the Golden Age Representative 
texts selected from different genres of sixteenth- 
and seventeenth-century Spanish literature. 
Readings and discussions focus on topics such as 
honor, gender relations, social class, religion, 
and notions of nationality' and empire. 
Prerequisite: Spanish 345 or consent of department. 
Offered 2001-02. 
Staff 

367 Generation of '98 and Pre-Civil War 
Literature Studies in the essay, poetry, prose 
fiction, and drama of the major writers of the 
late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries in 
Spain. Prerequisite: Spanish 345 or consent of 
department. Offered 2002-03. 
Staff 



368 Post-Civil War Literature of Spain 

Study of major literary trends and works in 
Spain, beginning with the resurgence of Spanish 
literature in the 194()s and continuing to the 
present day. Prerequisite: Spanish 345 or consent 
of department. Offered 2002-03. 
Staff 

369 Cervantes Study of the masterpiece, Don 
Qtdjnte de la Mancha, as well as some Novelas 
ejemplares and enlremeses or one-act plays. Prerequisite: 
Spanish 345 or consent of department. 
Offered 2001-02. 

Staff 

376 Latin American Contemporary Prose 

Emphasis on the novel of the "boom" in Latin 
America. Major writers such as Gabriel Garcia- 
Marquez, Carlos Fuentes, Julio Cortazar, Elena 
Poniatowska, Juan Rulfo, and Jorge Luis Borges - 
are read. Prerequisite: Spanish 345 or consent of 
department. Offered 2001-02. 
Staff 

379 "Colonialism" and Latin America Study of the 
textual productions resulting from the initial 
centuries of conquest and colonization of Latin 
America. Readings and discussions include the 
study of European preconceptions and the 
impact they had on representation of Latin 
American "origins" in literature. Goals include 
the analysis of the varied discursive responses to 
the process of colonization and how they 
pervade our current understanding of Latin 
America. Prerequisite: Spanish 345 or consent of 
department. Offered 2002-03. 
Staff 

400 Senior Seminar Directed and specialized 
studies in Spanish and Latin American literatures 
from the medieval period to the present. Course 
is taken by seniors during the final semester in 
order to complete their undergraduate work in 
Hispanic literatures. Prerequisite: Limited to 
seniors, except with permission of department. 
Offered every spring. 
Staff 

PORTUGUESE 

101-102 Elementary Portuguese Elements of 
understanding, speaking, reading, and writing 
Portuguese. Course includes oral and written 
work, graded elementary reading, and use of 
audio-visual cultural materials and correlative 
drill in the language laboratory. 
Staff 



201-202 Intermediate Portuguese Practice in 
oral and written expression, grammar review, 
readings, and discussions of Portuguese writing. 
Prerequisite: Portuguese 102 or equivalent. 
Staff 

THEATRE ARTS 

Associate Professor Hanson (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professors Muschamp and Russell 
Adjunct Assistant Professors Kellinger and Atwood 
Assistant Instructor Ryan 
Adjunct Professor emeritus Schmidt 

Overview 

Courses in the theatre arts department are 
designed to train students to conceive of the 
theatrical event as a unit, joining its literary and 
historical values with means of expression in 
production and demonstrating the relationship 
of acting, directing, and design with the efforts 
of both past and present playwrights. This is 
accomplished through the students' work in the 
theatre program's productions, which include 
mainstage offerings in Kline Theatre, as well as 
studio presentations in Stevens Theatre and 
otherstage works-in-progress. The study of 
theatre arts prepares students for careers in the 
theatre, arts administration, teaching, and 
business. 

A well-balanced program for a major in theatre 
arts should include: (1) knowledge of the history 
of the theatre from primitive man to the 
present; (2) training in and application of the 
various performance areas of theatre; (3) 
knowledge of the characteristics and 
development of the literary genre known as 
drama; and (4) the development of a play from 
the initial script to actual performance. 

The theatre program also offers a minor in the 
field. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Majors in theatre arts must take Theatre Arts 
105, 203, 204, and 214. They must also elect the 
specified number of courses from each of the 
following categories: 

1. Theatre Arts (3 courses): 1 course from each 
of the following groups: 

A. (Acdng and Dance) 120, 163, 220, 222, 

307, 320, 377. 

B. (Design) 115,215,255,311,355,381. 

C. (Directing) 212,282,382. 

II. Drama (3 courses): Students are required to 
take Theatre Arts 328 and 329, plus either 
English 226, 365, 366, or 314. 



III.Electives (2 courses): Any theatre arts and 
drama courses listed above and/or Theatre 
Arts 222, 252; Classics 264, 266; English 303; 
French 321; German 335; IDS 241, 267,268; 
Japanese 140; Religion 134; Spanish 313, 315. 

Requirements for the minor in theatre arts are 
six courses: Theatre Arts 105, Theatre Arts 203 
or 204; one course in Drama (English 226, 365, 
366, Theatre Arts 214, 328, 329); 2 studio 
courses (Theatre Arts 115, 120, 163, 212, 215, 
220, 255, 282, 307, 311, 320, 355, 377, 381, 382); 
one course in theatre arts or any of the above 
listed theatre arts or drama courses, plus 
Theatre Arts 252 or IDS 267, 268. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

All courses in Theatre Arts, except 214, 328, and 
329, fulfill the Liberal Arts Core requirement in 
the arts. Theatre Arts 214, 328, and 329 fulfill 
the Liberal Arts Core requirement in the 
humanities. 

105 Introduction to Theatre Arts Overview of 
theatre, including historical background, 
literary works, technical aspects, and performance 
techniques. The theatre of today is studied in 
relation to its predecessors and in terms of its 
modern forms in cinema and television. Students 
read texts and analyze methods used in bringing 
those works into production. Field trips offer 
opportunities to critique performances. Open 
to first- and second-year students only. 
Mr. Hanson, Mr. Muschamp, Ms. Russell 

\ 1 5 Theatre Production Course provides an 
extensive investigation of historical and 
contemporary trends and practices essential 
for theatre production. Students gain an 
understanding of theatre procedures and 
acquire a grasp of equipment necessary for the 
execution of scenery, properties, sound, and 
stage lighting. Course is a combination of 
lecture and laboratory work and requires 
backstage participation in college productions. 
Mr. Hanson 

120 Fundamentals of Acting Study of the theory 
and technique of the art of acting; voice 
technique for the stage; the use of pantomime, 
including the study of gesture and movement. 
Emphasis is placed on the discipline and control 
of the body and the voice to best serve the actor. 
Improvisation is employed. In addition, students 
are expected to perform in scenes for class 
analysis. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. 
Mr. Muschamp, Ms. Russell 



163 Introduction to Dance Overview of the 
history and development of modern dance, with 
emphasis on the such pioneers as Duncan, 
Denis-Shawn, Humphrey, Weidman, Hawkins, 
and Cunningham. Course develops an 
appreciation of dance as an art form. Emphasis 
is placed on the discipline and control of the 
body to best .serve the dancer. 
Ms. Kellinger 

203, 204 History of the Theatre Survey of the 
theatre from the Greeks to the present. 
Emphasis is placed on the relevance of theatre 
design, production techniques, and acting styles 
to the plays of their periods. First semester 
covers Greek, Roman, Medieval, Elizabethan, 
Asian, and Italian Renaissance; second semester 
is devoted to French Neoclassical, the 
Restoration, and the eighteenth, nineteenth, 
and twentieth centuries. 
Ms. Russell 

2 1 2 Fundamentals of Directing Study of the 
theory and technique of the art of the director. 
Course explores how a play is selected, play 
analysis, tryouts and casting, and the purpose 
and technique of blocking, movement, and 
stage business. Particular attention is given to 
the preparation of the director's production 
promptbook and other written analysis. 
Students are required to direct scenes in class 
and a short play as part of the Laboratory 
Theatre Series. Prerequisite: Permission of 
instructor. 
Mr. Muschamp 

214 Survey of Dramatic Literature Overview of 
dramatic literature fi-om the Greeks to the present. 
Play structure is analyzed, and comparisons made 
between methods of executing plot, development 
of character, and theme. Includes plays from the 
Greek and Roman periods, medieval, Elizabethan, 
and seventeenth through twentieth centuries. 
Emphasis is placed on written analysis. 

Ms. Russell 

2 1 5 Fundamentals of Stage Design Basic 
theories and technique of design for the stage. 
The theory behind the design, and the 
interrelationship of scene design, lighting, 
costumes, and properties. How stage design 
interprets themes and moods of a play is 
studied, as well as identification of period and 
place. Course follows a lecture-discussion format 
and involves extensive studio work. Students 
analyze, create, and execute basic designs for 
the Laboratory Theatre Series, in association 



with students in Theatre Arts 182. Prerequisite: 
Permission of instructor. 
Mr Hanson 

220 Advanced Acting Further study in the 
theory and techniques of the art of the actor, 
the analysis and interpretation of acting roles, 
and the building of characterization. Roles, 
both comic and tragic, from Contemporary 
Restoration, Elizabethan, Commedia dell'Arte, 
and Greek theatre are analyzed and performed. 
Prerequisite: Theatre Arts 120 and/or permission 
of the instructor. 
Mr Muschamp 

111 Oral Interpretation of Literature Analytical 
and structural study of recognized prose, poetry, 
and dramatic selections that will facilitate 
individual rehearsal and performance of the 
literature. Readings incorporate the Readers 
Theatre format, with emphasis placed on 
developing an appreciation for the literary work 
as a complete aesthetic unit. Students are 
challenged to recognize their potential for 
speaking and reading before an audience. Class 
employs an ensemble approach and presents 
several public performances during the semester. 
Mr Hanson 

250 Cinematic Arts: History and Methods Viewing 
and discusssion of historically and culturally 
relevent films from arotmd die world during the 
period of 1896 (film's inception) to World War II. 
In lab, students apply filmic techniques of 
lighting, camera placement, and setting to 
construct mise-en-scene. 

Mr Ryan 

25 1 Cinematic Arts: History and Methods Viewing 
and discusssion of historically and culturally 
relevent films from aroimd the world during the 
period of post-World War II to the present. In 
lab, students apply filmic techniques of lighting, 
camera placement, and setting to construct mise- 
en-scene. 

Mr Ryan 

252 Studies in Film Aesthetics Study of historically 
significant films, film theory, and criticism 
intended to develop an appreciation for film as 
an art form. Students keep a journal of critical 
responses to films, write short critical papers, 
and become familiar with writing about films. 
Mr Ryan 

255 Advanced Stage Design Examination of 
historical and contemporary theories of scene, 
lighting, and costume design. Students consider 
design as the visual manifestation of a 
playwiight's concepts. In addition to designing 



both a play for proscenium, arena, thrust, and 
profile stages and a period play for a period 
other than its own, students complete advanced 
designs in scene, lighting, and costumes, and 
create designs for the Laboratory Theatre Series 
in association with students in Theatre Arts 282. 
Prerequisite: Theatre Arts 1 55. 
Mr. Hanson 

IDS 267 Theatre and Religion Investigation of the 
theatre's role in various Western and non-Western 
religions. (For full description, see IDS 267.) 
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. 
Mr Hanson 

IDS 268 The Arts, Environment, and Religions of 
Indonesia (See listing under Interdepartmental 
Studies. Students live with families in Bali. 
Offered annually, mid-May to midjtme.) 
Mr Hanson 

282 Advanced Directing Fin ther studies in the 
theory and technique in the art of the director. 
Students engage in directional analyses of plays 
representing different periods. Particular 
attention will be given to contemporary 
methods of presentation, with special emphasis 
on arena and thrust staging. In addition to 
directing scenes in class, students direct two 
scenes and a one-act play for public presentation, 
the latter as part of the Laboratory Theatre 
Series. Prerequisites: Theditxe Arts 182 and/or 
permission of instructor. 
Mr Muschamp 

307 Theatre Arts Practicum: Acting During a 
seven-week program, students rehearse and 
perform in two mainstage productions for 
children and families as part of the Gettysburg 
Theatre Festival (founded 1963). Students work 
alongside professional actors, administrators, 
and designers of the Festival and under 
professional direction. Commedia dell'Arte and 
other improvisational techniques are employed 
in the creation of each presentation. A study of 
the works represented on the mainstage, as well 
as discussion sessions and workshops with 
professional actors and directors are included in 
class work. 
Staff 

31 1 Theatre Arts Practicum: Technical During a 
seven-week period, students participate in the 
varied technical aspects of moimting two 
mainstage productions for children and families 
as part of the Gettysburg Theatre Festival 
(founded 1963). Hands-on experience is gained 
from the construction, painting and placement 
of sets, hanging and rimning of stage lights, and 
the construction and gathering of properties 



k 



and costumes. A study of the technical and 
design aspects along with the cultural and 
aesthetic heritage of the works produced is 
integral to the course. 

Staff 

320 Problems in Acting Course for students who 
have demonstrated the skill and talent to 
undertake further studies in acting. Culminates 
in an independent study project. Prerequisite: 
Theatre Arts 120 and 220 and/or permission of 
instructor. 
Staff 

328, 329 Twentieth-Century Drama Study of 
major dramatists from Ibsen to the present and 
of dramatic movements such as realism, 
naturalism, expressionism, as well as Theatre of 
the Absurd. First semester includes Ibsen, 
Strindberg, Chekhov, Shaw, Pirandello, Odets, 
O'Neill, and others; second semester begins 
.ifter World War II, and includes Williams, Miller, 
Hellman, Hansberry, Pinter, Beckett, lonesco. 
Genet, and others. 
Ms. Russell 

355 Problems in Stage Design Course for 
students who have demonstrated the skill and 
talent to undertake further studies in design, 
(ailminates in an independent study project. 
Prerequisites: Theatre Arts 155 and 255. 
Mr Hanson 

377 Theatre Arts Practicum: Acting (Advanced) 

For students who have demonstrated that their 
skills in performing before the public (both 
\oung and old) might be further developed. 
Students continue work begun in Theatre Aits 
,S07; they are expected to produce mature and 
advanced work and undertake a broader range 
( )f roles and more complex ones. Prerequisite: 
Theatre Arts 307. 
Staff 

38 1 Theatre Arts Practicum: Technical (Advanced) 

For students who have demonstrated that their 
skills in the technical aspects of theatre might 
be further developed. Students continue work 
begun in Theatre Arts 311 and are expected to 
undertake more advanced assignments in set 
construction, stage lighting, costumes, and 
properties. Prerequisite: Theatre Arts 31 1. 
Staff 

382 Problems in Directing Course for students 
who have demonstrated the skill and talent to 
undertake further studies in directing. 
Culminate in an independent study project. 
Prerequisites: Theatre Arts 182 and 282. 

Staff 



Individualized Study Production of a major work, 
tutorial, or internship under supervision of a 
faculty member. Student must submit a written 
proposal to the department well in advance of 
registration. Prereqtdsites: Approval of 
department and directing faculty member. 

SPEECH 

101 Public Address Study of the basic principles 
of public address. Emphasis is placed on 
developing both a theoretical and practical 
understanding of oral commimication through 
lecture and reading assignments, as well as 
through practice in preparing, organizing, 
delivering, and criticizing speeches in class. 
Mr Muschamp 

20 1 Advanced Public Address Analysis of public 
address as an art form and as an important 
civilizing force in Western society. Students have 
the opportunity to apply concepts and strategies 
they have learned in Speech 101. Prerequisite: 
Speech 101. 
Mr. Hanson 

VISUAL ARTS 

Professor Paulson 

Associate Professors Agard and Trevelyan 

Assistant Profe.ssors Small and Wanmck (Chairperson) 

Adjunct Assistant Professors Dorrill ami Shaw 

Adjunct Instructors Blair, Ramos, aitd Winship 

Slid/' Librarian Magura 

Overview 

The visual arts department has the following 
major objectives: (1) to educate visual 
sensibilities, beyond routine responses, toward 
an awareness of our visual environment, as well 
as to the cognition of works of art as the living 
past; (2) to study the historical cultural 
significance and aesthetic structure of 
architecture, painting, and sculpture, and the 
enduring dialogue between continuity and 
change; (3) to teach the history of art and the 
practice of art as separate but interrelated 
disciplines; (4) to provide the interested major 
with a curriculum which gives a foundation for 
graduate or professional study that can lead to a 
career in high school or college teaching, to 
work as a graphic or industrial designer, or to a 
profession as a painter, sculptor, print maker, or 
photographer. 

The department offers a flexible program of 
study in interrelated studio and art history 



courses, with potential majors in two areas, art 
history and studio art. The department encourages 
students from discipHnes other than art to select 
from both types of courses. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

To complete a major in Art History students are 
required to complete the following courses: 

1) VAH 111, 112, 120, and 400, plus a minimiun 
of five additional courses in art history. These 
courses must include at least one course in 
either the ancient or medieval fields, one in 
either the Renaissance or Baroque fields, one in 
either the nineteenth century or modern fields, 
and one in a non-Western field. Courses are 
selected in consultation with the adviser in 
order to meet projected needs and to construct 
a coherent program. 

2) Two basic studio courses to foster an 
understanding of visual structure and studio 
processes. 

Students intending to major in Art History 
should take Art 111, 112, and 120 in the first 
year of college. 

To complete a major in Studio Art students are 
required to take the following courses: 

1) VAS141, 145, and 146. 

2) At least one course each in painting, print 
making, and sculpture. 

3) Additional courses in at least two of the three 
disciplines listed in #2, or photography. 

4) Three courses in art theory and history: 
VAH 120, 318, and an art history elective. 

5) Participation in the senior studio seminar 
and senior exhibition in the spring semester of 
the senior year. 

Students intending to major in Studio Art are 
advised to take VAS 141, 145, 146 and VAH 120 
in their first three semesters of college. VAH 318 
is to be completed before taking the Senior 
Studio Seminar. 

To complete a minor in Art History students are 
required to take the following courses. 

1) VAH 120. 

2) Three art history and/or theory of art 
courses. 

3) One 100-level studio course. 

4) One 200-level studio course. 



To complete a minor in Studio Art students are 
required to take the following courses. 

1 ) Foiu" studio courses. 

2) VAH 120 and one art history elective. 

Students minoring in either Art History or 
Studio Art should note that no more than two 
100-level courses are acceptable to fulfill the 
College's requirements for a minor. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Any course in the areas of history, theory, or 
studio art may be counted toward the Liberal 
Arts Core requirement in the arts. VAH 227, 
228, 247, and 248 fulfill the Liberal Arts Core 
requirement in non-Western culture. 

Special Facilities 

A collection of approximately 45,000 color 
slides supports the teaching of art history and 
studio classes. The department also has video 
equipment and a growing library of tapes to 
support other teaching activities. We are also 
equipped with powerful computers and 
appropriate software for computer assisted 
design, as well as CD-ROM capacity, with a 
library of disks for student use. Regular trips to 
the museums of Washington, D.C., Baltimore, 
and Philadelphia, as well as art exhibits at the 
College, make possible the necessary contact 
with original works of art. 

The department has presses for relief, surface, 
and intaglio print making. For sculpture, it has 
both gas and electric welding equipment; air 
power tools for working in wood, stone, and 
plastic; three kilns for ceramic arts; a small 
foundry for bronze casting; and heavy lifting 
beams and hoists. 

The l,660-sq.-foot Schmucker Hall Ait Gallery 
presents as many as nine different exhibitions 
each year. Included in the gallery calendar are 
works by professional artists, a faculty show, a 
student show, the senior art major show, and 
traveling exhibits, as well as selections from 
public and private collections. 

HISTORY AND THEORY OF ART 

III, 112 Ideas and Events Behind the Arts 

Introductory study of the \isual arts from 
prehistoric times to the nineteenth century. 
Course examines reasons for changes in the 
content, form, and fvmction of two-dimensional 
and three-dimensional art. Exercises in visual 
analysis of individual works develop critical 
methods. Fulfills distribution requirement in 
the arts. Prerequisite: Juniors and seniors require 
permission of instructor. 
Ms. Small 



^^ 



1 20 Theory of the Visual Arts Course gives a basic 
approach to visual experience by examining 
factors that relate to the making of art, functions 
of art, and viewer relationships with art, including 
methods of analysis. In addition to class lectures 
and discussions, hands-on sessions assist students 
in understanding the processes of making visual 
imagery. Fulfills distribution requirement in the 
arts. Prerequisite: juniors and seniors require 
permission of instructor. 
Ms. Small 

20 1 Arts of Ancient Greece and Rome 

Introduction to the painting, sculpture, and 
architecture of the classical world, focusing on 
cultural and intellectual differences between the 
people of these two civilizations as reflected in 
the arts of both. Fulfills distribution requirement 
in the arts. Prerequisite: juniors and seniors 
require permission of instructor. 
Ms. Trevelyan 

202 Medieval Art Survey of the arts of the 
Middle Ages and their development from the 
Roman catacomb through the high Gothic 
cathedral. Analysis of art as a reflection of 
changing political and social conditions in 
Europe, with particular emphasis on liturgical 
arts in the Middle Ages. Fulfills distribution 
requirement in the arts. Recommended prior 
course: Art 111 or 201. 

Staff 

205 Arts of Northern Europe: A.D.I 350-1 575 

Analysis of artistic developments in Northern 
Europe from late Gothic times through the 
turbulent period of the Reformation. Works of 
Jan Van Eyck, Glaus Sluter, Hieronymous Bosch, 
Hans Holbein, Albrecht Durer, and others are 
explored to discover ways in which social, 
political, and intellectual developments are 
mirrored in the art of that period. Fulfills 
distribution requirement in the arts. Prerequisite: 
Art 201, any 100-level art history course, or 
permission of instructor. Alternate years. 
Staff 

206 European Painting 1700-1900 Introducfion 
to eighteenth-century painters in Italy, France, 
and England and their relationship to the 
Enlightenment. Major emphasis on the evolution 
of painting in France during the nineteenth 
century in relation to the changing social, 
political, and philosophical climate. Alternate 
years. Fulfills distribution requirement in the arts. 
Prerequisite: Art 111, 112, 120, or 201, or 
permission of instructor. 

Ms. Small 



210 Twentieth-Century European Painting Study 
of the schools and critical writings surrounding 
the major figures. Such movements as Art 
Nouveau, Nabis, Fauvism, Gubism, Futurism, 
German Expressionism, De Stijl, Dada, and 
Surrealism are examined. Fulfills distribution 
requirement in the arts. Recommended prior 
courses: Art 111, 112, or 120. 
Ms. Small 

2 1 5 German Art from Middle Ages to Today 

(See description for Fall Semester in Gologne, 
Germany under Department of German.) 

217 History of Modern Architecture Examination 
of the evolutionary forms of the built environ- 
ment, beginning with the ascendancy of the 
machine aesthetic just prior to World War I 
and continuing through the "post-modernist" 
theories of the 1970-80s and the works of 
Graves, Gehry, and Isozaki in the 1990s. 
Prerequisite: VAH 111, 112, or permission of 
instructor. 
Staff 

11 1 Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century 
Painting in the United States Survey of 
American painting from the Colonial Period to 
1900, studied in relationship to developments in 
Europe, and with emphasis on the response of 
art to the changing social and technological 
environment in America. Alternate years. 
Fulfills distribution requirement in the arts. 
Ms. Small 

in Art of the First Nations of North America: 
Eastern Woodlands and Plains Survey of the arts 
created by the original inhabitants of North 
America living in the Eastern Woodlands and 
Plains regions, with a focus on the cultural and 
religious traditions that formed the basis for 
much of the art. Emphasis is on developing an 
understanding of and appreciation for the 
fundamental differences between the arts and 
cultures of Native North American peoples and 
those of modern Western cultures, as well as 
aspects of similarity. Fulfills distribution 
requirement in the arts and non-Western culture. 
Ms. Trevelyan 

228 Art of the First Nations of North America: 
The Far North and West Survey of the arts 
created by the original inhabitants of North 
America living in die Far North and the West, 
with a focus on the cultural and religious 
traditions that formed the basis for much of the 
art. Emphasis will be on developing an 
understanding of and appreciation for the 
fundamental differences between the arts and 



cultures of native North American peoples and 
those of modern Western cultures, as well as 
aspects of similarity. Fulfills the distribution 
requirements in the arts and non- Western culture. 
Ms. Trevelyan 

247/248 History of African Art Survey consisting 
of two independent, but sequential courses that 
pertain to the early history and subsequent 
development of African art forms created for 
spiritual, aesthetic, and utilitarian purposes. The 
major art-producing ethnic groups in Africa are 
studied to examine the cultural contexts of art 
production and the indigenous aesthetic 
systems that informed and supported the artist. 
Staff 

258 African Amercian Art Ai t historical survey, as 
well as a thematic exploration of the connections 
and differences between African American and 
African art. Primary focus is an evaluation of the 
contributions of African American artists to 
American artistic consciousness and visual 
culture. Course also defines interrelationships 
between European, American, and African 
American art tiaditions and forms. 

303 Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture in the 
Italian Renaissance Survey of the visual arts 
dining the centuries that, in many ways, mark 
the boundary between the ancient and modern 
worlds. Course approaches the arts of the period 
fiom this perspective. Many artists and monuments 
included are traditionally acknowledged to be 
among the finest in the history of art, including 
the works of Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, 
Raphael, and Titian. Secondary focus is to 
question and explore reasons why the art of this 
period is so acclaimed. Fulfills distribution 
requirement in the arts. Prerequisite: Art 111, 112 
or 201 or permission of instructor. 
Staff 

307 Mannerist and Baroque Periods in European 

Art Study of painting, sculpture, and iuchitecture 
in Europe, from the first decades after the 
Reformation through their transformation 
under the impact of the Counter Reformation. 
Artistic developments in Italy are discussed, as 
well as allied approaches in northern Europe 
and Spain. Works of some of the world's best 
known artists are examined, including Bernini, 
Caravaggio, Rubens, Rembrandt, Vermeer, El 
Greco, Velasquez, and Poussin. Fulfills disuibution 
requirement in the arts. Prerequisite: Art 201 or 
any 100-level art history course or permission of 
instructor. Alternate years. 



3 1 8 Art After 1 945 Critical examination of the 
art forms and issues that identify the current 
post-modern phase of twentieth-century art. 
Past and current usages of the terms "modern" 
and "avant-garde" are explored in the context of 
contemporary modes of visual expression, art 
criticism, communications technology, and 
cultural pluralism. Prerequisite: two courses in 
art history and/or theory or permission of the 
instructor. 
Staff 

322 Painting in the United States Since 1900 

Survey of twentieth-century painting. Course 
concentrates on two basic themes: the changing 
social role of painting as America's needs and 
self-image change, and the on-going eclectic 
process in which American painters extend and 
deepen their familiarity with world art. Fulfills 
distribution requirement in the arts. 
Ms. Small 

39 1 , 392 Special Topics in Visual Arts Resources 
Management (1/2 credit) Provides practical 
experience and expertise in planning, 
installation, and presentation of visual materials 
for the educational and aesthetic benefit of the 
general public and academic community. 
Experiences include art historical research, 
contracts, and other legal requirements attached 
to the operations of an art gallery, marketing 
strategies, communications techniques, and 
design of exhibitions and associated publicity'. 
Staff 

400 Seminar Advanced study of specific art 
history issues and problems, with particular 
focus on the revisionist art history of the last 
twenty to thirty years. Students revisit the 
content and theoretical approaches of previous 
courses in the context of the "new art history," 
as seen from the art historical dialogue. The 
theoretical literature of Feminist art history 
provides the framework for this re-examination. 
Approach varies according to the specific topic, 
but common denominators include a close 
examination and analysis of art objects and 
thorough investigation of their historical and 
social context. Students develop skills in 
advanced verbal and visual research, written and 
oral projects, and critiques Prerequisites: 
Minimum of three art history courses, at least 
one of which is a 300-level course, or permission 
of instructors. 
Ms. Trevelyan, Ms. Small 



> 



STUDIO ART 

Purpose of all studio courses is to sharpen the 
sense of sight; coordinate mind, hand, and eye; 
develop an ability to organize visual material; 
and to integrate the intuitive and rational into 
creative activity. Lectures accompany basic 
studio courses when necessary to relate theory 
and practice. The Lora Qually Hicks memorial 
fund, established by family and friends in honor 
of Lora Qually Hicks '71, provides funds for the 
purchase of works created by Gettysburg 
College students. 

141 Introduction to Drawing Drawing from 
models and controlled studio problems. 
Intended to promote coordination of the hand 
and the eye to achieve a degree of technical 
mastery over a variety of drawing tools. Emphasis 
is placed on line quality, techniques of shading, 
negative-positive relationships, figure-ground 
relationships, form, structvue, and an awareness 
of the total field. Offered fall semester only. 
Prerequisite: First-year students and sophomores 
only. 
Staff 

145 Basic Design (two dimensional) Introductory 
course to help students develop a capacity' to 
think and work both conceptually and 
perceptually. Course provides a basic discipline 
with which to organize a variety of materials into 
structural and expressive form. Prerequisite: First- 
year students and sophomores only. 

Mr. Agard 

146 Basic Design (three dimensional) An 

introductory course extending the basic 
disciplines of 141 into the third dimension. 
Projects introduce materials such as clay, plaster, 
wood, and metal. Intent is to assist students in 
organizing three dimensional forms. Prerequisite: 
First-year students and sophomores only. 
Mr. Paulson 

251 Introduction to Painting Development of a 
series of paintings according to a thematic 
image. Assigned problems are designed to 
introduce a variety of conceptual, procedural, 
and experimental possibilities. Prerequisite: VAS 
141 or permission of instructor. Recommended 
course: VAH 322. 

Mr. Agard, Mr. Winship 

252 Intermediate Painting Development of 
unique and experimental techniques, procedures, 
images, presentations, and textural applications. 
Series of paintings is developed. Alternative 
concepts and methodology are discussed. 



Students are referred to works by artists who 
have related aesthetic interests. Prerequisites: VAS 
141, 251, or permission of instructor. 
Mr Agard 

255 Introductory Printmaking Creative process 
as conditioned and disciplined by intaglio 
techniques. Discussion of past and contemporary 
methods, and the study of original prints. 
Prerequisites: VAS 141 or permission of instructor. 
Mr. Paulson 

256 Printmaking Introductory course in 
experimental work, with a primary concentration 
on lithography, seriography, and cameo 
techniques. Prerequisite: WAS 141. Recommended 
course: VAS 145. 

Mr Paulson 

261 Introductory Sculpture Introduction to 
fundamentals of three-dimensional forms and 
modes of expression invoking creative problems 
in the organization of space, mass, volume, line, 
and color. Correlated lectures and demonstrations 
are used to acquaint students with those aspects 
of sculptural history and theory relevant to 
studio projects. Course is intended for both 
general students, and art majors. Prerequisite: 
VAS 146 or permission of instructor. 
Recommended course: VAS 335. 

Mr. Paulson 

262 Sculpture Program of studio projects 
(arranged by instructor and student) concerned 
with developing an individual approach to 
three-dimensional form, with concentration in 
direcdy fabricating techniques involving a series 
of experiments in spatial organization. 
Prerequisites: VAS 146 or permission of instructor, 
and VAS 261. 

Mr Paulson 

263 Ceramics Introduction to earth (clay), the 
most basic of materials as a medium for personal 
three-dimensional expression. Material is 
approached in an intellectual and poetic sculptural 
application rather than a utilitarian one. 

Mr Shaw 

265 Photography Introductory course with a 
concentration on camera usage, design theory, 
and darkroom techniques in the black-and- 
white creative process. Additional emphasis on 
origins, evolution, and relationship of the 
photographic image to contemporary materials 
and methods. Prerequisite: VAS 141, 145, or 
permission of instructor. 
Mr Blair 



267 Special Topics in Studio Focus on materials, 
techniques, and compositional parameters not 
systematically covered in the regular curriculum. 
Topics are chosen by individual studio faculty 
members, are variable, and may include cast 
metal sculpture, welded sculpture, calligraphy, 
computer graphics, color photography, 
figurative drawing, watercolour painting, 
assemblages, installations and earthworks. Not 
offered every year. 
Staff 

34 1 Advanced Drawing Emphasis on individual 
concepts as developed in a series of interrelated 
drawing problems, materials, and techniques. 
Prerequisites: V AS, 141 or permission of instructor, 
and VAS 142. Offered spring semester only. 
Mr. Agard 

35 1 Advanced Painting Emphasis on advanced 
painting concepts and the development of 
individual smdent concerns in a series. Prerequisites: 
VAS 141 or permission of instructor, and VAS 
251, 252, VAH 322. Offered odd years only. 
Mr. Agard 

355 Advanced Printmaking Experimental 
printmaking concentrating on personal 
development of one method and exploration. 
Prerequisites: VAS 141 or permission of instructor, 
and VAS 255, 256. 
Mr. Paulson 

361 Advanced Sculpture Exploration of 
individual three-dimensional concerns, with 
concentration in one media and technique. 
Prerequisites: VAS 1 46 or permission of instructor, 
and VAS 261, 262. 
Mr. Paulson 

401 Senior Portfolio Creation of a cohesive, 
individualized body of work for inclusion in the 
Senior Show, accompanied by portfolio 
presentation and faculty review. Emphasis is 
placed on extending unique student interests 
and strengths in an exploration of media, 
imagery, and technique, which result in mature, 
high quality aesthetic conclusions. Students 
participate in all aspects of offering the public a 
provocative, thoughtful series of well-crafted 
work that is displayed professionally. 
Staff 

Individualized Study 

Provides an opportunity for the well-qualified 
student to execute supervised projects in the 
area of his or her special interest, whether 
studio or history. 

Staff 



WOMEN'S STUDIES 



Charlotte Armster and Temma Berg, Coordinators 

Professor Richardson Viti 

Associate Professors Gill, Potuchek, Powers, and Small 

Overview 

Women's Studies is governed by the Women's 

Studies Program Advisory Council. The 

members of this advisory council are drawn from \ 

faculty, administrators, staff, and students. ! 

Twenty-four faculty from sixteen departments 

and programs teach the core, cross-listed, and 

affiliated courses. 

The objective of women's studies is to encourage 
students to analyze the roles, perspectives, and 
contributions of women. Through the examination 
of women's past history, present condition, and 
future possibilities, students come to understand 
gender as a cultural experience. In women's studies 
courses, students learn a number of methods for 
examining and strategies for modifying the 
conditions that affect all of our lives. 

Women's studies emphasizes cross-cultural 
perspectives and analysis. Through an array of 
interdisciplinary courses and of courses that 
focus on gender within particular disciplines, 
women's studies seeks to integrate women and 
feminist scholarship into all levels of the 
curriculum. 

Women's studies is interdisciplinary and 
therefore draws on courses in other disciplines, 
hi order to help students design their majors 
and minors, we have developed the following 
categories: a core course centers on women and 
women's studies scholarship and has a WS 
designation only; a cross-listed course centers on 
women and women's studies scholarship and 
has a departmental designation; an affiliated 
course has a significant amount of women's 
studies content and has a departmental 
designation. Prospective majors and minors in 
women's studies are encouraged to discuss their 
plans with a Women's Studies faculty member as 
soon as possible in their academic careers. 
Women's studies students are suongly advised to 
take Women's Studies 120 in the first or second 
year of study and Women's Studies 400 in the 
senior year. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Major Requirements: Ten courses are required for 
the major in women's studies, and all majors are 
required to take the following courses: 

WS 120: Introducdon to Women's Studies 

WS 300: Feminist Theories 



WS 320: Practicum in Feminist Theory and 

Collective Action 
WS 400: Issues in Feminist Theory and Methods 

In addition, students must take at least one core 
or cross-listed course above the 100 level that 
focuses in depth on the diversity of women's 
experiences or on the ways that gender 
intersects with other forms of inequality. Of the 
remaining five courses, at least one must be a 
core or cross-listed course in the social sciences 
and at least one must be a core or cross-listed 
course in the arts or humanities. No more than 
two affiliated courses may be counted toward the 
requirements for the major. 

Students choosing a major in women's studies 
must combine it with a minor (or a second 
major) in an arts, humanities, science, or social 
science discipline. 

Minor Requirements: Six courses are required. 
Minors are required to take Women's Studies 
120, Women's Studies 300, and Women's 
Studies 400. One additional course must be 
from the list of core or cross-listed courses. The 
remaining two courses may be drawn from any 
of the following: (1) core courses, (2) cross- 
listed courses, (3) affiliated courses, and (4) 
approved courses of individualized study in 
Women's Studies. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Women Studies 216, 217, 219, 220, 221, and 251 
satisfy the Liberal Aits Core requirement in 
humanities. Women's Studies 222 and 226 
satisfy the Liberal Arts Core requirement in 
social science. Women Studies 219 and 226 
satisf)' the non-Western requirement. 

CORE COURSES 

120 Introduction to Women's Studies Study of 
perspectives, findings, and methodologies of 
new scholarship on women in various disciplines. 
Course introduces issues in feminist theory and 
examines the diversity of women's experiences, 
structural positions in societies, and collective 
efforts for change. Taught by an interdisciplinary 
team of instructors. 
Staff 

210 Special Topics in Women's Studies Study of a 
topic not normally covered in depth in the 
regular curriculum of the Women's Studies 
program. Offered irregularly. 
Staff 

216 Images of Women in Literature Examination 
of various ways women have been imagined in 
literature. Course looks at how and why images 



of women and men and of their relationships to 
one another change, and at how these images 
affect us. Emphasis is on developing the critical 
power to imagine ourselves differently. Cross- 
listed with Eng 216. 
Ms. Berg 

217 Famous French Femmes Fatales Women 
today are attempting to demystify the feminine 
condition, for, as the late Simone de Beauvoir 
observed, the "mythe de la femme" is a male 
invention. Literary images of women have been 
a major focus of this investigation, and this 
course examines some famous French women, 
from the Princess of Cleves to Emma Bovary, 
and scrutinizes them from the perspective of 
feminist criticism. 
Ms. Richardson Viti 

1 1 9 Contemporary Women Writers: Cross- 
Cultural Perspectives Examination of novels 
and short stories by women authors from diverse 
socio-cultural backgrounds in the U.S. and the 
developing world. Particular attention is given 
to ways in which these writers represent 
universal aspects of women's experience. Course 
examines works written from 1970 to present. 
M.S. Powers 

220 The Pleasures of Looking: Women in Film 

Course explores various images of women as 
constructed for the male and female spectator 
in both dominant and independent film. 
Traditional ways in which women have been 
represented in film are examined critically 
through the use of feminist theories. Course 
aims to examine how various feminist 
filmmakers challenge the traditional uses of the 
female voice in their own films. Films from 
other cultures than the U.S. are included. 
Ms. Armster 

22 1 Bridging the Borders: Latina and Latin 
American Women's Literature Study of selected 
works in English by Latin American women and 
Latina women from the U.S. Course explores 
both connective links and dividing lines of 
women's lives in the context of a common 
cultural heritage that has evolved into multiple 
variants as a result of geographical, historical, 
economic, ethnic, and racial factors. 

Staff 

111 Women's Movements in the United States 

Study of women's acdvism and social movements 
organized primarily by women. Through the 
study of a broad range of women's activism, the 



course places the development of U.S. feminism 
in its larger socio-historical context. 

226 Feminism in Global Perspective Study of 
women's activism to improve their lives around 
the world. Course analyzes similarities and 
differences in the issues women activists address 
in different parts of the world, the theories they 
develop to analyze those issues, and the forms 
their activism takes. Course also considers the 
possibilities for a global women's movement and 
provides theoretical tools for analyzing modern 
feminisms in their global context. 
Staff 

25 1 Women and Nazism Examination of the 
effects of Nazism on women, primarily (but not 
exclusively) in Germany beginning in the 1920s 
and extending to postwar times. Course focuses 
on women's perspectives as exhibited in 
historical and literary documentation. Offered 
every other year. 
Ms. Armster 

300 Feminist Theories Exploration of various 
feminist theories about women — about their 
experiences, their representations, and their 
relative positions in diverse societies. 
Contemporary and earlier works are discussed 
in order to evaluate and synthesize multiple 
approaches to feminist issues. Prerequisite: 
Women's Studies 120. 
Staff 

320 Practicum in Feminist Theory and Collective 
Action Examination of the relationship between 
feminist theory and collective action to improve 
societal conditions for women. Course combines 
seminar meetings with student internships in 
commimity organizations. Readings from feminist 
theory of organizations, collective action, and 
social policy are used as a basis for analysis of 
students' internship experiences. Prerequisites: 
Women's Studies 120 and one other core or 
cross-listed women's studies course, or 
permission of instructor. 
Staff 

400 Issues in Feminist Theory and Methods 

Capstone course in women's studies. Course 
focu.ses on a variety of theories and methods in 
women's studies scholarship by examining a 
particular issue from a number of different 
feminist perspectives. Topic 1998-99: Women 
and Health: Body Politics. Prerequisites: Women's 
Studies 120, 300 and one additional core or 
cross-listed women's studies courses. 
Staff 



Cross-Listed Courses 

(See appropriate departmental listings for 
descriptions of the following courses.) 

CWES 347 Women in Public: Gender and 

Cultural Transformation in the United 

States, 1840-1900 
Anthropology 228 Cross-Cultural Perspectives 

on Women, Sex Roles, and Gender 
Economics 252 Gender Issues in Economics 
English 323 British Women Writers, 1660-1800 
English 334 Nineteenth-Century English 

Women Writers 
English 349 Contemporary African American 

Women Writers 
FYS 125 Witches of Salem 
FYS 170 "Only a Husband Away": Women, 

Poverty, and Welfare 
FYS 1 72 From Madame Marie Curie to Agent 

Dana Scully: The Role of Gender in Science 

and Technology 
FYS 1 96 "You've Come a Long Way, Baby": 

Milestones in the Lives of Ainerican Women 

over the Past Century 
History 209 Women's History Since 1500 
History 245 Gender and the American Civil War 
History 308 Women, Power, and Polidcs in 

Early Modern Europe 
IDS 215 Contemporary French Women Writers 
LAS 22 1 Undressing Frontiers: Transitions and 

Desires in Latin American Literature 
Political Science 382 Feminist Theory in 

American Politics 
Political Science 412 Women and the Political 

Economy of Development 
Sociology 217 Gender Inequality 
VAH 400 Seminar in Art History: Women in 

Art 

Affiliated Courses 
Classics 1 2 1 Survey of Greek Civilization 
Classics 264 Ancient Tragedy 
Classics 266 Ancient Comedy 
English 333 Victorian Aesthetics 
English 343 American Realism and Naturalism 
FYS 193 Beauty, Body Image, and Identity in 

Cross-Cultural Perspective 
Japanese 225 Japanese Women 
Music 108 Women and Music 
Political Science 406 Politics of Poverty 
Sociology 206 Sociology of Family 
Spanish 320 Lyric Poetry 
VAH 227 Alts of the First Nations of North 

America: East and Plains 
VAH 228 Arts of the First Nations of North 

America: North and West 



Annual Prizes and Awards 



> 



Gettysburg College has a long tradition of recognizing students for outstanding scholarship 
and achievement. These aiuards, made possible by the generous gifts of alumni and friends, 
are presented at a Fall Honors Program in October or a Spring Honors Convocation in May. 
Grades earned in required courses in exercise sciences are not considered in computations for prizes 
or aiuards. Transfer students are eligible for prizes and aioards. 



ENDOWED ANNUAL PRIZES AND AWARDS 

Betty M. Barnes Memorial Award in Biology: 
Established by Dr. & Mrs. Rodger W. Baier, to be 
awarded to a senior with high academic abihty 
preparing for a career in biology or medicine. 

Baum Mathematical Prize: Created by Dr. Charles 
Baum (1874), to be given to the student showing 
the greatest proficiency in mathematics through 
his or her sophomore year. 

John Edgar Baublitz Pi Lambda Sigma Aiuards: 
Created by John Eberhardt Baublitz in honor 
of his father, John Edgar Baublitz '29, who was 
the first president of the Gamma Chapter of Pi 
Lambda Sigma. Awarded to a senior major in 
economics, a senior major in management, and 
a senior major in political science. 

Anna Marie Budde Award: Established by Anna 
Marie Budde, instructor and assistant professor 
of voice, 1953-1972, to be given to the 
outstanding sophomore voice student. 

Romeo M. Capozzi Athletic Training Room Award: 
Created by Rose Ann Capozzi in memory of her 
late husband, Romeo M. Capozzi, to be given to 
the student who has demonstrated the greatest 
degree of proficiency in athletic training room 
techniques. 

Oscar W. Carlson Memorial Award: Created by the 
family of Oscar W. Carlson '21, to be given to a 
senior who demonstrates excellent academic 
achievement through his or her junior year in 
three or more courses in the Department of 
Religion, including two courses above the 100-level. 

fohn M. Colestock Student Leadership Aivard: 
Created by family and friends, to be given to the 
senior whose optimism, enthusiasm, and strength 
of character have proxdded exceptional 
leadership in student affairs. 

Malcolm R. Dougherty Mathematical Award: 
Established by the Columbian Cutlery Company, 
Reading, Pennsylvania, in memory of Malcolm 
R. Dougherty '42, to be awarded to the student 
who had the highest average in mathematics 
during his or her first year of college and who is 
working to earn part of his or her college expenses. 



Margaret E. Fisher Memorial Scholarship Award: 
Created by Dr. Nelson F. Fisher '18 in memory 
of his mother, to be awarded to a student who 
excels in one or more major sports and who 
achieves the highest academic average among 
winners of varsity letters. 

Lena S. Fortenbaugh Memorial Prize in German: 
Established by the children of Lena S. Fortenbaugh 
(M.A. 1925) and Robert Fortenbaugh '13, 
professor of history at the College from 1923-1959. 
Awarded to a senior witli outstanding achievement 
in the study of German language and culture. 

Holly Gabriel Memorial Award: Established by 
friends and classmates of Holly Gabriel '78, to 
be awarded to a senior sociology major who 
demonstrates superior academic achievement, 
concern for the welfare of others, and the intent 
to continue this service beyond graduation. 

Samuel Garver Greek Prize: Created by the Rev. 
Austin S. Garver (1869) in memory of his father, 
to be awarded to the student who has made the 
greatest progress in Greek during the first year 
of college. 

Samuel Garver Latin Prize: Created by the Rev. 
Austin S. Garver (1869) in memory of his father, 
to be awarded to the student who has made the 
greatest progress in Latin during the first year 
of college. 

Graeff English Prize: Established in 1 866, to be 
awaided to a senior who demonstrates outstanding 
achievement in English. 

David H. Greenlaw Memorial Prize: Created by Mr. 
and Mrs. Ralph W. Greenlaw in memory of their 
son, David H. Greenlaw '66, to be awarded to 
the student who has offered exceptional 
contributions to the College's theatre program. 

Edwin T. Greninger Award in History: Established 
by Edwin T. Greninger '41, to be awarded on the 
basis of the quality of a student's paper written for 
any of the courses in the Department of History. 

fohn Alfred Harnme Awards: Two awards, established 
by John Alfred Hamme '18, to be given to the 
two juniors who have demonstrated in the 
highest degree the qualities of loyalty, kindness, 
courtesy, true democracy, and leadership. 



Dr. Carl Arnold Hanson, President Emeritus, 
Leadership Aivard: Created by his wife, Anne Keet 
Hanson, friends and alumni, in honor of Dr. 
Carl Ainold Hanson, President of Gettysburg 
College from 1961-1977. Awarded to a student 
who has achieved at least a 3.0 average in his or 
her major through the middle of the junior year 
and has demonstrated significant leadership 
abilities in one or more areas of college life. 

Henry W. A. Hanson Scholarship Foundation Award: 
Created by College alumni in honor of Henry 
W. A. Hanson and in recognidon of his leadership 
of and distinguished service to Gettysburg 
College and to the cause of education in the 
Lutheran Church and the nation. Awarded to a 
senior who plans to enter graduate school in 
preparation for college teaching. 

Harry C. and Catherine Noffsinger Hartzell Azuard: 
Created by James Hamilton Hartzell '24 in 
memory of his parents, to be awarded to the 
outstanding junior student in the Department 
of Sociology and Anthropology. 

James Boyd Hartzell Memorial Award: Established 
by James Hamilton Hartzell '24 and his wife, 
Lucretia Irvine Boyd Hartzell, to be awarded to 
a jtmior student majoring in economics or in 
management for outstanding scholarship and 
promise in these fields. 

James Hamilton and Lucretia Irvine Boyd Hartzell 
Award: Created by James Hamilton Hartzell '24 
and his wife, to be awarded to a sophomore 
student for outstanding scholarship and promise 
in the field of history. 

Mildred H. Hartzell Prize: Created by Mildred H. 
Hartzell '26, to be awarded to a student who 
shows high quality in more than scholarship; 
preference is given to a member of Alpha Phi 
Omega, the national service fraternity, or other 
organizations that may reflect similar quality 
and ideals. 

Hassler Latin Prize: Established by Charles W. 
Hassler, to be awarded to the best Latin student 
in the junior class. 

John A. Hauser Metitorious Prize in Business: 
Created by the family of John A. Hauser, to 
be awarded to an outstanding management 
major who has achieved excellence in both 
academic studies and campus leadership, while 
demonstrating good character and concern 
for high moral standards. 



Grace C. Kenney Award: Created to honor Grace 
C. Kenney, an educator for 39 yezirs at Gettysburg 
College, to be given to a junior or senior. First 
preference is given to a student who has 
participated in health and exercise sciences 
studies, intramural and athletic programs, and 
has demonstrated the highest academic 
accomplishments and leadership skills. 

Rev. George N. Lauffer (1899) and M. Naomi 
Lauffer (1898) Scholarship Award: Given each year 
to a jtmior who has maintained high scholarship 
and who evidences outstanding ability and 
character. It is tmderstood that the recipient will 
complete the senior year at Gettysburg College. 

/. Andrew Marsh Memorial Awards: Awdirded each 
year to the sophomore and junior students of 
Gettysburg College who best exemplify the 
"whole person" concept through positive 
attitude, exceptional spirit, high standards, and 
notable achievement, both curricular and 
extracurricular. 

Miller First Year Student Prize in Physics: Created 
by alumni and friends in memory of George R. 
Miller '19, to be awarded to a sophomore for 
outstanding performance in physics as a first- 
year student. 

Miller Senior Prize in Physics: Created by alumni 
and friends in memory of George R. Miller '19, 
to be awarded to a senior for sustained 
outstanding performance in physics. 

Franklin Moore Award: Established by friends 
of Mr. Moore, to be given to the senior who, 
during his or her undergraduate years, has 
shown the highest degree of good citizenship 
and, by character, industry, enterprise, initiative, 
and activities, has contributed the most toward 
campus morale and the prestige of the College. 

Samuel A. Miidd Psychology Award: Established by 
Paul M. Muchinsky '69 in honor of Samuel A. 
Mudd '57, professor of psychology, emeritus. 
Award is presented to a graduating senior 
psychology major who has demonstrated a high 
level of personal integrit)' and outstanding 
scholarship. 

Muhlenberg First Year Student Prize: Created by Dr. 
Frederick A. Muhlenberg (1836), to be awarded 
to the first-year student taking Greek or Latin 
who attains the highest general quality point 
average. 



Muhlenberg Goodwill Prize: Awdided to a senior 
"for growth during formative years at Gettysburg 
College in awareness of personal responsibility 
for the welfare of all peoples; for a degree of 
achievement in same during College years and 
in the hope of future accomplishment for 
betterment of Community, State and Nation." 

William F. Muhlenberg Award: Aw3.rded to two 
juniors on the basis of character, scholarship, 
and proficiency in campus activities. 

J. Rogers Mussebnan Award: Established by Peter 
R. Musselman in memory of his father, J. Rogers 
Musselman, to be awarded to a student 
majoring in mathematics who is proficient in 
the study of mathematics during his or her third 
year of enrollment. 

Nicholas Bible Prize: Created by the Rev. Dr. J.C. 
Nicholas (1894), to be awarded to the senior 
who has done the best work in advanced courses 
in religion. 

Clair B. and Mary E. Noerr Memorial Award: 
Established by Constance (Noerr) Baker '58 in 
memory of her father and mother, to be 
awarded to a senior on the basis of proficiency in 
athletics, scholarship, and character. 

Dr. John W. Ostrom Composition Awards: 
Established by Dr. John W. Ostrom '26, to be 
awarded to the student who achieves excellence 
and demonstrates the greatest improvement in 
first-year composition (English 101) and to the 
student who achieves excellence and demonsQates 
the greatest improvement in advanced 
composition (English 201). 

Dr. John W. Ostrom English Award: Created by 
Dr. John W. Ostrom '26, to be awarded to the 
student who has written the best expository 
essay for an upper level English course. 

Vivian Wickey Otto Christian Service Award: 
Created by Vivian Wickey Otto '46 through the 
Woman's General League of Gettysburg 
College, to be given to a student at the end of 
his or her junior year who plans to enter full- 
time Christian service work. 

Keith Pappas Memorial Award: Given as a 
memorial to Keith Pappas '74, an honors graduate 
who made an extraordinary contribution to the 
life of this College and its people. Awarded to a 
current student who most significantly affects 
the College community through the quality of 
his or her participation in its functions and 
whose divergent contributions give form to what 
is called Gettysburg College. 



Jeffrey Pierre Memorial Award: Established in 
honor of Jeffrey Pierce '71, to be awarded to a 
senior who has reached the highest level of 
achievement in the field of history. 

Martha Ellen Sachs Prize: Created by John E. Haas 
in memory of his aunt, a lecturer at the College, 
to be awarded to a student exhibiting excellence 
in English composition, with consideration 
given to improvement made during the year. 

Captain Michael D. Scot ton (1982) Aiuard: 
Established by David R. and Sally R. Scotton, 
parents of Michael D. Scotton, to be awarded 
to a junior who demonstrates a high degree of 
extracurricular activity and diligence to his or 
her academic work. 

Senior Scholarship Prize: Established by the Class 
of 1996 and Mr. Robert Stockberger '33, to be 
presented annually to two rising seniors who 
best exemplify Gettysburg College through 
academics and service to the campus 
community. The Senior Scholarship Prize Fund 
is augmented with future senior class gifts. 

Stine Chemistry Prize: Created by Dr. Charles M. 
A. Stine '01, to be awarded to a senior chemistry 
major on the basis of grades in chemistry, 
laboratory technique, personality, general 
improvement in four years, and proficiency in 
chemistry at the time of selection. 

Earl Kresge Stock Writing Prizes: Established by 
Earl Kresge Stock '19, to be awarded to the 
three students who write the classroom papers 
judged best in the areas of the humanities, the 
sciences, and the social sciences. 

Samuel P. Weaver Scholarship Foundation Prizes: 
Established by Samuel P. Weaver '04, to be 
awarded to the two students writing the best 
essays on an assigned topic in the field of 
constitutional law and government. 

EarlE. Zieglej- Junior Mathematics Aivard: Created 
by Phi Delta Theta alumni, to be given in honor 
of Earl E. Ziegler, associate professor of 
mathematics at Gettysburg College from 1935- 
1968. Awarded to the mathemafics major who 
has the highest average in mathematics through 
the junior year. 

Earl E. Ziegler Senior Mathematics Award: Created 
by Earl E. Ziegler, associate professor of 
mathematics at Gettysburg College from 1935- 
1968, to be awarded to the mathematics major 
who has achieved the highest average in 
mathematics through the senior year. 



Edwin and Leander M. Zimmerman Senior Prize: 
Awarded to the senior whose character, 
influence on students, and scholarship have 
contributed most to the welfare of the College. 

John B. Zinn Chemistry Research Award: Created 
by Frances and John Zinn in honor of John B. 
Zinn '09, who was professor of chemistry at the 
College from 1924-1959. Awarded to the senior 
making the greatest contributions in his or her 
own research in chemistry and to the research 
activities of the Department of Chemistry. 

UNENDOWED ANNUAL PRIZES AND AWARDS 

Award for Excellence in Theory and Practice in 
Women's Studies: Given to a senior in recognition 
of outstanding achievement in the study of 
feminist theory and in social service on behalf 
of women and children. 

Charles W. Beachem Athletic Award: Created in 
memory of Charles W. Beachem '25, the first 
alumni secretary of the College, to be awarded 
to a senior on the basis of character, 
scholarship, and athledc achievement. 

C. E. Bilheimer Award: Given to the senior major 
in health and exercise sciences with the highest 
academic average. 

Esthn Brandt Chemistry or Biology Award: Created 
by Mr. and Mrs. Walter Brandt and Ms. Loel 
Rosenberry in honor of Esther Brandt, to be 
given to a junior or senior who has demonstrated 
academic excellence through the highest grade 
point average in the declared major of 
chemistry or biology. 

Archie and Flo Butler English Award: Created by 
Mr. and Mrs. Walter Brandt and Ms. Loel 
Rosenberry in honor of Archie and Flo Butler, 
to be given to a junior or senior with a declared 
English major who has demonstrated academic 
excellence through the highest grade point 
average in English. 

Anna Julia Cooper, Cheikh Anta-Diop, W.E.B. 
DuBois Award for Academic Excellence in African 
American Studies: A major African Ajnerican 
Studies book (signed by the author), a commem- 
orative plaque, and an explicatory document 
are awarded to the best African American 
Studies minor. Award is based on a combination 
of significant scholarship, at least a 3.1 average 
in African American Studies, and service to the 
college community and the larger community. 



Chan L. Coulter Philosophy Award: Established 
by the Department of Philosophy in honor of 
Chan L. Coulter, Professor of Philosophy from 
1958-1995, to be presented to a student whose 
achievements in philosophy display excellence 
and creativity and exemplify the spirit of inquiry 
so essenual to the examined life. 

Delta Phi Alpha Prize: Awarded to the outstanding 
student for the year in the Department of 
German. 

Anthony di Palma Memorial Aiuard: Established by 
the family of Anthony di Palma '56, to be 
awarded to the junior having the highest marks 
in history. Other things being equal, preference 
is given to a member of Sigma Chi fraternity. 

Diuight D. Eisenhower Society /K M. Hoffman Family 
Memorial Prize in Economics: Created by the R. M. 
Hoffman Family Memorial Trust through the 
Dwight D. Eisenhower Society in memory of 
Gettysburg businessman R. M. Hoffman. Awarded 
to the student writing the best quantitative 
paper or project (with public policy implications) 
in economics. 

Dwight D. Eisenhower Society /R. M. Hoffman Family 
Memorial Prize in Management: Created by the 
R. M. Hoffman Family Memorial Trust through 
the Dwight D. Eisenhower Society in memory of 
Gettysburg businessman R. M. Hoffhian. Awarded 
to an outstanding senior in the management 
department. 

Julius Eno Physics Prize: Created by Julius Eno Jr., 
to be awarded to the outstanding junior majoring 
in physics. 

French Cultural Counselor's Award: Established by 
the cultural counselor of the French Embassy, 
to be awarded to a senior for outstanding 
achievement in French. 

Gettysburg College Award in Athletics: Awarded to a 
student who excels in one or more major sports 
and who achieves the highest academic average 
among winners of varsity letters. 

Gettysburg College Award in History: Awarded to 
the senior who has reached a high level of 
achievement in the field of history. 

Gettysburg College Senior Prize: Awarded to a senior 
who exemplifies commitment to community 
and concern for the welfare of others during 
the student's years at Gettysburg College and 
who shows promise of future accomplishment in 
support of community, state, and nadon. 



^^ 



Gellyshurg College Student Leadership Ajvard: 
Awarded to a senior whose enthusiasm, 
energy, and contributions in student affairs 
demonstrated outstanding leadership. 

Frank H. Kramer Award: Given by the 
Department of Education, in memory of a 
former professor of education, to a senior for 
the excellence of his or her work in the 
department. 

Maria Leonard Senior Book Award: Created by the 
Gettysburg Chapter of Alpha Lambda Delta, the 
national academic honorary society for first-year 
students. Awarded to the graduating Alpha 
Lambda Delta member who has the highest 
grade point average through the first semester 
of the senior year. 

Toni Morrison-Wole Soyinka African American 
Studies Essay Award: A monetary gift, a major 
African American Studies book (signed by the 
author) , a commemorative plaque, and an 
explicatory document are awarded for the best 
essay written in an African American Studies 
class during the preceding year by a junior, 
sophomore, or first-year student. 

Psi Chi Junior Azvard: Awarded to a senior 
psychology major who has displayed outstanding 
potential and inidative throughout his or her 
junior year. 

Emile O. Schmidt Award: Established by students, 
friends, audience members, and colleagues of 
Emile Schmidt, Professor of English and 
Theatre at Gettysburg College since 1962. 
Award is presented each year to a theatre 
student for scholarly excellence and distinguished 
service to the Gettysburg College theatre 
program, as well as profes-sional promise. 

Sigma Alpha Iota College Honor Aiuard: Created 
by Sigma Alpha Iota, an internafional music 
fraternity, to be awarded to a student in the 
local chapter who has exemplified the highest 
musical, scholastic, and ethical standards, 
whatever the class standing. 

Sigma Alpha Iota Honor Certificate: Awarded to 
the graduating senior who holds the highest 
academic average among music majors. 

Dr George W. Stoner Award: Awarded to a worthy 
senior accepted by a recognized medical college. 

Student Life Council Award: Awarded to a student 
in recognition of the quiet influence he or she 
has exerted for the improvement of the campus 
community. 



Superior Scholarship in Computer Science: Awarded 
to an outstanding computer science major at 
the discretion of the faculty. 

Wall Street Journal Student Achievement Award: 
Awarded to a senior in the Department of 
Economics who has shown outstanding academic 
achievement in the study of finance and 
economics. 

Women 's Studies Service Award: An award for 
excellence in Women's Studies, given to a senior 
for outstanding service exemplifying feminist 
ideals. 

Marion Zulauf Poetry Prize: Established at The 
Academy of American Poets by Sander Zulauf '68 
in memory of his mother, to be awarded to the 
student who writes the winning entry in a poetry 
contest sponsored by the Department of English. 

ENDOWED SCHOLARSHIPS (GRANTS-IN-AID) 

Student Aid 

All students who apply for financial as.sistance 
and are determined to have financial need will 
be considered for these scholarships (grants-in- 
aid). Recipients are selected by the College. 

Though the College administers scholarships 
restricted to members of a particular sex, the 
discriminating effect of these awards has been 
eliminated in the overall administration of the 
financial aid program through use of other 
funds made available by the College. 

George H. (1949) and Janet L. Allamong Scholarship 
Fund: Established by George H. Allamong and 
Janet L. Allamong, to be awarded to one or 
more worthy and promising students. 

Frederic S. Almy, Sr Scholarship Fund: Created by 
the son of Mr Almy, in memory of "a man who 
did not have the opportunity to attend college," 
to be awarded to a deserving and financially 
needy student. 

Ruth C. Apple Scholarship Fund: Established by 
members of the Apple family of Sunbury, 
Pennsylvania, to honor their mother. To be 
awarded to promising but needy students, with a 
preference to those from Snyder, Union, or 
Northumberland Counties in Pennsylvania, 
especially those with skills and aspirations in the 
performing arts. 

Nelson P. Arigo '43 Scholarship Fund: Established 
by Henrietta Arigo in memory of her husband. 
Nelson P. Arigo. 



Dean B. Armold, Class of 1 929 Endowed Scholurship: 
Awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students in need of scholarship funds. 

Dean B. Armold Scholarship Fund: EstabHshed by 
Dean B. Aimold '29, to be awarded to a highly 
qualified scholar involved in extracurricular 
activities, with emphasis on academic excellence. 

Richard A. Arms Scholarship Fund: C'-reated by the 
Class of 1924 in memory of the chair of the 
mathematics department (1920-1963), to be 
awarded to a worthy student. 

Gertrude and Albert Bachman and Albert E. 
Bachman '58 Endowed Scholarship: Awdrded to 
one or more worthy and promising students, 
with preference given to students majoring in 
French, music (B.A.) or psychology. 

Dr. Joseph B. Baker (1901) and Rena L. Baker 
Scholarship Fund: Established by the Woman's 
General League of Gettysburg College for a needy 
and deserving student in the music department. 

William Balthasei- (1925) Scholarship Fund: 
Created from a bequest by William Balthaser, to 
be awarded to needy and promising students. 

The William K. Baiie 38 Scholarship: Created by 
Walter A. Dubovick '38 in memory of his friend 
and classmate killed in WWII. Awarded to a first- 
year student and continued up to four years, if 
the recipient maintains a sadsfactory grade 
point average. The scholarship can also be 
awarded to a sophomore, junior or senior. 

Dr. Ray Alfred Barnard (1915) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Dr. Barnard, to be awarded to a 
male student from the Central Pennsylvania 
Synod who is preparing for the Lutheran ministry. 

Rev. Sydney E. Bateman (1887) Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to a needy ministerial student. 

Th^ Milton T. and Catherijie K. Becker Family Endowed 
Scholarship Fund: EsiahWshed in appreciation of 
the education of their son, Donald T. Becker 
'67, and grandchildren, Richard T. Becker '97 
and Jasmin Becker '91, to be awarded to one or 
more worthy and promising students in need of 
scholarship fvmds. 

Admiral William W Behrens,Jr. Scholarship Fund: 
Established by the family of Admiral William W. 
Behrens (Hon'74), to be awarded to one or 
more worthy and promising students entering 
the final year of undergraduate study and 
preparing for a career in public service. 



Henry S. Belber, II Scholarship Fund: Awarded to 
a first-year student and may be continued up to 
four years; preference is given to indi%aduals 
who engage in extraciuricular activities. 

Belt Hess-Qiiay Scholarship Fund: Created by 
Effie E. Hess Belt (1898) in commemoration of 
several relatives. First preference is given to a 
member of Grace Lutheran Church, Westminster, 
Maryland; second preference to any other 
resident of Carroll County, Maryland who is 
pursuing theological studies at the College; and 
third preference is given to any deserving student. 

Helen A. Giles and James B. Bendei' Scholarship 
Fund: Awarded on the basis of need and ability; 
preference is given to residents of Adams 
County, Pennsylvania, majoring in economics 
and/or management. 

Jesse E. Benner (1907) and Minerva B. Benner 
Scholarship Fund: Awarded to worthy students, 
preferably preministerial students. 

Burton F. Blough Scholarship Fund: Established by 
a former trustee to aid needy and deserving 
students. 

Jean Aument Borwl/rake Presidential Scholarship 
Fund: Established by Roy Bonebrake (1928) in 
memory of his wife, to be awarded to promising 
and worthy students in need of scholarship aid; 
preference is given to students who possess 
exceptional academic abilities and outstanding 
promise. 

Harry F. Borleis (1925) Scholarship Fund: Awarded 
to needy and deserving students. 

Charles E. Bowman (1925) Scholarship Trust Fund: 
Awarded to needy and deserving students. 

Elsie Paul Boyle (1912) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Elsie Paul Boyle, to be awarded 
to a needy and worthy student, with preference 
given to a Lutheran from Weatherly, located in 
Carbon County, Pennsylvania. 

Henry T Bream (1924) Scholarship Fund: Created 
by alumni and friends of the College in honor 
of Henry T. Bream, professor of health and 
physical education, 1926-1969, to be awarded to 
a needy and deserving male .scholar-athlete. 

James H. (1960) and Mary Jane (1960) Brenneman 
Endowed Scholarship Fund: Established by James 
H. Brenneman, former member of the Board of 
the Trustees of the College, and his wife, Mary 
Jane, in honor of their daughter Kathleen 
(1984), and son Stephen (1987), to be awarded 
annually to needy and deserving students. 



Lavern H. Brenneman (1936) Scholarship Fun fl: 
Established by Lavern H. Brenneman (1936), 
former chair of the Board of Trustees of the 
College, and his wife, Miriam, in honor of their 
son, James (1960); daughter-in-law, Mary Jane 
(1960); granddaughter, Kathleen (1984); and 
grandson, Stephen (1987). Awarded annually to 
needy and deserving students. 

R/indall Sammis Brush (1973) Memorial Scholarship 
Fund: Created by family and friends in memory 
of Randall Sammis Brush, to be awarded to a 
needy and deserving student particularly 
proficient in the study of history. 

Edward B. Bull^- (1923) Scholarship Fund: Created 
by the Lutheran Church of the Good Shepherd, 
Pearl River, New York, and friends in honor of 
the Rev. Edward B. Buller, to be awarded to a 
deserving student; preference is given to a 
student from Good Shepherd congregation. 

H. Edgar (1924) and M. Hekne Bush Scholarship: 
Awarded to deserving persons in need. 

The William A. and Anne D. Cannell Endowed 
Scholarship: Awarded to one or more worthy and 
promising students. 

Dr. Anthony G. Ciavarelli (1913) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Dr. Anthony G. Ciavarelli, to be 
awarded annually to a student (or students) who 
demonstrates superior character, industry, 
serious academic purpose, and financial need. 
Preference is given to a student preparing for 
the medical profession. 

Class of 1903, George S. Rentz Memorial Fund: 
Created to support the College scholarship 
program. 

Numerous classes have established scholarships to be 
awarded to a needy and deserving student. They are: 

Class of 1913 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1915 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1 916 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1917 Schmucker-Brddenbaugh 
Memorial Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1918 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1 920 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1921 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1925 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1 927 Scholarship Fund 



Class of 1 933 Scholarship Fund: Preference is 
given to students who, beyond academic and 
personal qualifications, are descendants of 
members of the Class of 1933. 

Class of 1 934 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1 936 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1937 Scholarship Fund: Preference is 
given to students who intend to enter a field 
of service focused on developing greater 
imderstanding between our nation and other 
parts of the world and majoring in political 
science, economics, or history. 

Class of 1 938 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1939 Scholarship Fund: Established in 
honor of past President Dr. Henry W. A. Hanson 
and former Dean Dr. Wilbur E. Tilberg. 

Class of 1943 Scholarship Fund 

Cla.ss of 1944 Scholarship Fund: Dedicated to 
classmates who lost their lives in World War II. 

Class of 1 945 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1 949 Scholarship Fund: Established with 
contribuUons to the College in celebration of 
their 50th reunion in 1999. 

Class of 1971 Scholarship Fund: Preference is 
given to students who exemplify the qualities of 
sincere scholarship, extracurricular interests, 
and commitment to community service. 

Class of 1974 Scholarship Fund: Awarded to one or 
more worthy and promising students. 

Class of 1993 Scholarship Fund: Preference is 
given to a student from the Gettysburg area. 

Class of 1 994 Scholarship Fund: Established as a 
tribute to the life of Paul Leary, a classmate 
killed in the summer of 1993. Awarded to a 
current student who demonstrates financial 
need and self-initiative in meeting that need by 
working, preferably in a work-study program. 

Class of 1995 Scholarship Fund: Preference is 
given to students participating in service-learning 
projects. 

The Christopher J. Clifford '98 Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Mr. and Mrs. Joseph P. Clifford in 
loving memory of Christopher J. Clifford '98. 
Awarded to worthy and promising students, with 
preference to qualified students from 
northeastern Pennsylvania. 



Bill Coslry Scholarship: Established by the Trustees 
of Gettysburg College to honor Dr. Bill Cosby, 
the 1997 Gettysburg College Commencement 
speaker. Awarded with preference to students 
from the greater Philadelphia area or those with 
a particular interest in becoming teachers. 

Ernst M. and Agnes H. Cronlund Memorial 
Scholarship Fund: Established in memory of Ernst 
Magnus and Agnes Hoffsten Cronlund by their 
children Ernest and Shirley, Eleanor, Martin '29 
and Rebecca, Raymond '33 and Lillian. Awarded 
to needy and promising students. 

William C. and Helen H. Darrah Scholarship Fund: 
Established by the Department of Biology in 
honor of William C. and Helen H. Darrah, to 
be awarded to a promising student majoring in 
biology. 

Frank L. Daugherty (1922) Scholarship: Established 
by Frank L. Daugherty, to be awarded to a 
deserving York County resident who would 
otherwise be imable to attend Gettysburg 
College. Recipient is selected by the College. 

The Kermit H. (1932) and Mary B. Deardorff 
Endowed Scholarship Fund: Awarded to one or 
more promising students in need of scholarship 
fimds. First preference is given to students from 
Adams County, PA. 

Anita Conner Derry and Thomas James Faulkener 
Memorial Scholarship Fund: Created by Ellis 
Derry '39 and Peggy Derry, to be awarded to 
one or more worthy and promising students. 
First preference is given to the family or 
descendants of Anita Conner Derry or Thomas 
James Faulkener, then to students majoring in 
mathematics, computer science, or physical 
sciences. 

W. K. Diehl (1886) Scholarship Fund: Created by 
Norman E. Diehl in memory of his father, W. K. 
Diehl, D.D., to be awarded to needy and 
deserving students. 

Daniel G. Ebbert Family Scholarship Fu nd: Awarded 
to a first-year student, and may be continued up 
to four years. 

Chris Ebert (1965) Memorial Fund: Established in 
memory of Chris Ebert by his father and 
mother. Awarded annually to a needy student. 
First preference is given to a student pursuing a 
career in teaching or majoring in mathematics, 
and/or participating in intercollegiate wresding; 
second preference is given to a student studying 
for the ministry. 



Charles L. "Dutch" Eby (1933) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by the family and friends of Charles 
L. Eby, to be awarded to needy students. 
Preference is given to students who, beyond 
academic and personal qualifications, are 
residents of south-central Pennsylvania and have 
demonstrated leadership ability through active 
participation and excellent performance in 
extracurricular activities. 

Ehrhart Family Scholarship Fund: Established by 
Kenneth W. Ehrhart '46 in memory of his 
father. Rev. Kenneth Ehrhart '25 and in honor 
of those members of the Ehrhart family who 
attended Gettysburg College, Rev. Carl Ehrhart 
'47, Rev. Richard Ehrhart '46, Sidney Ehrhart 
'50, and David Ehrhart '62. Awarded to one or 
more worthy and promising students. 

Jacob C. Eisenhart and Rosa Bott Eisenhart Scholarship 
Fund: Established by the J. C. Eisenhart Wall 
Paper Company, to be awarded to a deserving 
Lutheran preministerial student. 

Dwight D. Eisenhower Scholarship Fund: 
Established by the Eisenhower Society in honor 
of the thirty-fourth President of the United 
States, a former resident of the community of 
Gettysburg and a friend and trustee of the 
College. Awarded to needy students who 
exemplify superior qualities of honesty, integrity, 
and leadership. Additional monies have been 
contributed to the fund through the R. M. 
Hoffman Memorial Scholarship Fund. 

Eisenhower Leadership Scholarship Fund: Awarded 
to class valedictorians and salutatorians, presidents 
of the student council, and other leaders. 

Clarence A. Eyler (1880) and Myrtle B. Eyler 
Scholarship Fund: Awarded to a worthy Lutheran 
preministerial student. 

Annie C Felly Scholarship Fund: Aw2Lrded to a 
needy and deserving student. 

Alan S. Fischer ( 1 929) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Marian Fischer Hammer '30 and 
Robert H. Fischer '39 in honor of their brother, 
to be awarded to one or more worthy and 
promising students; preference is given to 
mathematics or computer science majors. 

H. Keith Fischer Scholarship Fund: Awdirded to one 
or more worthy and promising students; 
preference is given to premedical students or to 
social or natural sciences or mathematics majors. 



H. Keith and Dorothy S. Fischer Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to a first-year student, and may be 
continued up to four years. Preference is given 
to premedical students or students majoring in 
natural science. 

Wilbur H. Fleck (1902) Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to a graduate cum laude of the 
Protestant faith of the Wyoming Seminary. 

Fourjay Foundation Scholarship Fund: Awarded to 
declared management majors or to students 
who express a high degree of interest in 
management or related fields and demonstrate 
academic excellence, leadership, and need. 

Donald D. Freedman, M.D. (1944) and Richard S. 
Freedman, D.V.M. (1973) Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to a junior or senior, with preference 
given to students pinsuing the study of 
medicine, dentistry, or veterinary medicine 
and participating in varsity athletics. 

David Garbacz (1 964) Scholarship Fund: Established 
by Gerald G. Garbacz and his family, to be awarded 
to students who, beyond academic and personal 
qualifications, pursue a major in economics. 

Dr Daniel F. Garland (1888) Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to a deserving ministerial student. 

Richard W. Gaver (1966) Memorial Scholarship 
Fund: Created by Dr. and Mrs. Leo J. Gaver in 
memory of their son, to be awarded to a worthy 
student. Preference is given to a premedical 
student. 

Gettysburg College Alumni Association Scholarship 
Fund: Formerly the Gettysburg College Alumni 
Loan Program of 1933. The Gettysburg College 
.\lumni Association Scholarship Fund was 
established in 1984. Awarded annually; 
preference is given to sons or daughters of 
alumni in accordance with criteria established 
by Gettysburg College. 

Lorna Gibb Scholarship Fund: Established by the 
Gibb Foundadon in memory of die Foundadon's 
founder, to be awarded to needy students who 
have demonstrated good academic ability, as well 
as a willingness to contribute to the Gettysburg 
College campus community in other ways. 

Millard E. Gladfelter (1925) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Millard E. Gladfelter, to be 
awarded to first-year students and may be 
continued up to four years; preference is given 
to students from York County, Pennsylvania. 



William L. and Philip H. Glatfelter Memorial 
Scholarship: Established by Elizabeth G. 
Rosenmiller, to be awarded to a first-year 
student. May be continued up to four years. 

Dr and Mrs. James E. Glenn Scholarship Fund: 
Created byj. Donald Glenn '23 in memory of 
his parents, to be awarded to a worthy student 
preparing for the Christian ministry or the 
medical profession. 

Gordon-Davis Linen Supply Company Scholarship 
Fund: Awarded to a deserving student. 

Windom Cook Gramley (1904) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Theresa M. Gramley in memory 
of Windom Cook Gramley, to be awarded to a 
worthy and promising student. 

Grand Army of the Republic Living Memorial 
Scholarship Fund: Created by the Daughters of 
Union Veterans, to be awarded to a needy and 
deserving student, preferably the descendant of 
a Union veteran. 

Dr. H. Leonard Green Scholarship Fund: Established 
by the family and friends of Dr. H. Leonard 
Green, to be awarded to worthy and promising 
students. Preference is given to students 
majoring in religion or philosophy. 

Ida E. Grover Scholarship Fund: Awarded to a 
needy and deserving student. 

Merle B. and Mary M. Hafer Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Merle B. Hafer, to be awarded to 
a deserving student, preferably one preparing 
for the Christian ministry. 

John Alfred Hamme (1918) Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to a deserving student. 

Marie H. Harshman Scholarship Fund: Created by 
Marie H. Harshman, to be awarded to a 
Lutheran student preparing for the ministry. 
Preference is given to a student who intends to 
enroll at the Gett)'sburg LiUheran Seminary. 

Henry M. Hartmanjr (1938) and Audrey Harrison 
Hartman (1940) Scholarship Fund: Established by 
Henry M. Hartmanjr. as a memorial in honor 
of Audrey Harrison Hartman, to be awarded to 
a student majoring in chemistry or biochemistry. 

Hartranft-Dean Scholarship Fund: Established by 
Mary Alice Hartranft-Dean, to be awarded to 
one or more worthy and promising students. 

Adam and Martha HazMt Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Mrs. Adam J. Hazlett, to be awarded 
to one or more worthy and promising students. 



Robert W. Hemperly (1947) Memorial Scholarship 
Fund: Established in memory of Dr. Hemperly 
by Mr. and Mrs. G. M. Easley. Awarded to one 
or more needy students of high academic 
ability and outstanding personal qualifications; 
preference is given to a student preparing for 
a career in medicine or dentistry. 

Milton S. Hershey Scholarship Fund: Established by 
A.John Gabig (1957). Awarded to one or more 
students who are graduates of Milton Hershey 
School or Hershey High School, Hershey, PA, 
who show financial need and demonstrate good 
character and leadership qualities. 

Harvey A. Hesser (1923) and Dorothy M. Hesser 
Scholarship Fund: Awarded to a needy and worthy 
student. 

Hicks Utterback Family Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Harry K. and Phyllis H. Utterback,. 
to be awarded to a first-year student and may be 
continued up to four years. 

Rev. Clinton F. Hildebrand Jr. (1920) and Mrs. 
Clinton F. Hildehrandjr Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to aid worthy preministerial students. 

Edgar L. Hildebrand (1928) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Louis O. Hildebrand as a 
memorial to his son Edgar L. Hildebrand, to 
be awarded to worthy students. 

Pearl Hodgson Scholarship Fund: Established by 
the Woman's League of Gettysburg College in 
honor of Pearl Hodgson, to be awarded 
annually to needy and deserving students. 

Dean W. Hollabaugh Scholarship: Awarded to one 
or more students who merit financial assistance. 

Houtz Family Scholarship Fund: Established by 
Kenneth H. Houtz, to be awarded to a first-year 
student intending to major in the sciences; may 
be continued up to four years. 

Arthur D. Hunger Sr, M.D. (1910) Scholarship 
Fund: Established by Arthur D. Hunger Jr. '39 
and Josephine T. Hunger '40 in honor of Arthur 
D. Hunger Sr. Awarded to a junior or senior 
who demonstrates academic excellence and 
leadership and who is studying for a medical, 
dental, veterinary, or biological research 
profession. 

The Jaeger Family Scholarship: Established by John 
F.Jaeger '65, to be awarded to one or more 
promising students in need of scholarship 
funds. 



Dr and Mrs. Leslie M. Kauffman Scholarship Fund: 
Created by Dr. Leslie M. (1890) and Nellie G. 
Kauffman, to be awarded to a deserving student. 
Preference is given to students from Franklin 
County, Pennsylvania, or preministerial or 
premedical students. 

Spurgeon M. Keeny and Norman S. Wolf Scholarship 
Fund: Established by Dr. Spurgeon M. Keeny '14 
and his son, Spurgeon M. Keeny Jr., in honor of 
the Reverend Norman S. Wolf. Awarded to one 
or more worthy students. 

Hon. Hiram H. Keller (1901) Scholarship Fund: 
Created by Mr. Keller, a former trustee, to be 
awarded to needy and worthy students. 
Preference is given to students from Bucks 
County, Pennsylvania. 

Alvin Ray Kirschner Scholarship Fund: Established 
by Mr. and Mrs. C.J. Kirschner in memory of 
their son, who lost his life in World War I. Awarded 
to two students; preference is given to applicants 
from Hazleton, Pennsylvania, and vicinity. 

Klette Scholarship Fund: Established by 
Dr. Immanual Klette '39 and friends in honor of 
Mrs. Margaret Klette, to be awarded to a student 
(or students) whose activities evidence an 
innovative accomplishment and potential in the 
promotion of human betterment. 

Kathleen M. and .Samuel W. Knisely (1947) 
Scholarship Fund: Established by Dr. and Mrs. 
Samuel W. Knisely, to be awarded to students 
majoring in, or intending to major in, biology 
or chemistry who show promise for 
contributions to their chosen field of study. 

Rev. Frederick R. Knubel (1918) Memorial 
Scholarship Fund: Created by John McCullough 
'18 in memory of his classmate, to be awarded 
to an outstanding senior ministerial student 
with financial need. 

Charles L. Kopp (1909) Scholarship Fund: Created 
by Grace Shatzer Kopp, to be awarded to one or 
more worthy and promising students majoring 
in the humanities. 

Bernards. Lawyer (1912) Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to needy and deserving students. 
First preference is given to members or former 
members of St. Mary's Evangelical Lutheran 
Church, Silver Run, Maryland; second 
preference is given to members or former 
members of Evangelical Lutheran Churches in 
Maryland and Pennsylvania. 



Clarence Gordon and Elfie Lealherman Scholarship 
Fund: Established by the Leathermans, to be 
awarded to a deserving preministerial student. 

Rev. H.J. H. Lemcke (1860) Memorial Scholarship 
Fund: Established by Ruth Evangeline Lemcke 
in memory of her father, to be awarded to 
worthy male students who are graduates of 
Pennsylvania secondary schools. 

Bruce and Lynda Limpert Endowed Scholarship: 
Awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students. 

Rev. Justus H. Liesmann (1930) and Mardelk 
Tipton Liesmann (1 932) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Mrs. Mardelle Liesmann, to be 
awarded to a first-year student and may be 
continued up to four years. 

Fratik M. Long (1 936) Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
Created in memory of Frank M. Long, to be 
awarded to worthy students. 

Kenneth C. Lundeen (1966) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by James and Diana Topper in 
honor of Kenneth Lundeen, to be awarded to 
one or more deserving and promising students 
who may be in a prelaw curriculum. 

The Lutheran Brotherhood Fund for Lutheran 
Students: Established by The Lutheran 
Brotherhood, to be awarded to one or more 
worthy and promising Lutheran students who 
demonstrate financial need. 

William and Marilyn MacCartney Family Endowed 
Scholarship: Established by Michael Alan Berk 
and Kerry MacCartney Berk in tribute of Kerry 
M. Berk's parents' lifelong encouragement of 
scholarship, initiative and leadership. Awarded 
to one or more worthy and promising students. 

MacPherson Scholarship: Established by the 
Foundation, to be awarded to residents of 
Adams County, Pennsylvania, or Carroll County, 
Maryland. 

James Eugene '16 and Ralph '22 Mahaffie 
Scholarship Fund: Created by Ralph Mahaffie '22 
in honor of his brother James Eugene Mahaffie 
'16, to be awarded to worthy and promising 
students. 

Francis E. and Wilda R Malcolm Family Scholarship 
Fund: Established by Ann B. Malcolm '71, to be 
awarded to a first-year student and may be 
continued up to four years. 



Charks H. May (1 904) Scholarship Fund: Created 
by Mr. May, to be awarded to deserving male 
students from York County, Pennsylvania. 

Charles B. McCollough, Jr Memorial Scholarship 
fund; Created by Charles B. McCollough '16 
and Florence McCollough in memory of their 
son, and by H. R. Earhart in memory of his 
grandnephew. Awarded to one or more worthy 
male students. 

Robert McCoy Scholarship Fund: Established by the 
family and friends of Robert McCoy, to be 
awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students. 

William R. McElhiney (1 936) Scholarship Fund: 
Created by William R. and Pauline McElhiney, 
to be awarded to needy and deserving students 
who demonstrate an interest in the College 
band and choir. 

Michael J. McTighe Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
Established by his wife, Carolyn L. Carter, family 
members and friends, to be awarded to a first- 
year student. Preference is given to first- 
generation college students and/or students 
whose enrollment at Gettysburg College would 
increase the racial and ethnic diversity of the 
student population. 

Dr. John E. Meisenhelder ( 1 897) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Dr. Meisenhelder, to be awarded 
to a deserving student. 

Jane S. Melber (1983) Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Theodore W. and Lucile M. 
Melber in memory of their daughter, to be 
awarded to worthy and promising students for 
the study of music in Great Britain. 

Forrest L. Mercer (1908) Scholarship Fund: Created 
by Forrest L. Mercer, to be awarded to a 
deserving and needy student. 

CarlF. and Dorothy Miller Scholarship Fund: 
Established by the Carl F. and Dorothy Miller 
Foundation, to be awarded to a student pursuing 
accounting or a science-related course of study. 

J. Elsie Miller (1905) Scholarship Fund: Created by 
Mr. Miller, to be awarded to a preministerial 
student. 

Robert H. Miller (1 938) and Paul D. Miller (1940) 
Brazilian Scholarship Fund: Awarded to one or 
more needy and worthy students. First reference 
is given to a student wishing to study in Brazil 
for a semester or a year; second preference is 



given to a Brazilian student entering as a first- 
year student, who graduated from either the 
Escola Americana, Rio de Janeiro, the Escola 
Graduada de Sao Paulo, or Pan American 
Chrisdan Academy. 

Miller-Dewey Scholarship Fund: Created by the 
Rev. Adam B. Miller (1873), to be awarded to a 
deserving student. 

Rev. William J. Miller (1903) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Mary Willing Miller, to be awarded 
to worthy young persons. Preference is given to 
students preparing for the Lutheran ministry and 
especially to those from Tabernacle Evangelical 
Lutheran Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

M. Scott and Margaret A. Moorhead Scholarship 
Fund: Awarded to a student with a strong interest 
in music; preference is given to a student with 
interest to continue piano or organ instruction. 

Charles D. Mayer (1957) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund contributed by Charles D. 
Moyer, his family, and friends is awarded to 
worthy and promising students in need of 
scholarship aid. Preference is given to students 
who can contribute to the ethnic and 
intercultural environment of the College. 

John F. Mumper (1930) Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to a needy and worthy first-year 
student, and may be continued up to four years. 

Musselman Scholarship Fund: Established by the 
Musselman Foundation, to be awarded to a 
deserving student; preference is given to sons or 
daughters of employees of the Musselman Fruit 
Product Division, Pet Incorporated. 

Arthur B. Myers and Marion V. Myers Scholarship 
Fund: Awarded to needy and deserving students 
of good moral character. 

Albert C. and Linda Neumann Endoiument Fund: 
Established by Albert C. Neumann '64, to be 
awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students. Preference is given to students with an 
interest in pursuing a career in the health 
sciences. 

John Spangler Nicholas (1916) Scholarship Fund: 
Created by John Spangler Nicholas, to be 
awarded to a member of the jimior or senior 
class of sterling character and high intellectual 
ability in the field of biology, preferably zoology. 

Henry B. Nightingale (1917) Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to worthy students who have successfully 
completed their first two years at the College. 



Patrick F. Noonan (1963) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Patrick and Nancy Noonan, to be 
awarded to one or more needy and worthy 
students. Preference is given to the student or 
students who are majoring in management and 
have demonstrated leadership ability through 
active participation and excellent performance 
in extracurricular activities. 

Charlotte L. Noss Scholarship Fund: Established by 
Charlotte Noss, to be awarded to a needy and 
deserving woman student from York County, 
Pennsylvania. 

Edward J. Nowicki, Jr. (1 935) and Christine M. 
Nowicki Scholarship Fund: Awarded to one or 
more worthy and promising students. 

John P. O'Leary ,Jr. (1969) and Pamela O'Leary 
(1969) Scholarship Fund: Awarded to a worthy 
and promising student. 

PaulF. Olinger (1922) and Anna E. Olinger 
Scholarship Fund: Created by Gertrude Olinger, 
to be awarded to one or more needy and worthy 
students. Preference is given to sMdents interested 
in the ministerial or teaching professions. 

Nellie Oiler and Bernard Oiler Memorial Scholarship 
Fund: Created by Ida R. Gray in memory of 
her daughter and son-in-law, to be awarded to 
a deserving student; preference is given to a 
Lutheran applicant from Waynesboro, 
Pennsylvania. 

One in Mission Scholarship Fund: Established by 
the One in Mission Campaign of the Evangelical 
Lutheran Church in America, to be awarded to 
worthy and deserving students; preference is 
given to students who are Lutheran. 

Lovina Openlander Scholarship Fund: Awarded to 
needy and deserving students. 

The John K. Orr Endowed Scholarship: Established 
by John K. Orr '70. Awarded to one or more 
worthy and promising students in need, with 
preference given to students with special needs. 

Thomas O. Oyler Scholarship Fund: Created by 
Thomas O. Oyler, Sr., and his wife, Janet B. 
Oyler, in honor of their children, Thomas O. 
Oyler, Jr., Jane A. Oyler, Jerome P. Oyler, 
William f. Oyler '77, and Susan T. Oyler '85, to 
be awarded to a deserving Pennsylvania student 
whose major is management or German, with 
elecdve courses in the other field of study. 



> 



C. Eugene Pah^ter Scholarship Fund: Established by 
C. Eugene Painter '33, to be awarded to one or 
more worthy and promising students; preference 
is given to students majoring in chemistry. 

Steven E. Parker '73 Endowed Scholarship: Awarded 
to one or more worthy and promising students. 

Lillian M. and William H. Patrick Jr. (1916) 
Scholarship Fund: Created by William H. Patrick 
jr., to be awarded on a competitive basis to 
students with musical ability', who demonstrate 
financial need. 

C. Gloria Paul Scholarship Fund: Awarded to 
graduates of Weatherly .\rea High School who 
have financial need. 

The Mary A. and Rufus D. Paul Endoiued 
Scholarship Fund: Established by Dr. Ronald L. 
Paul '59 and Jane N. H. Paul, including gifts in 
memory of Dr. Paul's parents, Mary A. Paul and 
Rufus D. Paul. Awarded to an entering first-year 
student and continued up to four years, if the 
recipient maintains a satisfactory grade point 
average and satisfactorily progresses toward a 
baccalaureate degree. 

Willard S. Paul Scholarship Fund: Established by 
friends of the College on the occasion of President 
Paul's retirement. Awarded to a deserving student. 

Martin L. Peteis (1913) and Martin F Peters (1937) 
Scholarship Fund: Created by Martin F. Peters, to 
be awarded to one or more worthy and 
promising students. 

Earl G. Ports (1923) Scholarship Fund: Established 
by Horace G. Ports (1925) in memory of his 
brother, to be awarded to a worthy student, 
preferably in the field of physics. 

Dr. and Mrs. Carl C. Rasmussen Scholarship Fund: 
Created by the Reverend Carl C. '12 and Alma I. 
Ra.smussen, to be awarded to a deserving 
student. Preference is given to a student preparing 
for the ministry in the Lutheran Church. 

David W. Raymond (1967) Endowed Scholarship: 
Awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students. Preference given to students who 
express an interest in attending law school or 
are majoring in history, political science, 
economics, management, English, sociology, or 
psycholog)'. 

Rev. Clay E. Rice (1 91 1) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Minnie Catherine Rice in honor 
of her husband. Rev. Clay E. Rice, to be awarded 
to a student preparing for the ministry. 



John S. and Luene Rice Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Ellen F. and Luene Rice, to be 
awarded to students of exceptional academic 
ability and outstanding promise of contributions 
to the College. 

James A. Rider Scholarship Fund: Established by 
James A. Rider, to be awarded to worthy and 
deserving students in financial need. First 
preference is given to dependents of active 
employees of Thermos Industries, Inc., of 
Raleigh, North Carolina; second preference is 
given to students who compete in intercollegiate 
athletics; and third, to students who may be 
orphans. 

Steven P. Riggs Music Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Patricia C. Chamberlain, to be 
awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students, preferably members of the Gettysburg 
College Choir. 

The Carlene and Randolph Rose '73 Endowed 
Scholarship Fund: Awarded to one or more 
worthy and promising students. 

Laiorence E. Rost (1917) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Jeanne Preus Rost in memory of 
her husband, Lawrence E. Rost, to be awarded 
to deserving students. First preference is given 
to descendants of Charles A. Rost, Red Lion, 
York Count), Pennsylvania. 

Philip P. Rudhart Scholarship Fund: Created by 
Emma Bennix in memory of her brother, to be 
awarded to deserving male students. 

Mary Sachs Scholarship Fund: Established as a 
memorial to Mary Sachs, to be awarded to a 
needy and deserving student; preference is 
given to a student in management whose 
interests are in retailing. 

Grace Durboraw Sahle '33 Endowed Scholarship 
Fund: Created by Knute Sahle '35 as a lasdng 
memorial to his late v\ife, to be awarded to one 
or more worthy and promising students. 

Charles Samphjr. Scholarship Fund: Established by 
the friends and family of Charles Samphjr., to 
be awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students. Preference is given to students involved 
in the campus Greek system and who major in 
mathematics. 



Andrew C. Schaedler Foundation Scholarship: 
Established as a memorial to Andrew C. 
Schaedler, to be awarded to worthy and needy 
students from Central Pennsylvania who 
graduated from a high school located in 
Dauphin, Lebanon, Cumberland, York, 
Franklin, Lancaster, Perry, Mifflin, Adams, 
Northumberland, or Huntingdon Counties. 

Jeffrey M. Schissler (1971) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Melvin and Greta Schissler, to be 
awarded to a worthy and promising student. 
First preference is given to a student majoring 
in Theatre Arts; second preference, to a student 
majoring in English. 

Calvin L. Schlueler Scholarship Fund: Created by 
Calvin F. Schlueter, to be awarded to needy and 
promising students. 

Scholarship for Community Service Leadership: 
Established by Kenneth C. Lundeen, to be 
awarded to a first-year student and may be 
continued up to four years. Preference is given 
to students who demonstrate an active interest 
in voluntary community service. 

Brent Scowcroft Scholarship Fund: Awarded to a 
needy and deserving student. 

Gregory Seckler (1 965) Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
Created by Mr. and Mrs. J. M. Arnold Sr. in 
memory of Gregory Seckler, to be awarded to a 
deserving student. Preference is given to an 
English major. 

Senior Scholarship Prize: Established by the Class 
of 1996, to be awarded to one male and one 
female junior advancing to the senior year who 
best exemplify the College through academics 
and service to the community. 

Ralph F. Sentz (1949) Scholarship Fund: Created by 
Ralph E. Sentz and his wife, Veronica, to be 
awarded to needy and deserving students. 
Preference is given to those with disabilities. 

Samuel Shaulis (1 954) Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Barry B. Wright '55 and other 
friends and family of Samuel Shaulis, to be 
awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students. Preference is given to students who, 
beyond other academic and personal 
qualifications, have a special interest in 
extracurricular activities. 



Joseph T. Simpson/Dwight D. Eisenhower Scholarship 
Fund: Established by the friends and colleagues 
of Joseph Simpson, to be awarded to needy and 
worthy students. Preference is given to those 
students with exceptional leadership ability. 

Edgar Fahs Smith (1874) Scholarship Fund: Created 
by Margie A. Smith in honor of her father, 
Edgar Fahs Smith, to be awarded to a student 
recommended by the Department of Chemistry. 

George Wellington and Lucy Herr Smith Scholarships: 
A bequest from the estate of Lucy Herr Smith; 
George Wellington Smith was a member of the 
Class of 1924. 

Robert D. Smith Endowed Scholarship Fund: 
Established by friends and former athletes of 
Robert S. Smith '59, in recognition of the 
impact Robert D. Smith had on the lives of 
countless Gettysburgians. Awarded to a worthy 
and promising student. 

Ronald James Smith (1972) and Diane (Werley) 
Smith (1973) Endowed Scholarship Fund: Awarded 
to one or more worthy and promising students 
who are in need. 

Albert E. Speck (1927) Scholarship Fund: Awarded 
to a first-year student, and may be continued up 
to four years. 

Mary Ann Ocker Spital Scholarship Fund: Awarded 
to a qualified male student. 

Edward J. Stackpole Scholarship Fund: Created by 
the friends of General Stackpole, to be awarded 
to a deserving student. Preference is given to a 
student in American history interested in the 
Civil War. 

Arthur Kistler Stay mates Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Mildred C. Stine, to be awarded 
to one or more needy and worthy students. First 
preference is given to students preparing for 
careers in the ministry or education; second 
preference, to students from Frederick County, 
Maryland. 

Bruce R. Stefany '71 Scholarship: Awarded to one 
or more worthy and promising students. 

Rev. Milton H. Stine (1877) and Mary J Stine 
Memorial Scholarship Fund: Established by Dr. 
Charles M. A. Stine '01 in memory of his parents, 
to be awarded to a preministerial student. 

Earl K Stock Scholarship Fund: Created by Earl K. 
Stock '19, to be awarded to one or more needy 
and deserving students. 



^^^ 



Robert (1933) and Betty Stockberger Scholarship 
/•»«(■/; Awaided to needy and promising students. 

Strine-Mamiers Scholarship Fund: Established in 
honor and memory of Howard H. Strine, M.D. 
"24, Virginia Manners Strine, Dana Whitman 
Manners, and Elizabeth Manners. Awarded to 
two or more worthy and promising students. 

E Stroehmann Scholarship Fund: Established by the 
family of F. Stroehmann, to be awarded to one 
or more needy and deserving students. 

Dr. J. H. W. Stuckenberg Scholarship Fund: Created 
by Dr. Stuckenberg, to be awarded to a qualified 
student. 

Surdna Foundation Scholarship Fund: Established 
by the Surdna Foundation, to be awarded to 
students of exceptional academic ability and 
outstanding promise of contributions to the 
College. 

Rev. Viggo Siuensen (1 931) and Martha Swensen 
Scholarship Fund: Awarded to a first-year student, 
and may be continued up to four years. 

Warren L. Swope (1943) Scholarship Fund: Created 
by Warren L. Swope, a career diplomat, to be 
awarded to a qualified student. Preference is 
given to students of American parentage who 
have spent a significant portion of their 
precollege years abroad. 

Raymond A. Taylor (1937) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Dr. and Mrs. Raymond A. Taylor, 
to be awarded to one or more worthy and 
promising students. 

William J. (1929) and Ruth Krug Thomas (1928) 
Scholarship Fund: Created by the Thomases in 
gratitude for the contribution the College has 
made toward the enrichment of their lives, to be 
awarded to worthy students, preferably English 
majors. 

Colonel Walter K. Thrush Fund: Established by 
Edna L. Thrush in memory of her husband, 
Walter K. Thrush '19, to be awarded to a 
student who is a member of ATO Fraternity 
studying in the field of engineering. 

Robert and Donna Tillitt Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Mr. and Mrs. Robert Tillitt, to be 
awarded to one or more needy and deserving 
students who have an interest in music. 

Martin L. Valentine (1912) Scholarship Fund: 
Created by Martin L. Valentine, to be awarded 
to a needy and deserving student majoring in 
chemistry. 



Lloyd Van Doren Scholarship Fund: Established by 
Tempie Van Doren, to be awarded to one or 
more needy and deserving students. 

John H. von der Lieth Memorial Musical Scholarship 
Fund: Established through a gift to the ELCA 
Foimdation of The Evangelical Lutheran 
Church in America, by Mrs. von der Lieth in 
memory of her husband. To be awarded to 
needy and deserving students who are studying 
music. Preference given to those studying organ 
or piano. 

Parke)- B. Wagnild Scholarship Fund: Created by 
alumni and friends of the Gettysburg College 
Choir, to be awarded to needy and deserving 
music students. 

Parker B. and Helen D. Wagnild Music Scholarship 
Fund: Established by Helen D. Wagnild, to be 
awarded to worthy and promising music students. 

John G. Walborn (1937) Scholarship Fund: Created 
by John G. Walborn, to be awarded to needy 
and deserving students. Preference is given to 
students majoring in economics or management. 

Clayton D. (1948) and Anne Ilgen Warman (1948) 
Endowed Scholarship Fund: Awarded to one or 
more worthy and promising students who are in 
need of scholarship funds. 

Stuart Warrenfeltz Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Ethel Warrenfeltz McHenry in 
memory of her son Stuart Warrenfeltz, to be 
awarded to a worthy young man. Preference is 
given to students from Funkstown, Washington 
Coimty, Maryland. 

Dr Rufus B. Weaver (1862) Scholarship Fund: 
Created by Dr. Weaver, to be awarded to 
deserving students. 

Rev. David Sparks Weimer and Joseph Michael 
Weimer/Dwight D. Eisenhower Scholarship Fund: 
Created by Mrs. Ralph Michener, daughter 
and sister of David and Joseph Weimer, to be 
awarded to needy and worthy students. 

Senator George L. Wellington Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Mr. Wellington, to be awarded to 
a deserving Lutheran preministerial student. 

Paul B. and Mary E. Werner Scholarship Fund: 
Created by Paul and Mary Werner, to be awarded 
to a preministerial student; preference is given 
to students from Glen Rock, Pennsylvania, or 
York County, Pennsylvania. 



Richard C. Wetzel Scholarship Fund: Created by 
Richard C. Wetzel, to be awarded to a deserving 
and needy student. 

Stella Moyer Wible (1927) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Helen A. Moyer, to be awarded 
to worthy and promising students with an 
outstanding record of academic achievement. 

Bertram M. Wilde Scholarship Fund: Established by 
members of the family of Bertram M. Wilde, to 
be awarded to worthy and promising students. 
Preference is given to students who have 
demonstrated superior character and industry, 
as well as diverse interests and active participation 
in extracurricular and academic affairs. 

Jeremiah A. Winter and Annie C. Winter Memorial 
Scholarship Fund: Created by Amelia C. Winter in 
memory of her parents, to be awarded to a 
needy and deserving student. 

Woman's League Scholarship Fund: Established by 
the Woman's General League of Gettysburg 
College, to be awarded to needy and promising 
students. 

Peter W Wright Scholarship Fund: Established by 
LT COL Peter W. Wright, USAF (RET) , to be 
awarded to one or more worthy students. 
Preference is given to students who have an 
interest and involvement in extracurricular 
activities and are members of Alpha Tau Omega 
Fraternity. 

The Martha M. Yocum Scholarship Fmid: Created 
by Dr. Ronald H. Yocum '61, to be awarded to a 
jimior or senior majoring in chemistry or 
biochemistry with an overall grade point 
average of 2.85 and a minimum grade point 
average in their major of 3.0. 

John T. Ziegl-er, DOS, (1932) Pre-Dental Scholarship 
Fund: Awarded to one or more worthy pre-dental 
students. First preference is given to the junior 
or senior student who has achieved the highest 
academic standing and who has applied to a 
U.S. dental school to pursue a DDS or DMD 
degiee. 

Dr. John B. Zinn Scholarship in the Sciences: 
Established by the Class of 1941, to be awarded 
to talented students pursuing a science education. 

John B. Zinn Scholarship Fu7id:Estah\ishe(\ by 
friends and former students of Professor John B. 
Zinn, former chair of the chemistry department, 
to be awarded to needy and promising students. 
Preference is given to students preparing for 
fields associated v^th the healing arts. 



Loan Funds 

Edward Anderson (1955) and Patricia Anderson 
Loan Fund: Established by Edward and Patricia 
Anderson, to provide loans to Lutheran students 
who have exhibited creative and entrepreneurial 
tendencies while in high school and through 
their activities at Gettysburg College. 

Milton T. Nafey and Mary M. Nafey Student Loan 
Fund: Created by Mary M. Nafey, to provide a 
fund for student loans. 

Eva R. Pape Student Loan Fund: Established by 
Eva R. Pape of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, to 
provide students of high promise with financial 
assistance. 

David Forry Powers Loan Fund: Established by 
Catherine N. Maurer in memory of her nephew, 
David Forry Powers '62, to provide loans to 
needy and worthy students. 

Other Scholarship Aid 

Aid Association for Lutherans Campus Scholarship: 
Makes available scholarship funds to assist needy 
students who hold membership with the 
Association. Selection of recipients is made by 
the College. 

Frank D. Baker Scholarship: Aids worthy students 
in immediate need. Selection of recipients is 
made by the College. 

Robert Bloom Research Award: Supports seniors 
pursuing research in Senior Research Seminars 
in the Department of History. 

Center for Public Service Endowed Fund for Volunteer 
Service: Established by the Board of Fellows to 
support students participating in volunteer 
programs of the Center for Public Service. Special 
consideration is given to saidents who demonstrate 
a commitment to activism and pubhc service. 

Class of 1 995 Service Learning Project: Awarded to 
a student who needs financial aid to participate 
in a service-learning project. 

Robert W. Dickgiesser Memorial Fund: Provides aid 
to students participating in volunteer programs 
of the Center for Public Service. 

Clayt (1948) and Adek Dovey Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Mr. and Mrs. Clayton C. Doveyjr., 
to be awarded to one or more worthy and 
promising students. Preference is given to a 
needy and deserving scholar-athlete pursuing a 
major field of study in biolog)' or economics. 



> 



W. Emeison Gentzler (1925) Scholarship: 
Established by W. Emerson Gentzler, to be 
awarded to deserving students, with preference 
given to members in good standing of one of 
the 4-H Chibs of York Count}', Pennsyhania. 

Charles E. and Mary W. Glassick Scholarship Fund: 
EstabHshed by the Board of Trustees in honor of 
former President and Mrs. Glassick, to be 
awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students. 

/. David Hair Endowed Fund for Volunteer Service: 
Established to support students participating in 
volunteer programs of the Center for Public 
Service. 

Julius Hlubb Athletic Endoumient: Created to 
support the College's athledc program. 

R. M. Hoffman Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Margaret L. Hoffman in memory 
of her father, to be awarded annually as part of 
the Dv\ight D. Eisenhower Scholarship Program. 

Dean W. Hollabaugh Scholarship: Awarded to one 
or more students who merit financial assistance. 

TlieDr. WadeF. Hook Endowed Fund for Volunteer 
Service: Established by Malverda P. Hook and 
memorial gifts in thankful recognition of Dr. 
Wade F. Hook's lifelong commitment to 
volunteersim and public service. Av\'arded to 
students v\ith need who may not otherwise 
participate in volunteer programs, with 
preference given to students who have espressed 
an interest in a teaching career or Christian 
ministry. 

Lutheran Brotherhood Lutheran Senior College 
Scholarship: Awarded to Lutheran students who 
will begin their first year of post-secondary study 
at Gettysburg College. Recipients are selected by 
Gettysburg College on the basis of scholastic 
achievement, religious leadership, and financial 
need. 

Lutheian Brotherhood Members' Scholarship Program: 
Established to assist Lutheran Brotherhood 
members attending accredited post-secondary 
institutions. Information is available from 
Lutheran Brotherhood, 625 Fourth Avenue 
South, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55415. 

Ckiy L. Moser Scholarship: Established Guy L. 
Moser, to support grants to students from Berks 
Count)', Penns)'lvania who are majoring in history 
or political science and who rank in the upper 



third of their class. Application should be made 
directly to Ms. Kim M. McKeon, Hamilton Bank, 
PO. Box 141, Reading, Pennsylvania 19603. 

Ernest D. Schwartz (1916) Scholarship: EsfdbVished 
in memory of Ernest D. Schwartz, to be awarded 
to a needy and worthy student. Recipient is 
selected by the College. 

Clare M. Stecher Scholarship: Established by Clare 
M. Stecher, to be awarded to needy students 
from Hummelstown, Pennsylvania. 

Weaver-Bittinger Classical Scholarship: Created by 
Rufus M. Weaver (1907), to be awarded to a needy 
and deserving student(s) who has demonstrated 
outstanding academic achievement. Recipients 
are selected by the College. 

Weaver Classical-Natural Science-Lieligion 
Scholarship: Created by Rufus M. Weaver (1907), 
to be awarded to a deserving student pursuing a 
classical, natural science, or religion course of 
instrucdon. Recipients are selected by the College. 

Rufus M. \\^aver Mathematical Scholarship: 
Created by Rufus M. Weaver (1907), to be 
awarded to deserving students pursuing a 
mathemadcal course of instrucdon. Recipients 
are selected by the College. 

Yocum Family Scholarship: Established by James H. 
Yocum, to be awarded to one or more deserving 
students. Du'ight D. Eisenhower/Conrad N. Hilton 
Scholarship: Created by the Conrad N. Hilton 
Foundation to support the tuidon cost for a 
semester of study abroad. Scholarship is 
awarded competidvely to a student who shows, 
through career aspirations and corresponding 
curricukun choices, an appreciation of the role 
that travel, global trade, and cross-cultural 
exchange can play in fostering international 
understanding. 



Endowment Funds 



Geltyshurg College has benefitted over the years and continues to benefit from the income of funds 
contributed to the College's endowment. Income from unrestricted endowment funds may be 
used for the general purpose of the College or for any special purposes; income from restricted 
endoumient funds is used solely for thepwpose specified by the donor. The generous support of the donors 
listed below has been vital to the continuing success of the College. 



(Unrestricted) 

Allshouse Family Endowment Fund: In honor of 
William Craig Allshouse (1981) and Mrs. 
Catherine Reaser Allshonse (1924), and in 
memory of William Kenneth Allshouse 
(1925) and Richard Reaser Allshouse (1950). 

Alumni Memorial Endowment Fund 

fackson Anderson (1977) and Laurene Anderson (1977) 

E. W. Baker Estate 

Frank D. Baker 

Robert J. Barkley Estate 

Charles Bender Trust 

Fay S. Benedict Memorial Fund 

H. Melvin Binkley Estate 

Margarethe A. Brinkman Estate 

H. Brua Campbell Estate 

Drfohn Chelenden Fund (1928): In honor of 
JohnB. Zinn (1909) 

Class of 1919 Fund 

Class of 1926, 60th Reunion Fund 

Louise Cuthbertson: In memory of Aithur 
Herring, Anna Wiener Herring and 
Louise Cuthbertson. 

Charles W.DiehlJr. (1929) 

Harold Sheely Diehl Estate 

Geo. isf Helen Eidam Trust 

Faculty and Staff Memorial Endowment Fund 

Ralph C. Fischer 

Robert G.Fluhrer (1912) 

The Ford Foundation 

Walter B. Freed Estate 

Owen Fries Estate 

Richard V. Gardiner Memorial Fund 

The Garman Fund: A perpetual family memorial. 

The Gettysburg Times 

Mamie Ragan Getty Fund 

Frank Gilbert 

MargantE. Giles 

Ralph and Katherine M. Gresh 

fames H. Gross Estate 

William D. Hartshorne Estate 

George G Hatter (1911) 

Adam Hazlett (1910) 

f. Kermit Hereter Trust 

Ralph E. Heusner Estate 

Joseph H. Himes (1910) 



Marion Huey 

KarlF. Irwin Trust 

John E. Jacobsen Family Endowment Fund 

Bryan E. Keller Estate 

Edmund Keller Estate 

Caroline C. Knox 

William J. Knox (1910) 

Frank H. Kramer (1914) and Mrs. Kramer 

Harris Lee Estate 

Ralph D. Lindeman Memorial Fund 

The Richard Lewis Lloyd Fund: In memory 

of Arthur C. Carty 
Robert T McClarin Estate 
Ralph McCreary Estate 
James MacFarlane Fund, Class of 1837 
J. Clyde Market (1900) and Caroline O. Market 
Robert T . Marks 
Fred G. Masters (1904) 
Ralph Mease Estate 
Gertrude Maddock Trust 
A.L. Mathias (1926) 
John H. Mickely (1928): In memory of his 

brother William Blocher Mickely. 
Alice Miller 
Robert H. Miller 
Thomas Z. Minehart (1894) 
Ruth G. Moyer Estate: 

Professor's Endowment Fund 
Bernice Baker Musser 
Helen Oi'ermiller 
Ivy L. Palmer 
Joseph Parment Company 
Floyd &" Eva Peterson 
Andrew H. Phelps 
C. Lawrence Rebuck 
Mary Hart Rinn 
Carroll W. Royston Estate 
Sarah Ellen Sanders 
Robert and Helene Schubauer Estate 
AnnaD. Seaman 
A. Richard Shay (1928) 
PaulR Sheffer(1918) 
Herbert Shimer (1896) 
Robert O. Sinclair 
Albert T. Smith Memorial Fund 



James Milton Smith Fund 

Anna K. and Harry L. Snyder 

Mary Heilman Spongier 

Harvey W. Strayer 

Leah Tipton Taylor Estate 

Veronica K. Tollner Estate 

Romayne T. UJiler '23 Estate: For the memorial 

of Rev. George I. Uhler, Class of 1895 
Edith Wachter Estate 
Vera and Paul Wagner Fund 
Walter G. Warner Memorial Fund: Given by 

BergliotJ. Wagner 
Leona S. & L. Ray Weaver Memorial Fund 
Richard C. Wetzel 

Jack Lyter Williams (1951) Memorial Fund 
Alice D. Wrather 
Romaine H. Yagel Trust 
George L. Yocum Memorial Fund 
John and Caroline Yordy Memorial Fund 
(Restricted) 

Mary Catherine Albaugh (Class of 1934) Chemistry 
Fund for Student Research: Established from a 
bequest from her estate to be used to award 
annual summer research stipends to students 
majoring in chemistry and/or biochemistry and 
molecular biology. 

Conrad Christian Arensberg Memorial Fund: 
Established in 1948 by Francis Louis Arensberg 
in memory of his father, a Union veteran, for 
the purchase of Civil War books and materials. 

Robert Barnes Memorial Fund: Created to support 
a combined dinner and lecture each spring 
during the Biology Awards Day. 

The Rev. Peter C. Bell Memorial Lectureship Fund: 
Created for the establishment of a lectureship 
on the claims of the gospel on college men. 

Bikle Endowment Fund: Established in 1925 to 
honor Dr. Philip Bikle (1866), dean of Gettysburg 
College, 1889-1925. Used to support debating. 

Joseph Bittinger: Chair of political science. 

Lydia Bittinger: Chair of history. 

Joseph and Lydia Bittinger Memorial Fund: 
Established to support the needs of the history 
and political science departments. 

Blavatl Family Lectureship: Created to establish 
the Blavatt Family Lecture Series in Political 
Science. 

Robert Bloom Fund: For Civil War Institute. 

Merle S. Boyer Chair in Poetry: Established to 
create a faculty chair in poetry. 



The Chang-Burton Fund for Creative Teaching: 
Established by Charles A. Burton and Melinda 
Chang Burton, members of the Class of 1967, to 
preserve and strengthen the tradition of 
distinguished teaching at Gettysburg College. 
Preference is given to proposals that enhance 
faculty members' ability to meet the imique 
challenges of a classroom environment that is in 
transition due to an increase in the number of 
students from races or cultures historically 
underrepresented at Gettysburg College. 

Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Citron: Established by Mr. & 
Mrs. Thomas Citron (1947) to endow insurance 
on a 1934 oil painting by Minna Citron. 

Class of 1911 Memorial Trust Fund: Established in 
1961, on the fiftieth anniversary of the Class of 
191 1, to provide income for the purchase of 
books for the College library. 

Thomas Y. Cooper Endowment: A bequest to 
Gettysburg College in support of its libraries: 
(a) for acquisitions in literature and American 
history, as a memorial to his parents. Dr. & Mrs. 
Moses Cooper; and (b) for the operating budget 
of the library. 

William C. Darrah Lectureship: Created for the 
biology department to use for a Darrah Lecture 
every two or three years. 

William C. Darrah Prize: Created to support a 
yearly prize for students in the biology 
department 

A. Bruce Denny Fund: Created by fellow students 
in memory of A. Bruce Denny (1973), to purchase 
library books. 

Joe Derrig Memorial Fiind: EstabWshed to subsidize 
student participation in a service-learning 
program related to AIDS. Also supports a yearly 
presentation on AIDS awareness. 

Luther P. Eisenhart Fund: Established for the use 
of emeriti faculty and widows of former 
members of the faculty in need of assistance. 

Harold G. Evans Chair in Eisenhower Leadership 
Studies: Established to foster an educational 
program in leadership. 

The Georgia A. Franyo Endowed Fund for the 
Department of Theatre Arts: AAmmislcreA by the 
Provost to provide grants to support faculty and 
program development in the Department of 
Theatre Aits at Gettysburg College. 

Clyde E. and Sarah A. Gerberich Endowment Fund: 
Established in memory of Dr. Robert Fortenbaugh 
(1913) to support a series of lectures. Fund is 
also supported by a matching gift from the 
Hewlett Foundation to support the Robert 
Fortenbaugh Memorial Lecture. 



Gettysburg Revieiu Fund: Established to provide 
annual support for the Gettysburg Review. 

Russell P. Getz Memorial Fund: Established for 
support of the music department. 

Millard E. Gladfelter Prize: Created to support a 
student who has completed the junior year at 
Gettysburg (>ollege with excellent scholarship in 
the social sciences, and especially American 
history. To be used for research and a thesis 
report during the senior year. 

J. Donald and Mary Herr Glenn Endowment Fund: 
To be used for educational purposes at the 
discretion of the President of the College, 
subject to supervision of the Board of Trustees. 

Jean Landefeld Hanson Fund: Established in 1971 
by family and friends of the late wife of former 
President C. Arnold Hanson, to support 
purposes related to the Chapel program. 

George Hatter Fund: hicome from this restricted 
endowment fund will be transferred to principal 
for a period of 60 years. After 60 years, the fund 
will be closed and transferred to Unrestricted 
Endowment/Hatter Fund. 

The John A. Haxiser Executive-in-Residence Fund: 
Established by family and friends of John A. 
Hauser and Gettysburg College, to support a 
business or governmental executive-in-residence. 

The Harry D. Holloway Memorial Fund: Created to 
support purposes of keeping alive on campus 
the spirit of Abraham Lincoln. 

Japan Program Fund: Created for use by the 
library department to purchase library and 
instructional materials related to Japan. 

Stanley G. and Frances P. Jean Scholarshi/): Awarded 
to one or more worthy and promising students, 
for up to four years. Preference given to 
students interested in a career in public service, 
either international or domestic. 

William R. Kenan, Jr. Endowment Fund for leaching 
Excellence: Established to support high quality 
and effective teaching. 

Edwin T.Johnson and Cynthia Shearer Johnson 
Distinguished Teaching Chair: Established by 
Edwin T. '51 and Cynthia Shearer '52 Johnson. 

Ralph D. Lindeman Memorial Fund: Established by 
family and friends in memory of Ralph D. 
Lindeman, to be used annually by the English 
Department for the purchase of books. 

MNC Management Curriculum: Created by the 
Maryland National Foundation to provide 
financial support for the management program. 



Dr. G. Bowers and Louise Hook Mansdorfer 
Distinguished Chair in Chemistry: Established to 
provide an endowed chair in chemistry. Provides 
funds for faculty salaries, research needs, payment 
for research assistants, and Uavel for conferences. 

Ayidrexv Mellon Foundation Fund: Created to 
support interdisciplinary teaching and small 
group learning projects for workshops. 

Dr. Amos S. and Barbara K. Musselman Art 
Endowment Fund: Created to support and 
advance knowledge and appreciation of art at 
Gettysburg College. 

Dr Amos S.and Barbara K. Musselman Chemistry 
Endowment Fund: Created to support die chemistry 
program, primarily through the purchase of 
laboratory equipment and supplies. 

Musselman Endowment For Music Workshop: 
Established by the Musselman Foundation to 
support workshops in music performance and 
seminars in music education. 

Musselman Endowment For Theatre Arts: Created 
by the Musselman Foundation to support visits 
to the campus by individuals with expertise in 
the technical aspects of the theatre. 

Musselman Endowment for Visiting Scientists: 
Created by the Musselman Foundation to 
support visits by scientists to the College. 

NEH Flulirer-Civil War Chair: Created by the 
Robert Fluhrer estate to establish a Civil War 
Chair in the history department. 

NEH Fund for Faculty and Curriculum, Development 
in the Humanities: Established by a Challenge 
Grant from the National Endowment for the 
Htmianities to promote high quality work in 
the humanities through faculty and curriculum 
development activit)' of particular merit. Fund 
is part of the larger Institutional Fund for Self- 
Renewal. 

NEH Senior Scholars ' Seminar: Established by the 
National Endowment for the Humanities to 
support the Senior Scholars' Seminar. 

Robert Nesto Biology Fund: Created to support 
travel to scientific meetings by biology students. 

John P. O'LearyJr. and Pamela O'Leary Endowed 
Fund: Created for the management department 
to be used for discretionary purposes. 

One in a Mission Program Fund: Created by the 
Central Pennsylvania S\iiod to provide 
additional endowment hinds to enhance the 
church-related mission of the College. 

EdredJ. and Ruth Pennell Trust Foundation: 
Created to purchase new materials in the fields 
of political science, management, and economics. 



Political Science Research/Development: Established 
by Elmer Plischke to assist faculty in the political 
science department in research activities. 

Paul H. R/ioads Teaching and Professional 
Development Fund: Established by Paul H. Rhoads, 
Gettysburg College, and others to support 
scholarly research, professional development, or 
the improvement of undergraduate instruction 
by the College's faculty. 

Norman F. Richardson Memorial Lectureship Fund: 
Created to support an annual event that stimulates 
reflection on interdisciplinary studies, world 
civilization, the philosophy of religion, values, 
and culture. 

The Clarence B. Rogers, Jr. Fndowed Scholarship 
Fund: Established by the Equifax Foundation to 
honor Clarence B. 'Jack" Rogers Jr. '51 for his 
years of leadership at Equifax. Awarded to one 
or more worthy and promising students who 
exhibit high motivation and excellent academic 
achievement and who qualify for Presidential 
Scholarships based on merit. Preference is given 
to students with demonstrated interest in public 
service. 

Louis and Claudia Schalcwoff Library Fund: 
Created to support the purcha.se of books and 
other publications for the chemistry library at 
the College. 

Henry M. Scharf Lecture Fund: Created by Dr. F. 
William Simderman (1919) in memory of 
Henry M. Scharf, to establish a lectureship on 
current affairs. 

J. Douglas Shand Fund for Faculty-Student Summer 
Research in Psychology: Created to support 
opportunities for promising and talented 
students to work collaboratively with faculty 
members who are conducting research in 
psychology. Grants provide stipends to support 
students working on research projects that 
primarily occur in the summer. 

Jack Shand Psychology Research Fund: Created to 
provide financial support of seniors registered 
for honors research in the p.sychology department. 

James A. Singmaster (1898) Fund for Chemistry: 
Established by Mrs. James A. Singmaster in 
memory of her husband, to be used for the 
purchase of library materials in chemistry or 
related areas. 

Dr. Kenneth L. Smoke Memorial Trust Fund: Created 
to honor the man who in 1946 established the 
department of psychology' at Gettysburg College 
and served as its chair until his death in 1970. 
Used in part by the College library to purchase 



library resources in the field of psychology and 
in part by the psychology department for special 
departmental needs. 

Stoever Alcove Fund: Established by Laura M. 
Stoever for the support of the library. 

J. H. W. Stuckenberg Memorial Lectureship: 
Created by Mary G. Stuckenberg in memory of 
her husband, to sponsor lectures in the general 
area of social ethics. 

The Sunderman Chamber Music Foundation of 
Gettysburg College: Established by F. William 
Simderman (1919) to stimulate and further the 
interest in chamber music at Gettysburg College 
through the sponsorship of chamber music 
concerts. 

Waltemyer Seminar Room Fund: Established by 
Carroll W. Royston (1934) and the family and 
fiiends of Dr. William C. Waltemyer (1913), former 
head of the Bible department at the College, to 
provide furnishings for and to maintain the 
library in a seminar room in his memory. 

Steve Warner Trust Fund: Created for the purpose 
of expenditures for books, periodicals, microfilm, 
etc. in the area of Asian Studies for the Musselman 
Library; to care for and maintain those purchased 
materials and the Stephen H. Warner papers 
maintained in Musselman Library's Special 
Collection at the College; and to support 
publications derived from the Collection. 

Donald K. Weiser Book Acquisition Fund: 
Established in honor of Donald K. Weiser 
(1924) for the purchase of library books in the 
field of insurance, management, and bi:siness 
administration. 

Woman 's League Fund for Upkeep and Repair of the 
YMCA Building (WeidensallHall): Created by 
Louisa Paulus. 

Dr. and Mrs. Jeremiah Zimmerman Fund: 
Established by Dr. Jeremiah Zimmerman (1873) 
to create an endowment in support of the 
annual operating budget of the library. 

John B. Zinn Memorial Fund in Admissions: 
Established in honor of John B. Zinn by friends 
and former students, to support admissions 
efforts in fields associated with the healing arts. 

John B. Zinn President Discretionary Institutional 
and Faculty Institutional Development Fund: 
Established to provide support for research and 
professional development by Gettysburg College 
faculty and staff; to support new or experimental 
academic programs; and to support professional 
development and research for professors in 
fields associated with the healing arts. 



Register /Trustees 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
2000-2001 ACADEMIC YEAR 



Date in parentheses indicates year of election to 
the Board of Trustees. 

David M. LcVan ( 1 994), Chairperson, Managing 
Partner, Battlefield Harlem Davidson, Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania 

John P. O'Leary Jr. (1 995), Vice Chairperson, 

President &' Chief Executive Officer, Tuscarora, Inc., 
New Brighton, Pennsylvania 

Patricia W. Henry (1993), Secretary, Senior Associate 
Director of Athktics, Harvard University, Boston, 
Massachusetts 

Patricia C. Bacon (1991), Business Consultant, 
Sausalito, California 

Sherrin H. Baky (1997), Chief Association Officer, 
Association of Clinical Research Professionals, 
Washington, D.C. 

Henry S. Belber li (1989), President & Chief 
Executive Officer, Trico Construction Co., Inc., 
Devon, Pennsylvania 

Stephen G. Bishop ( 1 992), Faailty Fellow, University 
of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 

Jeffrey M. Blavatt (2000), Vice President of Operations, 
A/S/C Cotp., Clings Mills, Marykuid 

James H. Brenneman (1999), Former Vice President, 
Operations Cf Planning, Bell Atlantic Enteyprises 
International, Ambler, Pennsylvania 

Charles A. Burton ( 1 996), President, Philadelphia 
\'eiitnres, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

James Corkran ( 1 999), Former Partner i^f Director, 
Cottman Transmission Systems, Doylestown, 
Pennsylvania 

Gwendoln Jordan Dungy (1997), Executive Director, 
National Association of Student Personnel 
Administrators, Washington, D.C-. 

Joyce Hamm Eisner (2000), Pianist and volunteer, 
Hanover, Pennsylvania 

Arthur M. Feldman (1998), Professor of Medicine, 
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

Fred F. Fielding (1998), Attorney /Senicyr Partner, 
Wiley. Rein isf Fielding, Washington, D.C. 

A.John Gabig (1996), Forme)- Attorney/Member, Miller 
CJf Chevalier, Chartered, Williamsburg, Virginia 

Gerald G. Garbacz (1995), Former President Cf Chief 
Exeaitive Office), Nashua Carp., Nashua, New Hampshire 

Bruce S. Gordon (1999), President, Retail Markets 
Group, Verizon, New York, New York 



Andrew G. Gurley, Mcmaging Director, Paine Webber, 
New York, New York 

Gordon A. Haaland, President, Gettysburg College, 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 

Sotaro ishii ( 1 999), Investment Consultant, Ishii 
Jimusho, Tokyo, Japan 

John F.Jaeger (1998), President, DANAC 
Co)po)atio)i, Bethesda, Maryland 

MacGregor S. Jones (2000), Former President, 
Mac f ones Ford, Inc., York, Pennsylvania 

Robert H.Joseph Jr. (1998), Senior Vice President df 
Chief Financial Office); Alliance Capital Management 
Corporation. New York, New York 

J. Michael Kelly (2000), Chief Financial Offiicer, 
America Online, Inc., Dulles, Virginia 

Jean Cleveland Kirchhoff (2000), Former Account 
Executive, Lemoyne, Pennsylvania 

E. James Morton (1990), Director, Former Chair & 
Chief Executive Officer, John Hancock Mutual Life 
Insurance Co., Boston, Massachusetts 

Joseph A. Ripp ( 1 998), Executive Vice President ijf 
Chief Financial Offiicer, Time Warner, Inc., New 
York, New York 

Randolph Rose (\'i99). Former President & CEO, 
Philips Com)nunication a)id. Security Systems, 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania 

Jean Deimler Seibert (1998), Attorney /Partner, Wion, 
Zulu Cjf Seibert, Harrisbiug, Pennsylvania 

Arne Selbyg (1998), Director, Colleges & Universities, 
Evangelical Lutheran Church in A)7ierica, Chicago, 
Illinois 

Gill M.Taylor-Tyree Sr., M.D. (1995), Diagnostic 
Radiologist, Gettysburg Hospital, Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania 

Debra K. Wallet (1990), Attorney, Camp Hill, 
Pennsylvania 

James M. Weaver (2000), President, Dearden, 
Maguire Cf Weaver, Inc., West Conshohocken, 
Pennsylvania 

I. Charles Widger (1997), Managing Partner and 
Investment Managenient Consultant, B)inker 
Capital, Inc., King of Prussia, Pennsylvania 

Debra J. Wolgemuth (2000), Professor of Genetics 
Cf Development, Cohunbia University, New York, 
New York 

Ronald H.Yocum (1997), President & Chief Executive 
Officer, A)ne)ican Plastics Council, Arlington, 
Virginia 



Register /Faculty 



HONORARY LIFE TRUSTEES 

Dates in parentheses indicate years of service. 

Uvern H. Brenneman (1962-1974) (1976-1988), 

Retired Chair is' President, York Shipley, Inc., York, 
Pennsylvania 

Ralph W. Cox (1972-1984), Retired Manager, 
Connecticut General Life Insurance Co., Savannah, 
Georgia 

F. William Sunderman, M.D. (1967-1979), 

Director isf President, Institute for Clinical Science, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

TRUSTEES EMERITI 

Charles E. Anderson, Avon, Connecticut 

James G. Apple, Lewisbnrg, Pennsylvania 

Clyde 0. Black II, Roaring Spring, Pennsylvania 

Margaret Blanchard Curtis, Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania 

Guy S. Edmiston Jr., Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 

William S. Eisenhart Jr., York, Pennsylvania 

Henry W. Graybill Jr., Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 

Angeline F. Haines, Lutherville, Maryland 

Robert D. Hanson, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 

Edwin T. Johnson, Newtown, Pennsylvania 

Howard J. McCarney, Camp Hill, Pennsylvania 

Thomas C. Norris, Spring Grove, Pennsylvania 

Paul M. Orso, Millersville, Maryland 

Richard Patterson, Wilmington, Deleware 

James A. Perrott, Palm Beach Shores, Florida 

Samuel A. Schreckengaust Jr., Lemoyne, 
Pennsylvania 

Arline Shannon, Lititz, Pennsylvania 

Donna I. Shavlik, Estes Park, Colorado 

Herman G. Stuempfle, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 

James I. Tarman, State College, Pennsylvania 

James R.Thomas, Allendale, New Jersey 

Charles W. Wolf, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 

Barry Wright, Washington, D.C. 

Irvin G. Zimmerman, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania 



FACULTY 

(2000-2001 ACADEMIC YEAR) 



Emeriti 

Dates in parentheses indicate years of service. 

Paul Baird (1951-1985), Professor of Economics, 

Erneriius 

Guillermo Barriga (1 95 1-198 1), Professor of Romance 
Languages, Emeritus 

Neil W. Beach (1960-1993), Professor of Biology, 
Emnitus 

F. Eugene Belt (1966-1988), Professor of Music, 
Emeritus 

Gareth V. Biser (1959-1999), Professor of Health and 
Exercise Sciences, Emeritus 

A. Bruce Boenau (1957-1991), Professor of Political 
Science, Emeritus 

Lois J. Bowers (1969-1992), Coordinator of Women's 
Athletics and Professor of Health and Physical 
Education, Emerita 

Albert W. Butterfield (1958-1972), Professor of 
Mathemcitics, Emeritus 

John F.Clarke (1966-1989), Professor of English, 
Emeritus 

Harold A. Dunkelberger (1950-1983), Professor of 
Religion, Emeritus 

George H. Fick (1967-1995), Professor of History, 
Emeritus 

Kermit H. Finstad (1970-1999), Professor of Music, 
Emeritus 

Norman 0. Forness (1964—2000), Professor of History, 
Emeritus 

Donald H. Fortnum (1965-2000), Professor of 
Chemistry, Emeritus 

Lewis B. Frank (1957-1986), Professor of Psychology, 

Emeritus 

Edwin D. Freed (1948-1951), (1953-1986), Professor 
of Religion, Emeritus 

Robert H. Fryling (1947-1950), (1958-1987), 

Professor of Mathematics, Emeritus 

R.Michael Gemmill (1958-1999), Professor of 

Economics, Emeritus 

Charles H. Glatfelter (1949-1989), Professor of 
History, Emeritus 

Gertrude G. Gobbel (1968-1989), Professor of 
Psychology, Emerita 



Louis J. Hammann (1956-1997), Professor of Religion, 
Emeritus 

J. Richard Haskins (1959-1988), Professor of Physics, 
Emeritus 

John T. Held (1960-1988), Professor of Education, 
Emeritus 

Caroline M. Hendrickson (1959-1984), Professor of 
Spanish, E merit a 

Thomas J. Hendrickson (1960-1988), Professor of 
Physics, Emeritus 

Leonard I. Holder (1964-1994), Professor of 
Mathernatics, Emeritus 

R. Eugene Hummel (1957-1987), Coach and Professor 
of Health and Physical Education, Emeritus 

John M. Kellett (1968-1999), Professor of 
Mathematics, Emeritus 

Arthur L. Kurth (1962-1983), Professor of French, 

Emeritus 

Jack S. Locher (1957-1987), Professor of English, 

Emeritus 

Rowland E. Logan (1958-1988), Professor- of Biology, 
Emerita 

Franklin 0. Loveland (1972-1998), Professor of 
Sociology and Anthropology, Emeritus 

Fredric Michelman (1973-2000), Professm- of French, 
Emeiitus 

Carey A. Moore (1955-1956), (1959-2000), Professor 
of Religion, Emeritus 

Samuel A. Mudd (1958-1964; 1965-1998), Professor 
of Psychology, Emeritus 

Norman K. Nunamaker (1963-1997), Professor of 
Music, Emeritus 

Robert A. Pitts ( 1 986-2000). Professor of 
Management, Emeritus 

Ray R. Reider (1962-1998), Professor of Health and 
Exercise Sciences, Emeritus 

Russell S. Rosenberger (1956-1981), Professor of 
Education, Emeritus 

Calvin E. Schlldknecht (1959-1979), Professor of 
Chemistry, Emeritus 

Emile 0. Schmidt (1962-1999), Prof essor of Theatre 
Arts, Emeritus 

W. Richard Schubart (1950-1981), Professor of 
Philosophy, Emeritus 

Walter J. Scott (1959-1984), Professor of Physics, 
Emeritus 



Jack Douglas Shand (1954-1984), Professor of 
Psychology, Emeritus 

Howard Shoemaker (1957-1985), Professc/r of Health 

and Physical Education, Emeritus 

James F. Slaybaugh Jr. (1964-1989), Professor of 
Education, Emeiitus 

John R. Stemen (1961-1994), Professor of History, 
Emeritus 

Mary Margaret Stewart (1959-1996), Graeff 
Professor of English, Emerita 

Robert H.Trone (19S6-1997), Professor of Reli^on, 
Emetitus 

Janis Weaner (1957-1985), Professor of Spanish, 
Emerita 

Dexter N.Weikel (1962-1988), Professor of Music, 
Emeritus 

Robert F. Zellner (1968-1998), Professor of Music, 
Emeritus 

CURRENT FACULTY 

Date in parentheses indicates year of 
appointment to the facult)'. 

Tahera Aftab (1997-1998; 2000); Distinguished 
Visiting Professor of Religion; M.A., University of 
Liicknovv, hidia; Ph.D., University of Karachi 

James D. Agard (1982); Associate Professor of Visual 
Arts; B.S., The State University of New York at 
New Pahz; M.F.A., Rutgers University 

Randolph R. Aldinger (1989); Associate Professor- of 
Physics; B.S., Arizona State University; Ph.D., 
University of Texas at Austin 

Gloria Allaire (1999); Assistant Professor of Italian; 
B.M., M.A., Ph.D., Universit)' of Wisconsin- 
Madison 

Pia Altieri (1999); Instructor in Religion; B.A., 
LeMoyne College; M.T.S., Harvard UniversitV' 

Charlotte E. S. Armster ( 1 984); Associate Professor of 
German and Co-Coordinator of Women's Studies; 
B.A., Eastern Michigan Universit)'; M.A., 
Middlebury College; Ph.D., Stanford University 

Martha E. Arterberry ( 1 989); Associate Professor of 
Psychology; B.A., Pomona College; Ph.D., 
Universit)' of Minnesota 

Bela Bajnok^ (1993); Associate Professor of 
Mathematics; M.Ed., E6t\'6s University 
(Hungary); M.S., Ph.D., Ohio State University 

Talia Balastegui-Baeza (1999); Instructor in Spanish; 
Bachelor's Equivalency, University of Seville 



^^ 



Lucia Perrotta Bard (1993-1996; 2000); Assistant 
Professor of French; B.A., Seton Hill College; M.A., 
Tufts University; Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 

Deborah H. Barnes (1992); Associate Professor of 
English; B.A., Tuskegee Institute; M.A., North 
Carolina Agriculture & Technical State 
University; Ph.D., Howard University 

Claude Benoist (1999); Instructor in French; R.A., 
M.A., Universit) of Rennes 2 

Temma F. Berg ( 1 985); Associate Professor of English 
and Co-Coordinator of Woman's Sttidies; B.A., M.A., 
Ph.D., Temple University 

Emelio R. Betances (1991); Associate Professor of 
Sociology and Latin American Studies, Coordinator of 
Latin American Studies; B.A., Adelphi University; 
M.A., Ph.D., Rutgers, The State University of 
New Jersey 

Elisa Biagini (2000); Instructor in Interdepartmental 
Studies (/to//anj; Equivalent of B.A., Universita 
degli studi di Firenze; Ph.D., Rutgers University 

Marie-Jose M. Binet^ (1988); Associate Professor of 
French; B.A., M.A., University of Florida; Ph.D., 
Duke University 

Michael J. Birkner (1978-1979), (1989); Professor of 
History, Department Chairperson; B.A., Gettysburg 
(College; M.A., Ph.D., University of Virginia 

Jennifer Bivens-Tatum (2000); Visiting Assistant 
Professor of English; B.A., Mount Holyoke College; 
M.A., University of Illinois at Urbana- 
Champaign 

Philip Bobko ( 1 997); Professor of Management and 
Psychology; B.S., Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology; M.S., Bucknell University; Ph.D., 
Cornell University 

Robert E. Bohrer II (1998); Assistant Professor of 
Political Science; B.S., University of Nebraska at 
Kearney; Ph.D., Texas A&M University 

Gabor S. Boritt (1981); Robert C. Fluhrer Professor of 
Civil War Studies; B.A., Yankton College; 'M.A., 
University of South Dakota; Ph.D., Boston 
University 

Robert F. Bornstein (1986); Professor of Psychology; 
B.A., Amherst College; Ph.D., State University of 
New York at Buffalo 

Donald M. Borock^ ( 1 974); Associate Professor of 
Political Science; B.A., M.A., Ph.D., University of 
Cincinnati 

William D. Bowman ( 1 996); Associate Professor of 
History; B.A., University of San Francisco; M.A., 
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University 



Judith A. Brough (1989); Professor of Education, 
Department Chairpfrson; B.S., Ed.M., 
Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania; 
Ed.D., State University of New York at Buffalo 

Ronald D. Burgess (1980); Professor- of Spanish; KA., 
Washburn University of Topeka; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of Kansas 

Leslie Cahoon^ (1988); Professor of Classics; A.K, 
M.A., Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley 

Kathleen M. Cain (1990); Associate Professor of 
Psychology; A.Q., College of the Holy Cross; A.M., 
Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 

A. Ralph Cavaliere' (1966); C harks H. Graff Professor 
of Biology; B.S., M.S., Arizona State University; 
Ph.D., Duke University 

Frank M. Chiteji (1988); Associate Professor of 
History; B.A., Universit)' of San Francisco; M.A., 
Ph.D., Michigan State Universit)' 

Ann Cleveland (2000); Visiting Assistant Professor of 
Biology; B.A., University of New Hampshire; 
M.S., University of Rhode Island; Ph.D., 
Northern Arizona University 

John A. Commito ( 1 993); Professor of Environrmntal 
Studies and Biology, Coordinator of Environmental 
Studies; A.R., Cornell University; Ph.D., Duke 
University 

David J. Cowan' (1965); Professor of Physics; B.S., 
M.A., Ph.D., Universit)' of Texas 

Mary Deborah Cowan ( 1 989); Associate Professor 
of English, M.S. Boyer Chair in Poetry; 
B.A., Mundelein College; M.A., Western 
Washington University 

Jane S. Cowden (2000); Visiting Assistant Professor of 
Education; ^.A., Dickinson College; M.A., M.Ed., 
Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania; Ph.D., 
Indiana University of Pennsylvania 

Thomas W. Crawford (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Geography and Environmental Studies; B.S., Wake 
Forest University; M.A., Ph.D., University of 
North Carolina, Chapel Hill 

David L. Crowner (1967); Professor of German; B.A., 
Pacific Lutheran University; M.A., Ph.D., 
Rutgers-The State University of New Jersey 

Brendan Cushing-Daniels (2000); Instructor in 
Economics; B.A., University of Notre Dame; 
M.P.I.A., Universitv of Pittsburgh 

Nancy K. Cushing-Daniels ( 1 994); Associate Professor 
ofSpajiish; Chairperson of Interdepartmental Studies; 
B.A., Alfred University; M.A., State University of 
New York at Albany; Ph.D., University of 
California, Berkeley 



Paul R. D'Agostino (1969); Professor of Psychology; 
B.S., Fordham University; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of Virginia 

Roy A. Dawes (1993); Associate Professor of Political 
Science, Department Chairperson; B.A., University 
of New Orleans; M.S., Ph.D., Florida State 
University 

Oliver de la Paz (2000); Lecturer in English; B.S., 
B.A., Loyola Marymount University; M.F.A., 
.\rizona State University' 

Veronlque A. Delesalle ( 1 993); Associate Professor of 
Biology; B.Sc, M.Sc, McGill University; Ph.D., 
University of Arizona 

Daniel R. DeNicola (1996); Provost and Professor of 
Philosophy; A.R., Ohio University; M.Ed., Ed.D., 
Harvard Universitv 

Carolyn M. DeSllva^ (1982); Associate Professor of 
Mathematics; B.A., Merrimack College; M.S., 
Northern Arizona University; M.S., Ph.D., 
University of New Hampshire 

Eric S. Egge (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Mathematics; BA., Carleton College; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of Wisconsin, Madison 

Charles F. Emmons' (1974); Professor of Sociology and 
Anthropology; B.A., Gannon College; M.A., Ph.D., 
University' of Illinois 

Kay Etheridge (1986); Associate Professor of Biology; 
B.S., M.S., Auburn University; Ph.D., University 
of Florida 

Christopher R. Fee (1997); Assistant Professor of 
English; B.A., Baldwin-Wallace College; M.A., 
Loyola University; M.A., University of 
Connecticut; Ph.D., University of Glasgow 
(Scotland) 

Ann Harper Fender (1978); Professor of Economics; 
A.B., Randolph Macon Woman's College; Ph.D., 
Johns Hopkins University 

Rebecca H. Fincher-Kiefer ( 1 988); Associate Professor 
of Psychology; B.S., Washington College; M.S., 
Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 

James P. Fink (1992); Professor of Computer Science; 
Department Chairperson; B.S., Drexel University; 
M.S., Ph.D., Stanford University 

David E. Flesner ( 1 97 1 ); Associate Professor of 
Mathematics, Department Chairperson; A.B., 
Wittenberg University; A.M., Ph.D., University of 
Michigan 

Jean W. Fletcher ( 1 986); Associate Professor of 
Economics, Department Chaiiperson; B.S., 
University of Missouri; A.M., Ph.D., Washington 
L'niversity 



Audias Flores-Ocampo ( 1 996); Instructor in Spanish; 
Master's Equivalency, Escuela Normal Superior 
in Morelos 

Suzanne Johnson Flynn ( 1 990); Associate Professor of 
English; B.A., State University of New York at 
Stony Brook; M.A., Ph.D., Universit)' of Virginia 

Peter P. Fong (1994); Associate Professor of Biology; 
A.B., University of California, Berkeley; M.A., 
San Francisco State University; Ph.D., Universit)' 
of California, Santa Cruz 

Robert S. Fredrickson ( 1 969); Professor of English; 
B.A., DePauw University; M.A., University of 
Minnesota; Ph.D., University of North Carolina 
at Chapel Hill 

Karen J. Frey (1993); Associate Professor of 
Management; Department Co-Chairperson; B.S., 
B.A., M.B.A., Shippensburg University of 
Pennsylvania; Ph.D., University of Maryland 

Fritz R. Gaenslen ( 1 99 1 ); Associate Professor of 
Political Science, B.A., Miami University (Ohio); 
M.A., Ph.D., Universit}' of Michigan 

J. Matthew Gallman (1998); Henry R. Luce Professm 
of Civil War Era and Professor of History; B.A., 
Princeton Universit)-; Ph.D., Brandeis University 

Robert R. Garnett' (1981); Professor of English; B.A., 
Dartmouth College; M.A., Ph.D., Universit)' of 
Virginia 

Daniel R. Gilbert Jr. (1999); Professor of Management 
and David M. LeVan Chair in Ethics and 
Management; B.A., Dickinson College; M.B.A., 
Lehigh University; Ph.D., University of 

Minnesota 

Sandra K. Gill (1984); Associate Professor of Sociology 
and Anthropology; B.S., Auburn University; M.A., 
Liniversit)' of Alabama; Ph.D., University of 
Oregon 

Steven J. Gimble (1999); Assistant Professor of 
Philosophy; B.A., University of Maryland; 
M.A., Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University 

Myrtle G. Glascoe (1997); Associate Professor of 
African American Studies; B.S., Howard 
University; M.S.W., University of Pennsylvania 
School of Social Work; Ed.D., Harvard 
University 

Leonard S. Goldberg (1982); Associate Professor of 
English; B.A., University of Michigan; M.A., 
Ph.D., Universit)' of Pennsylvania 

Derrick K. Gondwe ( 1 977); Professor of Economics; 
B.A., Lake Forest College; M.A., Universit)' of 
Wisconsin; Ph.D., Universit)' of Manitoba 



► 



Timothy N. Good (1990); Associate Professor of 
Physics; B.S., Dickinson College; M.S., Ph.D., 
Universit)' of California-Irvine 

Sharon Davis Gratto ( 1 992); Associate Professor of 
Music; B.Miis., Oberlin College; M.A., American 
University; M.Mus., State University of New York 
at Potsdam; D.M.A., The Catholic University of 
America 

Cecil C. Gray (1996); Assistant Professor of Religion, 
Coordinator of African American Studies; B.A., 
University of Virginia; M.Div., We.sley Theological 
Seminary; Ph.D., Temple University 

Laurence A. Gregorio (1983); Professor of Frenrh, 
Department Chairperson; B.A., Saint Joseph's 
(College; M.A., Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania 

Joseph J. Grzybowsl<i (1979); G. Bowers and Louise 
Hook Mansdorfer Distinguished Professor of Chetnistry; 
Department Chairperson; B.S., King's College; 
Ph.D., Ca.se Western Reserve University 

Gordon A. Haaiand (1990); President and Professor of 
Psychology; A.E., Wlieaton College; Ph.D., State 
University of New York at Buffalo 

Jennifer L. Hansen (1999); Assistant Professor of 
Philosophy; B.A., Santa Clara University; M.A., 
Boston College; Ph.D., State University of New 
York at Stony Brook 

Jerome 0. Hanson ( 1 984); Associate Professor of 
Theatre Arts. Department Chairperson; B.A., State 
University of New York at Fredonia; M.A., 
University of Cincinnati 

Jennie Gilbert Hartman (2000); Visiting Associate 
Professor of Health and Exercise Sciences; B.S., 
Pennsylvania State University; M.A., Western 
Michigan University; Ph.D., University of Illinois 

Caroline A. Hartzell (1993); Associate Professor of 
Political Science; B.A., University of Puget Sound; 
M.A., Ph.D., University of California, Davis 

Barbara Schmitter Heisler (1989); Professor of 
Sociology and Anthropology; B.G.S., Roosevelt 
University; M.A., Ph.D., University of Chicago 

Julia A. Hendon' (1996); Assistant Professor of 
Sociology and Anthropology; B.A., University of 
Pennsylvania; A.M., Ph.D., Harvard University 

Sherman S. Hendrix^ (1964); Professor of Biology, 
Department Chairperson; B.A., Gettysbiug College; 
M.S., Florida State University; Ph.D., University 
of Maryland 

Donald W. Hinrichs^ (1968); Professor of Sociology and 
Anthropology, Department Chairperson; B.A., 
Western Maryland College; M.A., University of 
Maryland; Ph.D., Ohio State University 



Kazuo Hiraizumi (1987); Associate Professor of 
Biology; B.S., Stanford University; Ph.D., North 
Carolina State University 

Helenmarie Hofman ( 1 99 1 ); Associate Professor of 
Education; B.S., M.Ed., Indiana University of 
Pennsylvania; Ph.D., University of Minnesota 

Eleanor J. Hogan (1999); Instructor in Japanese; 
B.A., Bates College; M.A., Washington University 

Koren A. Holland' ( 1 992); Associate Professor of 
Chemistry; B.A., Skidmore College; Ph.D., 
University of Maryland, College Park 

Catherine V. Howard (1998); Assistant Professor of 
Sociology and Anthropology; B.A., Marlboro 
College; M.A., Ph.D., University of Chicago 

Kathleen P. lannello (1990); Associate Professor of 
Political Science; B.A., University of Arizona; M.A. 
(2), Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University 

Reiko Itoh (1999); Assistant Professor of Japanese; 
B.A., University of the Sacred Heart, Tokyo; 
Ph.D.. University of Pittsburgh 

Steven W. James^ (1992); Associate Professor of 
Biology; B.A., Gettysburg College; M.S., Ph.D., 
University of Minnesota 

Donald L.Jameson (1985); Professor of Chemistry; 
B.S., Bucknell University; Ph.D., University of 
North Carolina at Chapel Hill 

Tao Jiang (2000); Assistant Professor of Religion; 
B.A., M.A., Foreign Affairs College, Beijing 

Kristen E.Johnston (2000); Visiting Assistant 
Professor of Psychology; B.A., The University of 
Texas at Austin; M.S., Ph.D., Pennsylvania State 
University 

John W.Jones (1989); Associate Professor of Music, 
Department Chairperson; B.S., Lebanon Valley 
College; M.Ed., Towson State University; D.M.A., 
Temple University 

Brooks A. Kaiser (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Economics; A.B., Vassar College; Ph.D., 
Northwestern University 

Keith A. Koster ( 1 998); Assistant Professor of Music; 
B.S., Quincy College; M.M., Indiana University 
School of Music; Ph.D., University of Missouri- 
Columbia 

Daria J. Kremer (1999); Assistant Professor of 
Mathematics; B.S., B.A., Bethel College; M.S., 
Ph.D., University of Iowa 

Elizabeth Riley Lambert (1984); Professor of English, 
Department Chairperson; B.A., Duquesne 
University; M.A., George Mason University; 
Ph.D., University of Maryland 



William H. Lane (2000); Lecturer in English; B.A., 
Gettysburg College; M.A., Graduate Institute at 
St. John's College 

Bum-Yoal Lee (1998); Assistant Professor of 
Economics; B.A., Kon Kuk University, Korea; 
M.A., Ph.D., Universit)' of Oregon 

Fred G. Leebron (1997); Associate Professor of 
English; B.A., Princeton University; M.A., Johns 
Hopkins Universit)'; M.F.A., University of Iowa 

L. Carl Leinbach (1967); Professor of Computer 
Science; B.A., Lafayette College; M.A., University 
of Delaware; Ph.D., University of Oregon 

Bryan C. Lewis (2000); Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences; B.S., M.Ed., Frostburg State 
University 

Dina Lowy (2000); Assistant Professor of History; 
B.A., University of Pennsylvania; M.A., Princeton 
University; Ph.D., Rutgers University 

Antonio Marin (1995); Instructor in Spanish; R.A., 
M.A., University of Sevilla 

Uurence A. MarschalP (1971); W.K.T. Sahm. Professor 
of Physics; Department Chairperson; B.S., Cornell 
University; Ph.D., University of Chicago 

Michael E. Matsinko (1976); Associate Professor of 
Music; B.S., M.M., West Chester University of 
Pennsylvania 

Rinita Mazumdar (2000); Visiting Assistant Professor 
of Women 's Studies; B.A., Presidency College 
(Calcutta); M.A., Calcutta University; M.A., 
Brock University, Ontario; Ph.D., University of 

Massachusetts 

Daniel D. McCall (1998); Assistant Professor of 
Psychology; B.A., M.S., Ph.D., University of 
Massachusetts at Amherst 

Arthur W. McCardie (1969); Associate Professoi- of 
German, Department Chairperson; B.A., M.A., 
Ph.D., Columbia Universit)' 

Jan E. Mikesell (1973); Professor of Biology; B.S., 
M.S., Western Illinois University; Ph.D., Ohio 
State Universit)' 

Jacquelynne B. Milingo (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Physics; B.S. (2), Universit)' of Kiinsas; Ph.D., 
University of Oklahoma 

Ronald Miller (1994); Instructor in Education; B.S., 
Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania; M.Ed., 
Pennsylvania State University 

Dorothy C. Moore (1999); Lecturer in Spanish; B.A., 
M.A., California State Universitv-Fresno 



Kenneth F. Mott (1966); Professor of Political Science; 
A.B., Franklin and Marshall College; M.A., 
Lehigh University; Ph.D., Brown University 

George M. Muschamp Jr. (1997); Assistant Professor of 
Theatre Arts; B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of Minnesota 

Charles D. Myers, Jr. (1986); Associate Professor of 
Religion, Department Chairperson; B.A., Duke 
University; M.Div., Ph.D., Princeton Theological 
Seminary 

James P. Myers, Jr. (1968); Professor of English; B.S., 
LeMoyne (College; M.A., University of Arizona; 
Ph.D., University of Massachusetts 

Robert Natter (1998); Assistant Professor of Music 
and Directcn of Choral Activities; B.A., M.A., 
University of California, Santa Cruz; D.M.A., 
University of Cincinnati College-Conservatory 
of Music 

Todd W. Neller (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Computer Science; B.S., Cornell University; M.S., 
Ph.D., Stanford University 

Katsuyuki Niiro (1972); Associate Professor of 
Economics; B.A., M.A., Lhiiversity of Hawaii; M.A., 
Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 

Paula D. Olinger ( 1 979); Associate Professor of 
Spanish; B.A., Lhiiversity of Wisconsin; M.A., 
Ph.D., Brandeis University 

David Ozag (1998); Instructor in Management; B.S., 
University of Maryland, College Park; M.B.A., 
Mount Saint Mary's College; CPA 

William E. Parker (1967); Professor of Chemistry; 
B.A., Haverford College; M.S., Ph.D., University 
of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 

Alan H. Paulson (1978); Professor of Visual Arts; 
B.FA., Philadelphia College of Art; M.F.A., 
University of Pennsylvania 

Peter J. Pella (1987); Professor of Physics; B.S., 
United States Military Academy; M.S., 
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Ph.D., Kent 
State University 

David F. Petrie (1997); Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences, Department Co-Chairperson; B.A., 
Gettysburg College; M.S., Universit)' of Delaware 

Thane S. Pittman' ( 1 972); Professor of Psychology; 
B.A., Kent State University; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of Iowa 

Karen Pollard (2000); Visiting Assista?it Professor of 
Physics; BSc, Ph.D., University of Canterbury 



Jonelle E. Pool ( 1 996); Assistant Professor of 
Education; B.A., Carroll College; M.A., Ph.D., 

University of Georgia 

Lisa Portmess ( 1 979); Professor of Philosophy, 
Department Chairperson; B.A., Gettysburg College; 
M.A., Ph.D., Queen's University 

Jean L. Potuchek ( 1 988); Associate Professor of 
Sociology and Anthropology; A.R., Salve Regina 
College; A.M., Ph.D., Brown University 

Janet M. Powers (1963-65; 1987-88; 1998); Associate 
Professor of Women 's Studies and Interdepartmental 
Studies and Coordinator of Global Studies; B.A., 
Bucknell University; M.A., University of 
Michigan; M.A., Ph.D., University of Wisconsin 

Clifford Pressor (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Computer Science; B.S., Pepperdine University; 
Ph.D., University of South Carolina 

William F. Railing ( 1 964); Professor of Economics; 
B.S., United States Merchant Marine Academy; 
B.A., Johns Hopkins University; Ph.D., Cornell 
University 

Rosario Ramos' {\997); Assistant Professor of 
Spanish; B.A., University of Puerto Rico; M.A., 
University of Maryland; M.A., Johns Hopkins 
University; Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University 

Rodney R. Redding ( 1 989); Associate Professor of 
Management; B.S., M.S., Ph.D., Pennsylvania 
State Universitv; CPA 

Kathryn Rhett' (\997); Assistant Professor of English; 
B.A., M.A., Johns Hopkins Universit)'; M.F.A., 
University of Iowa 

Janet Morgan Riggs ( 1 98 1 ); Professor of Psychology, 
Department Chairperson; B.A., Gettysburg College; 
M.A., Ph.D., Princeton University 

Michael L. Ritterson (1968); Associate Professor of 
German; A.E., Franklin and Marshall College; 
Ph.D., Harvard University 

Marta E. Robertson ( 1 997); Assistant Professor of 
Music; B.Mus., University of Kansas; M.Mus., 
Ph.D., University of Michigan 

Alicia Rol6n (1994); Associate Professor of Spanish; 
B.A., Instituto Superior del Profesorado "Victor 
Mercante" (Argentina); M.A., Temple University; 
Ph.D., University of Colorado, Boulder 

William E. Rosenbach (1984); Harold G. Evans 
Professor of Eisenhower Leadership Studies; Co- 
Chairperson of Management; B.S., B.B.A., Texas A 
& M University; M.B.A., Golden Gate University; 
Ph.D., University of Colorado 



Alex T. Rowland ( 1 958); Ockershausen Professor of 
Chemistry; B.A., Gettysburg College; Ph.D., 
Brown University 

Susan Russell (1998); Assistant Professor of Theatre 
Arts; B.A., Hendrix College; M.A., University of 
Wisconsin; Ph.D., University of Washington 

John E. Ryan^ (1994); Assistant Professor of English; 
A.A., Broome Commimity College; B.A., New 
York University; M.A., Ph.D., Case Western 
Reserve University 

Steven A. Samaras (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Management; BBA, Loyola University; MBA, 
Northern Illinois University; Ph.D., University of 
Nebraska-Lincoln 

Magdalena S. Sanchez' ( 1 994); Associate Professor of 
History; B.A., Seton Hall University; M.A., Ph.D., 
Johns Hopkins University 

Virginia E. Schein (1986); Professor of Management; 
B.A., Cornell Universit)'; Ph.D., New York 
University 

Timothy J. Shannon (1996); Assistant Professor of 
History; R.A., Brown University; Ph.D., 
Northwestern University 

David J. Simpson (2000); Visiting Assistant Professor 
of Classics; B.A., Cornell University; J. D., Boston 
University; Ph.D., Cornell University 

Stephen M. Siviy (1990); Associate Professor of 
Psychology; B.A., Washington and Jefferson 
College; M.S., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; 
Ph.D., Bowling Green State University 

Deborah A. Skok (2000); Instructor in History; A.E., 
Bryn Mawr College; M.A., University of Chicago 

Carol D. Small (1969); Assistant Professor of Visual 
Arts; B.A., Jackson College of Tufts University; 
M.A., Johns Hopkins University 

Carolyn S. Snively (1982); Associate Professor of 
Classics; B.A., Michigan State University; M.A., 
Ph.D., University of Texas at Ausdn 

Deborah A. Sommer ( 1 998); Assistant Professor of 
Religion; B.A., C^ase Western Reserve University; 
M.A., M.P., Ph.D., Columbia University 

Ralph A. Sorensen (1977); Professor of Biology; B.A., 
University of California, Riverside; Ph.D., Yale 
University 

Sharon L. Stephenson ( 1 997); Assistant Professor of 
Physics; B.S., Millsaps College; Ph.D., North 
Carolina State University 



Eileen M. Stillwaggon (1994); Assislanl Professor of 
Economics; B.S., Edmund Walsh School of Foreign 
Service, (ieorgetown University; Diploma in 
Economics, University of Cambridge, England; 
M.A., Ph.D., The American University 

Peter A. Stitt (1986); Professor of English, Editor of 
The Gettysburg Rniiexu; B.A., M.A., University of 
Minnesota; Ph.D., University of North Carolina 
at Chapel Hill 

Kristin J. Stuempfle (1997); Assistant Professor of 
Health and Exercise Sciences, Department Co- 
Chairperson; B.S., Ursinus College; Ph.D., The 
Pennsylvania State University College of 
Medicine 

Patricia E. Suess (2000); Visiting Assistant Professor 
of Psychology; B.A., San Diego State University; 
Ph.D., Universit)' of Maryland, College Park 

Alan E. Szarawarski (2000); Visiting Assistant 
Professor of Political Science; B.S. (2) , 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology; M.S., 
Ph.D., Harvard University 

Amie Godman Tannenbaum (1968); Associate 
Professor of Erench; A.E., Hood College; M.A., 
George Washington University; Ph.D., University 
of Maryland 

Donald G. Tannenbaum^ (1966); Associate Professor of 
Political Science; B.B.A., M.A., City College of the 
City University of New York; Ph.D., New York 
University 

Kenichi Tazawa (2000); Instructor in 
Interdepartmental Studies (Japanese); B.A., M.A., 
University of Minnesota 

C. Kerr Thompson (1985); Professor of Spanish, 
Department Chairperson; B.A., Davidson College; 
M.A., Ph.D., Louisiana State University 

Rodney S.Tosten' (1990); Associate Professor of 
Computer Science; B.A., Gettysburg College; M.S., 
West Virginia University; Ph.D., George Mason 
University 

James Toth (2000); Visiting Associate Professor of 
Clobal Studies; B.S., Case Institute of Technology; 
M.A., Case Western Reserve University; Ph.D., 
Binghamton University 

Amelia M.Trevelyan (1985); Associate Professor of 
Visual Arts; B.A., M.A., University of Michigan; 
Ph.D., Ihiiversitv' of California, Los Angeles 

Istvan A. Urcuyo (2000); Visiting Assistant Professor 
of Biology; B.S., The Citadel — The Military 
College of South Carolina; Ph.D., Pennsylvania 
State University 



Isabel Valiela (1999); Assistant Professor of Spanish 
and Women 's Studies; B.A., State University of 
New York at Albany; M.A., New York University 
(Madrid); Ph.D., Duke University 

Miguel Vinuela^ ( 1 988); Associate Professor of Spanish; 
B.A., M.A., California State University, Fresno; 
Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles 

Elizabeth Richardson Viti ( 1 984); Professor of French, 
Edwin I. Johnson and Cynthia Shearer Johnson 
Distinguished Teaching Professor in the Humanities; 
B.A., Wake Forest University; M.A., Middlebury 
College; Ph.D., New York University 

Robert M.Viti (1971); Professor of French; B.A., St. 
Peter's College; M.A., Ph.D., Duke University 

John A.Volkmar (1999); Instructor in Management; 
B.A., Ohio State University; M.S., Temple 
L^niversity 

Kerry S.Walters (1985); Professor and William 
Bittinger Chair of Philosophy; B.A., University of 
North Carolina at Charlotte; M.A., Marquette 
University; Ph.D., University of Cincinnati 

H.Charles Walton (1989); Associate Professor of 
Management; B.S., Auburn University; M.A., East 
Tennessee State University; Ph.D., Florida State 
Universit)'; CPA 

Anke Walz (2000); Visiting Assistant Professor of 
Mathematics; Diplom, Technical University 
Berlin; M.A., Ph.D., Cornell University 

Shirley A. Warshaw (1987); Professor of Political 
Science; B.A., M.G.A., University of Pennsylvania; 
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University 

Mark K. Warwick (2000); Assistant Professor of Visual 
Arts, Department Chairperson: B.A., The 
Polytechnic Wolverhampton in England; 
M.F.A., New York State College of Ceramics at 
Alfred University 

Michael R. Wedlock (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Chemistry; B.S., Hope College; M.S., Ph.D., 
University of Chicago 

Charles L. Weise (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Economics; B.S., Georgetown University; Ph.D., 
University of Wisconsin-Madison 

Randall K. Wilson (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Environmental Studies; B.A., Humboldt State 
University; M.A., University of Colorado, 
Boulder; Ph.D., University of Iowa 

Robert B. Winans (1987); Professor of English; B.A., 
Cx)rnell Universit) ; M.A., Ph.D., New York 
University 



John R. Winklemann (1963); Associate Professor of 
Biology: B.A., University of Illinois; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of Michigan 

Cindy T. Wright (1999); Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences; B.S., State University of New 
^'ork at Cortland; M.S., University of Utah 

Kent D. Yager (1986); Associate Professor of Spanish; 
B.A., M.A., University of California, Santa 
Barbara; Ph.D., University of New Mexico 

Charles J. Zabrowski (1987); Associate Professor of 
Classics, Department Chairperson; A.B., Canisius 
College; M.A., University of Toronto; Ph.D., 
Fordham University 

' On leave. Fall semester 2001-02 

^ On leave, Spring semester 2001-02 

' On leave, Academic Year 2001-02 

* Off campus, Study Abroad Program, Fall 
Semester, 2001-02 

OTHERS HOLDING FACULTY RANK 
(2000-2001 ACADEMIC YEAR) 

Christine A. Altieri; Adjunct Instructor in English; 
B.A., Brown University; M.A., University of 
Virginia 

Gisela M. Aragon; Spanish Teaching Assistant; B.A., 
Escuela Superior de Lenguas, Cordoba 

Gerald D. Baumgardner; Adjunct Assistant Professor 
of tlconomics; B.A., Pennsylvania State University; 
M.B.A., Shippensburg University of 
Pennsylvania; M.Ed., Pennsylvania State 
University; Ed.D., George Mason University 

Brent C. Blair; Adjunct Instructor in Visual Arts; 
B.A., West Virginia University 

Duane A. Botterbusch; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Music; B.S., Mansfield University of Pennsylvania; 
M.M., West Chester University of Pennsylvania 

Mary Jo Boylan; Laboratory Instructor II in Chemistry; 
B.S., Allegheny College 

Teresa Bowers; Adjunct Assistant Professor of Music; 
B.M.E., Susquehanna University; M.M., Ohio 
State University 

Sally M. Brasher; Adjunct Instructor in History; B.A., 
University of Colorado, Boulder; M.A., 
Minnesota State University 

Michael P. Cantele; Adjunct Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences; B.A., Gettysburg College; M.S., 
Old Dominion University 



Paul J. Carrick; Adjunct Professor of Philosophy; B.A., 
Michigan State University; M.A., University of 
Pennsylvania; Ph.D., Temple University 

Pamela J. Castle; Adjunct Instructor in Biology; B.S., 
Oregon State University; M.S., Washington State 
University 

Ian R. Clarke; Adjunct Instructor of Physics; B.A., 
University of Virginia; M.F.A., University of Iowa 

Laurel A. Cohen-Pfister; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
German; B.A., M.A., University of Florida; Ph.D., 
University of California, Los Angeles 

George A. Colburn; Adjunct Professor of History; \.h., 
Aquinas (>ollege; M.A., Ph.D., Michigan State 

University ^ 

Holly Cookerly; Adjunct Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences; B.S., M.Ed., Pennsylvania Stiite 
University 

P. Richard Cooper; Laboratmy Instructor in Physics; 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.Ed., Western 
Maryland College 

Katja Denzer; German Teaching Assistant; 
Equivalent of M.A., Johannes Gutenberg 
Universitat 

Thomas S. Dombrowsky; Adjunct Instructor in 
Interdepartmental Studies; B.A., University of 
Rliode Island; M.A., Morgan State Universit}' 

Justin J. Domingos; Adjunct Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences; B.A., Gettysburg College 

Lisa K. Dorrill; Adjunct Instructor in Visual Arts; 
B.A., University of Virginia; M.A., Northwestern 
University; Ph.D., University of Kansas 

Christina L. Ericson; Adjunct Instructor in History; 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., University of 
Maryland 

Jeffrey Fahnestock; Adjunct Instructor in Music; 
B.M., M.M., Eastman School of Music, 
University of Rochester 

Martin A. Fees; Adjunct Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences; B.S., Indiana University of 
Pennsylvania; M.S., M.P.T., University of 
Delaware 

Barbara Fick; Adjunct Assistant Professor of Latin 
American Studies; Licentiate, University of Chile; 
M.A., Ph.D., University of Maryland 

Linda Karine Fiscus; Adjunct Instructor in 
Mathematics; B.A., Susquehanna Universit)'; M.S., 
Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania 



Robert H. Ford; Adjunct Associate Professor of 
Environmental Studies; B.S., M.S., Ph.D., Virginia 
Polytechnic Institute and State University 

William K. Foreman; Adjunct Instructor in 
Education; B.S., Shippensburg University of 
Pennsylvania; M.Ed., Pennsylvania State 
University 

Terry G. Fox; Adjunct Instructor in Education; B.S., 
M.Ed., Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania 

Josephine L. Freund; Adjunct Instructor in Music; 
B.S., Johns Hopkins University; M.M., Peabody 
(Conservatory of Music 

Wesley R. Frisbie; Adjunct Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences; B.S., University of Baltimore 

Lisa I. Gregory; Laboratory Instructor II in Chemistry; 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

Charles W. Griffiths, III; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Economics; B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., 
University of Zimbabwe; Ph.D., University of 
Maryland at College Park 

Nathalie Goubet; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Psychology; B.A., M.A., Ph.D., University of 
Massachusetts, Amherst 

Craig W. Gruber; Adjunct Instructor in Psychology; 
B.A., American University; M.S., Johns Hopkins 
University 

Lynn E. Gumert; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Music; B.M., Catholic University of America; 
M.M., D.Mus., hidiana University 

Louis J. Hammann; Adjunct Professor of Philosophy 
and Religion; B.A., Gettysburg College; B.D., 
Yale Divinity School; M.A., Pennsylvania State 
University; Ph.D., Temple University 

Michael Hayden; Laboratory Instructor in Physics; 
B.S., University of Maryland, College Park 

Herbert Henke; Visiting Adjunct Professor of Music; 
B.M. (2), M.M., Oberlin College Conservatory 
of Music; Ed.D., University of Southern 
California 

Andrea C. Henry; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Music; B.M., Pennsylvania State University; 
M.M., Southern Methodist University 

James R. Hontz; Adjunct Assistant Professor of Music; 
B.M., M.M., Temple University 

Barbara Hulsether; Labomtory Instructor II in 
Biology; B.S., Utica College of Syracuse University 

Kathryn H. Jones; Laboratory Instructor in Chemistry; 
B.S., University of Notre Dame; M.S., 
Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania 



Theodore S. Jones; Adjunct Instructor in Music; 
B.Mus., Peabody Conservatory of Music of 
Johns Hopkins University; M.Mus., Wichita 
State University 

Paula C. Kellinger; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Theatre Arts; B.A., B.F.A., Adelphi University; 
M.F.A., Sarah Lawrence College 

Robert M. Knight; Adjunct Instructor in English; 
B.S., University of Colorado; M.A., DePaul 
University 

Dane Kusic; Adjunct Assistant Professor of Music; 
B.A. (2), University of Sarajevo, Music Academy; 
Ph.D., University of Maryland, Baltimore 

Anne Le Barbu; French Teaching Assistant; 
Equivalent of B.A., Rennes II University 

William Leslie; Adjunct Instructor in Computer 
Science; B.S., Indiana University of Pennsylvania; 
M.Ed., Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania 

Lani Lindeman; Adjunct Instructor in English and 
Interdepartmental Studies; B.A., Gettysburg College 

Donald E. Myers; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Education; B.A., Elizabethtown College; M.Ed., 
Western Maryland College; Ed.D., Temple 
University 

James E. Newton; Distinguished Adjunct Professor of 
African American Studies; B.A., North Carolina 
Central University; M.F.A., University of North 
Carolina, Chapel Hill; Ed.D., Illinois State 
University 

Yukiko Niiro; Adjunct Instructor in Mathematics; 
B.B.A., M.B.A., University of Hawaii 

Cyndy M. Phillips; Adjunct Instructor in English; 
B.A., University of Miami; M.A., Humboldt State 
University (California) 

Phyllis Price; Laboratory Instructor II in Biology; 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

James G. Ramos; Adjunct Instructor in Visual Arts; 
B.S., M.Ed., Pennsylvania State University 

Alden H. Reese; Laboratory Instructor II in Biology; 
A.B., Hood College 

James D. Reigel; Adjunct Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences; B.S., Towson State University 

Lawrence A. Rosenberg; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Sociology and Anthropology; B.A., Beloit College; 
M.A., Ph.D., University of New Hampshire 

Pamela J. Rosenberg; Adjunct Associate Professor of 
Sociology and Anthropology; B.A., Beloit College; 
M.A., University of New Hampshire; Ph.D., 
Cornell University 



Register/Administration 



Catharine E. Roth; Adjunct Instructor in English; 
B.A., Earlham College; M.A., University of North 
Carolina at Chapel Hill 

James Ryon; Adjunct Assistant Professor of Music; 
B.Mus., East Carolina University; M.Mus., Peabody 
Institute; D.M.A., Catholic University of America 

Charles Saltzman; Adjunct Instructor in English; 
A.B., Harvard College; M.A.T., Harvard 
Graduate School of Education 

Stephanie A. Sellers; Adjunct Instructor in English; 
B.A., American University; M.F.A., Goddard 

College 

Andrew G. Shaw; Adjunct Assistant Professor of Visual 
Arts; B.A., Kenyon College; M.F.A., New York 
State College of Ceramics at Alfred University 

Allison C. Singley; Adjunct Instructor in English; 
B.A., University of Pennsylvania; M.A., 
University of Connecticut 

Wayne A. Slaughter; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Political Science; B.A., University of Colorado at 
Boulder; M.A., Ph.D., University of Illinois at 
Chicago 

Stephanie A. Slocum-Schaffer; Adjunct Assistant 
Professor of Political Scieiice; B.A., Bucknell 
University; Ph.D., The American University, 
School of Public Affairs 

Michael E. Snyder; Adjunct Instructor in Music and 
Assistant Director of Bands (Marching Band); B.S., 
Millersville University; M.A., Eastman School of 
Music 

Barbara Streeter; Adjunct Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences; B.A., Lebanon Valley College 

Kenneth C. Washinger; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Malhematics; B.S., Shippensburg University of 
Pennsylvania; M.Ed., Pennsylvania State 
University; Ed.D., Rutgers University 

Victor Wertz; Adjunct Instructor in Music; B.M., 
Susquehanna University; M.M., University of 
North Texas 

Helen J. Winkelmann; Senior Laboratory Instructor in 
Biology and Adjunct Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences; B.A., Notre Dame College of 
Staten Island; M.S., University of Michigan 

John Winship; Adjunct Instructor in Visual Arts; 
B.A., Middlebury College 

Miyuki Yoshikami; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Music; B.A., University of California at Los 
Angeles; M.A., Ph.D., University of Maryland, 
College Park 



Jo Ann K. Zeman; Laboratory Instructor II in Biology; 
B.A., Western Maryland College 

Lori G. Zeshonsky; Adjunct Instructor in Music; 
B.A., West Chester University 

ADMINISTRATION 
(2000-2001 ACADEMIC YEAR) 

Emeriti 

Date in parentheses indicate years of service. 

Jay P. Brown (1947-1988), Bursar, Emeritus 

Mary G. Burel (1970-1986), Librarian Emerita 

Roland E. Hansen (1973-1989), Busiriess Manager, 
Emeritus 

Nancy C. Locher (1968-1989), Dean of Student 
Adiiisemenl. Emerita 

Edward F. McManness (1970-1988), Director of the 
College Union, Emeritus 

James H. Richards, Jr. (1974-1983), Libraricin 

Emeritus 

Frank B. Williams (1966-1993), Dean of Student Life 
and Educational Services, Emeritus 

Richard K. Wood (1969-1990), Director of Academic 
Computing, Emeritus 

Office of the President 

Gordon A. Haaland ( 1 990); President and Professor of 
Psychology; A.R., Wlieaton College; Ph.D., State 
University of New York at Buffalo 

Cheryl Miller (1994); Executive Assistant to the 
President; B.S., Dickinson College; M.A. 
Colinnbia University 

Perrin Reid (2000); Director of Employment Equity 
and Diversity; B.A., Tufts University; M.A., 
University of Massachusetts, Amherst; J. D., 
Loyola Law School 

Cathy W. Staneck (1989); Assistant to the President; 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

Provost 

Greg Anderson ( 1 994); Teacher Specialist, Biology; 
B.S., St. Bonaventure University, Teacher 
Certification, Daemen College 

Teresa Amott (2000); Vice Provost; B.A., Smith 
College; Ph.D., Boston College 

Rebecca A. Bergren ( 1 997); Coordinator of Off- 
Campus Studies and International Student Affairs; 
B.A., M.P.S., Alfred University 



G. Ronald Couchman (1967); Registrar; B.A., 
Gettysburg College 

Daniel R. DeNicola (1996); Provost and Professor of 
Philosophy; AB., Ohio University; M.Ed., Ed.D., 
Harvard University 

Tina M. Grim (1980); Program Manager, Civil War 
Institute 

Barbara J. Herman (1975); Executive Assistant to the 
Provost 

Ronald D. Miller (1993); Director of Field Experiences; 
B.S., Shippensburg University; M.Ed., Penn 
State University 

Uma S. Rau (1999); Assistant Provost; B.A., 
St. Francis' College for Women; M.A., M.Phil., 
University of Hyderabad; Ph.D., West Virginia 
University 

Jack W. Sipe (1998); Teacher Specialist; B.S., 
Millersville University'; M.S., Shippensburg 
University 

Glenn Snyder ( 1 992); Research Associate/Programmer, 
Physics; B.S., Case Institute of Technology; 
Ph.D., Case Western Reserve University 

Deborah M. Wailes (1991); Director for the Center of 
Internships and Pre-Law/Pre-Med Advising; B.A., 
Wilmington College; M.H.S., Lincoln University 

Mary Waltz; Manager of Registrar's IS 

Gettysburg Review 

Peter Stitt (1986); Editor, Professor of English; B.A., 
M.A., University of Minnesota; Ph.D., University 
of North Carolina-Chapel Hill 

Mark S. Drew (1998); Assistant Editor; B.A., 
Kent College; M.F.A., University of Alabama 

Melinda Wilson; Managing Editor; B.A., University 
of Louisiana, Monroe; M.F.A., Lhiiversity of 
Alabama 

Information Resources and Computing 

David Steinour (1999); Vice Provost for IR and 

Computing 

Mark A.Albert (1998); PIT Programmer/Analyst; 
B.A., Shippensburg University 

John C. Baker (1998); MIS Programmer /Analyst; 
B.A., Geneva College; M.S., Shippensburg 
University 

Doreen Beaudreau (1998); MIS Programmer/Analyst; 
B.B.A., M.B.A., University of Wisconsin 



Sharon Birch; Instructional Technologist: B.A., 
Southwestern University at Georgetown; M.A., 
Bowling Green State University; Ph.D., Bowling 
Green State University 

David M. Czar (1994); MIS DBA df Systems Analyst; 
B.A., Drew University' 

Richard J. Fawley (1995); Network 
Operator/Computer Lab Specialist 

Charles Hannon (1998); Instructional Technologist; 
B.A., James Madison University; M.A., University 
of Kent at Canterbury; Ph.D., West Virginia 
University 

Michael B. Hayden (1996); Director of Infrastructure 
and Operations; B.S.E.E., University of Maryland 
at College Park 

David Heinzelmann; MIS Configuration Management 
Specialist; A.A., Devry Technical Institute 

Donald L Kingston (1988); Director of 
Telecommunications; B.S., American University 

David Kline (1999); MIS Programmer /Analyst; B.S., 
M.B.A, Frostburg State University 

Stcphan Lewis (1999); Director of MIS; B.S., Penn 
State University; M.S., Troy State University 

Gary Millburn (1999); MS Programmer/Analyst; B.S., 
University' of Southern Florid 

Martha M. Myricks (1991); Director of Response; B.A., 
San Francisco State University 

David Nettekoven; MIS Progiammer/ Analyst; B.S., 
Indiana University 

Susan Pinti; Director of Response; B.A., Kutztown 
University 

David Rice (1999); MIS Programmer/ Analyst;^.?)., 
Shippensburg University 

Amy Riley (1999); UNIX/NT Systems Administrator; 
B.S., University of Washington; M.S., Johns 
Hopkins University 

James Riley (1999); MIS DBA & Systems Analyst; 
B.S., University of Maryland 

William P.Wilson (1979); Director of Instructional 
Technology; B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., 
Ph.D., University of Connecticut 

Eric J.Yurick (1995); Internet Services Specialist; B.S., 
M.S., Shippensburg University 

Musselman Library 

Robin Wagner ( 1 995); Director of Library Services; 
B.A., Dickinson College; M.L.S., University of 
Kentucky; M.A., Dartmouth College 



^^^ 



Christine Amadure (1999); Processing Reference 
Archivist; B.A., Shippensburg University; M.A., 
Penn State University; M.L.S., Clarion University 

Sidney G. Dreese (1995); Reference/Instructional 
Librarian; B.A., Clarion University'; M.S., Drexel 
Universit\ 

Karen Drickamer (1999); Archivist/Special Collections 
Librarian; B.A., North Adams State College, MA; 
M.L.S., Stale University of New York-Albany 

Katherine A. Furlong (1999); Reference/Instruction 
Librarian; B.A., M.S., University of Pittsburg 

David T. Hedrick (1972); Coordinator of Collections; 
B.A., Emory and Henry College; M.A., 
University of Denver 

Pamela A. Matthews (1998); Acquisitions Librarian; 
B.S., M.L.S., University of Pittsburgh 

Ronald Wayne Bivens-Tatum (1999); Reference/ 
Instruction Librarian; B.A., University of Alabama; 
M.S., M.A., Universit)' of Illinois at Urbana- 
Champaign 

Patricia Tully (1997); Head of Technological Sennces; 
A.A., Cape Cod Communit)' College; B.A., 
Williams College; M.I.L.S., University of 
Michigan 

Janelle Wertzberger (1997); Head of Reference/ 
Instructional Librarian; B.A., Southwestern 
University; M.A., University of Florida; M.L.I.S., 
Universit)' of Texas at Austin 

College Life 

Julie L. Ramsey (1981); Dean of the College; B.A., 
Denison University'; M.A., Indiana University 

Loretta W. Hylton (1989); Executive Assistant to the 
Dean 

Thomas Mottola {\99S); Director of Judicial 
Affairs/Community Development; B.A., Georgetown 
Universit)'; M.E.D., Harvard University 

Margaret-Ann Radford-Wedemeyer ( 1 986); Associate 
Dean of the College Cf Sexual Harassment Officer; 
B.A., Texas Women's University; M.A., Hood 
College 

Academic Advising 

GailAnn Rickert (\997); Associate Dean and Director 

of Academic Advising; B.A., Dickinson College; 

M.A., University of Oxford; Ph.D., Harvard 

University 

Anne B. Lane (1989); Associate Dean of Academic 
Advising; B.A., Elizabeth town College; M.A., 
University of Iowa 



Robert C. Nordvall (1972); Dean of First-Year 
Students; B.A., DePauw University; J. D., Harvard 
Law School; Ed.D., Indiana University 

Career Planning and Advising 

Kathleen L.Williams (\998); Director of Career 
Planning and Advising; B.A., Albion College; 
M.A., Western Michigan University 

Christine L. Cunningham (1999); Career Counselor; 
B.A., Salisbury Suite University; M.Ed., 
University of Maryland 

Terr! H. Moore (1999); Assistant Director of Career 
Planning and Advising; B.A., Edinboro 
University of Pennsylvania; M.A., Indiana 
University of Pennsylvania 

Susan Schlak (1999); Career Services Specialist 

Center for Public Service 

Karl J. Mattson (1977); Director; B.A., Augustana 
College (Illinois); B.D., Augustana Theological 
Seminarv; S.T.M., Yale Di\'inity School 

Gretchen Natter ( 1 998); Associate Director for the 
Center for Public Service; B.S., Baldwin Wallace 

Chaplain 

Rev. Joseph A. Donnella II (1997); Chaplain; B.A., 
Duquesne Universitv; M.Div., Lutheran School 
of Theology, Chicago 

Josephine Bailey Freund ( 1 99 1 ); College Organist, 
Adjunct Instructor in Music; B.S., John Hopkins 
Universit)'; B.Mus., M.Mus., Peabody 
Conservatory 

Counseling Services 

William H.Jones (1964); Coordinator of Counseling; 
B.A., Eastern Nazarene College; M.A., University 
of Wisconsin; Ed.D., Boston Universit)' 

Shirley S.Armstrong (1995); Counselor;^. A., 
Gett\sburg College; M.A.. Shippensburg Uni\'ersity 

Harriet Barriga Marritz (1989); Counselor, Drug 
Education Coordinator; B.A., Lafayette College; 
M.S., Millers\ille L^niversity of Pennsylvania 

LaDonna B. Mullins (1995); Health Education 
Consultant; B.A., Augustana, Sioux Falls 

Frances F. Parker ( 1 980); Associate Coordinator of 
Counseling; B.A., M.A., University of Kentucky 

Health Services 

Frederick Kinsella (1990); Nurse Practitioner and 
Director of Student Health Services; B.S., Wagner 
College; M.S., Wagner College; Post-Master's 
Certificate, University of Virginia 



Janice O'Nieal (1997); Nurse Practitioner; B.A., 
B.S.N. .Jersey City State College; M.S.N. , Seton 
Hall University' 

Constance A. Songer (1986); Nurse Practitioner; 
R.N., Washington Hospital Center 

Intercultural Advancement 

H. Pete Curry (1997); Dean of Intercultural 
Advnncenwnt; B.A., Baldwin Wallace College; 
M.A., Bowling Green State University 

Mikiko Kumasaka (2000); Assistant Director of 
Residence Live for Intercultural Advancement; B.A., 
San Diego State University; M.Div., Fuller 
Theological Seminary 

Yukiko K. Niiro (1986); Counselor, Intercultural 
Resources Center; B.A., M.A., University of Hawaii 

Office of Greek Organizations 

Dennis K. Murphy (1990); Assistant Dean of the 
College and Director of Greek Organizations; B.A., 
Saint Francis College (Pennsylvania); M.S., 
Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania; Ed.D., 
Indiana University 

Brad McCutcheon {\999); Assistant Director of 
Experiential Education and Campus Recreation 

Marikate Murren (1000); Director of Campus 
Recreation: B.A.. University of Connecticut; M.A., 
University of Connecticut 

John E. Regentin ( 1 995); Director of Experiential 
Education; B.S., M.S., Radford University 

Residence Life 

Timothy P. Rupe (1992); Associate Dean /Director 
of Residence Life, Assistant Dean of Judicial Affairs; 
B.S., Susquehanna University; M.S., 
Shippensburg University 

Natalie Basil (2000); Area Manager; B.A., Marietta 
College; M.A., hidiana University of 
Pennsylvania 

Celeste Belcher (2000); Area Manager; B.A., State 
University of New York at Buffalo; M.Ed., State 
University' of New York at Buffalo 

Jennifer Frohnapfel (2000); Area Manager; B.A., 
Gett)'sburg College 

Thomas Segar ( 1 999); Assistant Director, Residence 
Life; B.S., University' of Maryland 

Safety and Security Services 

William Cafferty (2000); Director of Safety and 
Security; B.A., Eastern College; M.S., Villanova 
University 



David Taylor (1999); Associate Director of Safety and 
Security; A.A., Harrisburg Area Community 
College 

Student Activities 

Lynn Collins White Cloud (1992); Assistant 
Dean/Director of Student Activities and College 
Union; B.S., University' of Vermont; M.A., Boston 
College 

John Archer (1996); Night Activities Manager; B.A., 
University' of Hartford, Connecticut 

Steven Mark Sikes (1999); Associate Director of 
Student Activities; B.A., University of South 
Carolina; M.Ed., Virginia Tech 

College Relations 

Lex 0. McMillan, III (1993); Vice President for College 
Relations; B.A., Washington & Lee University; 
M.A., Georgia State Universit)'; Ph.D., University 
of Notre Dame 

Advancement Services 

Michele L. Pigott (1999); Director of Advancement 
Services; B.S., Universit)' of South Florida; A.S., 
Central Penn Business School 

Diana Snell (2000); Assistant Director of 
Advancement Services 

Alumni Relations 

Joseph Lynch (2000); Director of Alumni Relations; 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

Mary Anstine (2000); Associate Director of Alumni 
Relations; B.A., Washington and Lee University; 
J.D., Washington and Lee School of Law 

Katherine Casey (2000); Assistant Director of Alumni 
Relations; E.S.E., Millersville University 

Annual Giving 

Susan E. Pyron (1996); Director of Annual Giving; 

B.A., Gettysburg College 

Brian Allen (1999); Annual Giving Officer 

Laura Cotton (2000); Assistant Director of Annual 
Giving; B.S., Hobart and William Smith Colleges 

Craig Diehl (1999); Executive Director of the Orange 
&" Blue Club; B.A., Getty-sburg College 

Penny L.Jenkins (1999); Associate Director of Annual 
Giving; B.A., Mary Baldyvin College 

Capital Giving 

Christine A. Benecke (1992); Manager of Research; 
B.Hum., Penn State University 



Emily Clarke (1991); Assistant Director of Planned 
Giving; B.A., University of North Carolina 

Donald R. Cooney (1995); Associate Vice President for 
(Mpildl (living: B.A., Gettysburg College 

Elizabeth Dahmus (2000); Director of Planned 
Giviyig; B.S., Penn State University; M.P.A., Penn 
State University 

William P. Deptula (1997); Associate Director of 
Capital Giving; B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., 
Bowling Green University 

Jeanne deBrun Duffy (1999); Director of Foundation 
and Corporate Support; B.A., Gettysburg College; 
Ph.D., Brown University 

Jean S. LeGros (1978-1988), (1991); Associate 
Director of Capital Ciiving; B.A., Gettysburg College 

Janet Wiley Mulderrlg ( 1 999); Director of Major Gifts; 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

Jeffrey Pierce (2000); Capital Gifts Officer; B.S., 
Towson State University 

Jean Straub Stitt (2000); Capital Gifts Officer; B.S., 
Lamar L'niversity 

Karen Weiss (1999); Capital Gifts Officer; B.A., West 
Chester University 

Public Relations 

Patricia A. Lawson ( 1 999); Associate Vice President 
for Communications and Public Relations; B.A., 
Eastern Connecticut State College; M.S., 
Syracuse University 

Matthew G. Daskivich ( 1 999); Sports Information 
Director; B.S., Muhlenberg College; M.A.M., 
University of Virginia 

Mary E. Dolheimer (1991); Director of Media 
Relations; B.S., Indiana University of 
Pennsylvania 

James Hale (2000); Staff Writer; B.A., Valparaiso 

University 

Steven Westfall (2000); Graphic Designer; E.F.A., 
Maine College of Art 

Jerold Wikoff (1985); Colkge Editor, Director of 
Publications; B.A., M.A., Ph.D., Stanford 
University 

Enrollment and Educational Services 

David J. Cowan (1965); Dean of Enrollment and 
Educational Services; B.S., M.A., Ph.D., University 
of Texas 



Admissions 

Gail Sweezey ( 1 983); Director of Admissions; 
B.A., Allegheny (College 

Nathan Anderson ( 1 999); Admissions Counselor; 
B.A., College of Wooster 

Leigh Anne Bennett (2000); Admissions Counsebr; 
B.A., Colgate University 

Daniel A. Dundon ( 1 972); Senior Associate Dean of 
Admissions; B.A., State University of New York at 
Buffalo; M.A., Eastern Michigan University 

Sarah Johnson (2000); Associate Director of 
Admissions &" Coordinator of Technical Operations; 
B.A., Susquehanna University 

Darryl W. Jones ( 1 985); Associate Dean of 
Admissions; B.A., Pennsylvania State University 

Christine Sedlacko (2000); Admissions Counselor; 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

Darren Silvis (2000); Admissions Counselor; B.A., 
Dickinson C>ollege 

Joseph C. Sharrah (1996); Admissions Counselor; 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.B.A., Shippensburg 
University 

Mary Wilkes (2000); Admissions Counselor; B.A., 
Gettysburg College 

Institutional Analysis 

Salvatore Ciolino ( 1 97 1 ); Director for Institutional 
Analysis; B.A., State University of New York at 
Geneseo; M.S., State University of New York at 
Albany; Ed.D., Nova University 

Intercollegiate Athletics 

Charles W. Winters ( 1 989); Director of Intercollegiate 
Athletics; B.S., M.Ed., Bowling Green State 
University 

John W. Campo (1985); Head Coach/Baseball, 
Assistant Coach/Football; B.S., University of 
Delaware; M.S., Queens College of the City 
University of New York 

Carol D. Cantele (1992); Head Coach/Field Hockey, 
Head Coach/Women's Lacrosse; B.A., Gettysburg 
College; M.A., Miami University at Oxford 

Michael P. Cantele (1990); Athletic Trainer; B.A., 
Gettysburg College; M.S., Old Doininion 
University 

Casey Counseller (1999); Head Coach, Men's/ 
Women's Golf; B.A., Scottsdale Community 
College 



Robert T. Condon (1993); Head Coach/Men's and 
Women 's Cross Country, Head Coach/Track and 
Field; B.A., Olivet College; M.Ed., Miami 
University at Oxford 

Troy A. Dell (1995); Head Wrestling Coach/Strength 
Csf Conditioning Coach; B.A., Gettysburg College 

Joseph D. Donolli (1971); Head Athletic Trainer; B.S., 
University of Delaware; M.Ed., Temple 
University 

Henry Janczyk ( 1 987); Head Coach/Men 's Lacrosse; 
B.A., Hobart College; M.A., Albany State University 

KImberly A. Kelly (1992); Head Volleyball Coach/ 
Assistant Softball Coach; B.S., Gettysburg College 

Michael T. Kirkpatrick (1989); Head Coach/Women 's 
Basketball, Head Coach/Softball; A.A., Community 
College of Allegheny, Boyce Campus; B.S., 
University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown 

George R. Petrie ( 1 989); Head Coach/Men 's 
Basketball, Co-Head Coach/Golf; B.A., Lebanon 
Valley College; M.Ed., University of Utah 

Michael K. Rawleigh (1985); Head Coach/Men's and 
Women's Swimming, Aquatics Director; B.A., 
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; 
M.S., Western Maryland College 

John F. Schmid (1990); Assistant Coach /Football, 
Assistant Coach/Track and Field; B.S., Ursinus 
College 

Barb Streeter (1991); Assistant Director of Campus 
Recreation, Director of Women 's Athletics; B.A., 
Lebanon Valley College 

Barry H. Streeter (1975); Head Coach /Football; B.A., 
Lebanon Valley College; M.S., University of 
Delaware 

Todd D. Wawrousek (1990); Head Coach/Women's 
Soccer, Assistant Tennis Coach; B.S., University of 
Pittsburgh; M.Ed., Alfred University 

David W. Wright (1986); Associate Athletic Director, 
Head Coach/Soccer, Head Coach/Tennis; B.S., State 
University of New York at Cordand; M.A., 
Brigham Yoimg University 

Intercollegiate Athletics/Part-Time Coaches 

Darrell Alt (2000); Graduate Assistant (Football); 
B.S. Frostburg State University 

Kenneth Armacost (1996); Assistant 
Coach/Volleyball; B.A., Indiana University of 
Pennsylvania; M.S., Western Maryland College 

Thomas Bachman ( 1 99 1 ); Assistant Coach/Women 's 
Soccer; B.S., West Chester State College 



Lisa Beideman (2000); Assistant Coach/Field Hockey; 
B.A., Gettvshuig College 

Robert Campbell (2000); Assistant Coach/Football; 
B.S., Penn State University; M.S., SUNYat 
Cortland 

Kenneth Corbran (1998); Assistant Coach/Men's 
Soccer; B.S., Rutgers University'; M.S., Western 
Maryland College 

David Cornell ( 1 997); C/raduate Assistant (Men 's 
Lacrosse); B.A., Ciettysburg College 

Justin Domingos (2000); Assistant Coach/Men 's 
Lacrosse; B.A., Gettysburg College 

Gail Gilchrest (2000); Graduate Assistant (Women 's 
Basketball); B.A., Kean University 

Mike Graham (1999); Ckaduate Assistant (Football); 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

Kenneth Haines (2000); Assistant Coach /Wrestling; 
B.S., Lock Haven University 

Andrea Hanley (1999); Graduate Assistant (Field 
Hockey /Women's Lacrosse); B.A., Drew University 

Alan Kempton (2000); Assistant Coach /Football; 
B.S., Gettysburg College 

Wayne Mickley (1994); Assistant Coach /Baseball; 

B.S., Shippensburg University 

Dave Neff (1998); Assistant Coach/Men's Basketball 

James Page (2000); Assistant Coach /Football; B.A., 
Susquehanna University 

William Pfitzinger (1999); Head Coach/Men's 6f 
Woinen's Tennis; B.A., Roanoke College 

Camilla Rawleigh (1989); Assistant Coach/Men's 6' 
Women 's Swimming; B.A., University of North 
Carolina at Chapel Hill 

Paul Redfern (2000); Graduate Assistant (Men s 
Basketball); B.A., Gettysburg College 
James Reigel (2000); Assistant Coach/Men 's Soccer; 
B.S., Towson State University 

Lee Rentzel (1991); Assistant Coach/Baseball; B.A., 
Penn State University; M.A., Western Maryland 
College 

Aimee Seward (2000); Graduate Assistant (Field 
Hockey/Women 's Lacrosse); B.S., Mary Washington 
College 

Aubrey Shenk (1984); Assistant Coach/Men's df 
Women 's Cross Country/Field Hockey 

Kim Winters (1999); Graduate Assistant (Athletic 
Training); B.S., Stroudsburg University 
Joseph Yeck (1999); Assistant Coach/Men's 
Basketball; B.S., Temple University; M.A., 
University of Maryland 



I 



Student Financial Aid 

Ronald L. Shunk {\983); Director of Financial Aid; 
B.A., M.Ed., Pennsylvania State University 

John Z. Kelley (1992); Associate Director of Financial 
Aid; B.S., Alfred University; M.S., Syracuse 
University 

Jean Riley; Assistant Director of Financial Aid; B.S., 
University of Maryland, Baltimore County 

Finance and Administration 

Jennie L Mingolelli (1993); Vice President for Finance 
and Administration/Treasurer; B.A., Stetson 
University; M.A., Ph.D., Syracuse University 

William Baldwin (1989); Building Trades Manager 

James R. Biesecker (1983); Assistant Director of 
Facilities Services; B.S., Mt. St. Mary's College 

Mike Bishop (2000); College Union Food Service 
Manager; B.S., Shepard College 

David Bosnick (2000); Director of Shared Bookstore 
Services; B.A., East Carolina University; M.A., 
SUNYBrockport; Ph.D., Binghamton University 

Karen A. Boyd ( 1 998); Director of Campus Space 
Planning and Management; B.A., Smith College; 
M.A.Rch., University of Virginia 

Ana Crider (2000); Director of Financial Planning 
and Budget; B.S., B.A., Indiana University 

Larry Eighmy (1998); Director of Shared Facilities 
Planning and Management; B.A., Middlebury 
College 

Robert Butch (1999); Special Assistant to the Director 
of Facilities Services; B.A., Swarthmore College 

Ed Earp (2000); Executive Chef 

Brian Erb (1999); Assistant Vice President for 
Financial Systems and Services/Associate Treasurer; 
C.P.A.; B.S., Rutgers University 

Carmen Glynn (2000); Sous Chef 

Christine L. Gormley (1994); Assistant Director of 
Financial Services; B.A., Western Maryland 
College 

Melissa A. Grimsley (1988); Manager of HRIS System 

Roger Heyser (1984); Manager, Energy &f HVAC; 
Gateway Technical Institute 

Margaret Mollis (2000); Conference and Event 
Matiager; B.S., Shippensburg University 

Deb Hydock; Student Services Manager; B.S., 
M.B.A., Mount St. Mary's College 



Ellen M. McCarthy (1999); Controller & Director of 
Financial Services; C.P.A.; B.A., Stonehill College 

Kimberly McGlaughlin (1999); Payroll Manager; B.S., 
Mount St. Mary's College 

John V. Myers ( 1 978); Director of Dining Services; 
B.S., Universitv' of Scranton 

Randy Nenninger (1997); Manager, Grounds and 
Landscape Services; Associate in Forestry, Penn 
State University 

Jane D. North (1992); Director of Human Resources 
and Risk Management; B.S., Miami University at 
Oxford 

Peter C. North (1992); Director of Auxiliary and 
Campus Food Services; B.S., B.A., Slippery Rock 
University 

Jeffrey Nye (2000); Catering Manager for Dining 
Services 

Wendy Quinley (1999); Manager, Student Accounts; 
B.A., Western Maryland College; M.B.A., Mount 

St. Mary's College 

Chris Rinehart (1994); Purchasing Manager of 
Dining Services 

Jennifer T. Robertson ( 1 995); Associate Director of 
Human Resources; B.S., James Madison University 

Elaine Saxe (1999); Assistant Controller; C.P.A.; 
B.B.A., Stephen F. Austin University 

John R. Shaddock (2000); President 6= CEO, Shared 
Services Consortium; B.S., University of Maryland; 
M.S., Troy State University 

Ken Shultes (2000); Director of Facilities Services; 
B.A., Dickinson College 

David M. Swisher II (1970); Associate Director of 

Facilities Services 

Kimberly L. Wolf ( 1 99 1 ); Director, College Bookstore 

Christine Zuber (2000); Assistant Director of Budget; 
B.S., Bloomsburg University 



Index 



Academic Advising 26-27 

Academic Honors 41-42 

Academic Internships 28 

Academic Policies and Programs 23-36 

Academic Regulations 37-40 

Academic Standing 38-39 

Administration 178-184 

Admission Policy and Procedure 4-6 

African-American Studies 44—46 

Alcohol and Drug Education 14 

,\lpha Lambda Delta 41 

American Studies 94 

Annual Prizes and Awards 146-162 

Anthropology 127-129 

Area Studies 95 

Art (See Visual Arts) 

Art Gallery 139 

Asian Studies 95 

Astronomy (See Physics) 

Athletics 21 

Bands 19 

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 47 

Biology 47-50 

Board of Trustees 167-168 

Business Administration 

(See Management) 
Campus Media 1 9 
Campus Recreation 21 
Career Planning and Advising 14 
Career Opportimities 

(See Departmental Course Introductions) 
Center for Public Service 21 
Chapel Programs 20 
Chemistry 51-53 
Civil War Institute 28 
Choirs 19 

Civil War Era Studies 53-54 
Classics 54-56 

Clubs and Organizations 18-20 
College Life 15-21 
College Store 8 
College Union 16-17 
Comparative Literature 95 
Computer Science 57-59 
Core Requirements 

(See Liberal Arts Core Requirements) 
Costs 7-8 

Counsehng Services 13-14 
Course Requirements 24-26 
Courses of Study 43-145 
Credit System (Credit Hours) 24 
Dean of First-Year Students 16 



Deans' Lists 41 

Degree Requirements 24—26 

Exemption From 38 
Dental School, Preparation for 35 
Dining Accommodations 13 
Drama (See Theatre Arts) 
Dramatics 19 
Dual-Degree Programs 

(See Engineering, Forestry, Nursing, 
and Optometry) 
Early Decision 5 
East Asian Studies 60 
Economics 60-64 
Education 64—67 
Endowed Scholarships 150-160 
Endowment Fimds 163-166 
Engineering Dual-Degree Programs 

(See also Physics) 33,112 
English 67-72 

Environmental Studies 72-77 
Environmental Studies and Forestry 

Dual-Degree Program 34-35 
Expenses/Services 7-8 
Facilities 22 
Faculty 168-178 
Fees 7-8 

Financial Aid 9-1 1 
First-Year Residential College 16 
First-Year Seminars 44 
Foreign Study (See Off-Campus Study) 
Forestry and Environmental Studies 

Dual-Degree Program 34-35 
Fraternities (See Greek Organizations) 
French 77-81 

Geographical Distribution of Students 6 
German 81-84 
Gettysburg Review 28-29 
Global Studies 95 
Government (See Political Science) 
Grading System 37-38 
Graduation 

Requirements for 24-26 

With honors 41 
Greek 55 

Greek Organizations 19-20 
Health Center 13-14 
Health and Exercise Science 84-87 
History 87-91 
Honor Code 15 
Honorary Societies 41-42 
Individualized Study 27 
Insurance 8 



Intercultural Advancement 12-13 
Interdepartmental Studies 91-95 
International Affairs Concentradon 96 
Internships 28 

(See also Department Course Listings) 
Intramural Sports 21 
Italian Studies 96-97 
Japanese Studies 97-98 
Jimction, The 17 
Latin 55-56 

Ladn American Studies 98-100 
Law, Ethics, and Society 95 
Leadership Development Program 18 
Liberal Arts Core Requirements 43 
Loan Programs 10-11 

Lutheran Theological Seminary Exchange 33 
Major Fields of Study 25-26 
Management 100-101 
Marine Biology Cooperative Programs 32 
Mathematics 101-104 
Medical School, Preparation for 35-36 
Minorit)' Affairs 

(See Intercultural Advancement) 
Music Activities 19 
Music 104-109 
Music Education 

Bachelor of Science Degree 104 
Ninth Semester Education Program 65 
Nursing, Dual-Degree Program 36 
Off-Campus Study 29-33 
Optometry, Dual-Degree Program 36 
Orchestra 19 

Overseas Programs (See Off-Campus Study) 
Owl & Nightingale Players 19 
Performing Arts 19 
Phi Beta Kappa 41 
Philosophy 109-111 
Physical and Learning Disabilities 

Policy on Accommodation of 27 
Physics 111-114 
Political Science 114-119 
Portuguese 135 
Preprofessional Studies 

Physical Therapy 36 

Predental 35 

Prelaw 35 

Premedical 35-36 
Presidential Scholars Program 10 
Prizes and Awards 146-162 
Psychology 119-122 
Readmission 39-40 
Recreation Programs 21 



Refund Policy 8 

Registration 37 

Religion 122-125 

Religious Life 20 

Residence Life 1 2 

Residence Requirements 39 

SAT 5 

Senior Scholars' Seminar 27-28 

Sociology and Anthropology 125-131 

Sororities (See Greek Organizations) 

Spanish 131-135 

Special Major 26 

Speech 138 

Student Programs and Activities 18-21 

Student Conduct 15 

Student Government 17 

Student Newspaper (Gettysburgian) 19 

Student Originated Studies 27 

Student Radio Station (WZBT) 19 

Student Yearbook (The Spectrum) 19 

Study Abroad (See Off-Campus Study) 

Teacher Education Programs 36 

Teacher Placement 36 

Theatre Arts 135-138 

Transcripts 39 

Transfer Credit 38 

Transfer Students 6 

Veterinary School Preparation 35 

Veterans' Administration Benefits 8 

Visual Arts 138-143 

Wilson College Exchange 33 

Withdrawal and Readmission 39-40 

Women's Studies 143-145 

Writing Center 67 



Listing for Correspondence 



► 



Mailing Address: 

Gettysburg College 
300 N. Washington St. 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 17325 

Telephone: 

717-337-6000 

Academic Information 

Daniel DeNicf)la, Provost 

Finance and Administration 

Jennie L. Mingolelli, Vice President for Finance and 
Administration/Treasurer 

Admission 

Gail M. Sweezey, Director of Admissions 

Alumni Affairs 

Joe Lynch, Director of Alumni Relations 

Athletics 

Charles W. Winters, Director of Intmollfgiate Athletics 

Career Planning 

Kathleen L. Williams, Assistant Dean /Director of 
Career Planning and Advising 

Church Relations 

Rev. Joseph A. Donnella II, (Chaplain 

College Relations 

Lex O. McMillan III, Vice President for College 
Relations 

Counseling Services 

William H.Jones, Coordinator of Counseling 

Sirvices 

Enrollment and Educational Services 

David J. Cowan, Dean of Enrollment and 
Educationcd Services 

Financial Aid 

Ronald L. Sliunk, Director of Financial Aid 

Financial Services/Student Accounts 

Ellen M. McCarthy, Controller and Director of 
Financial Services 

General College Policy and Information 

Patricia A. Lawson, Associate Vice President for 
Communications and Public Relations 

Information Resources 

David P. Steinoiu, Interim Vice Provost for 
Information Resources and Director of Computing 

Musselman Library 

Robin Wagner, Director of Library Services 

Public Relations 

Patricia Lawson, Associate Vice President for 
Communications and Public Relations 

Records and Transcripts 

(i. Ronald Ckjuchman, Registrar 

Student Affairs 

Julie L. Ramsey, Dean of the College 



Advisers and Coordinators of 

Special Programs at Gettysburg College 

Adviser to Minority Students 

Peter Curry, Dean of I ntemdtural Advancement 

Affirmative Action/Title IX 

Perrin B. Reid, Director of Employment Equity Cf 
Diversity 

Coordinator/Sexual Harassment Officer 

Perrin B. Reid, Director of Employment Equity i^ 
Diversity 

Contact Person for Continuing Education 

G. Ronald C^ouchman, Registrar 

Coordinator of Dual-Degree Program in Engineering 

Sharon L. Stephenson, Department of Physics 

Coordinator of Dual-Degree Program in Forestry 
and Environmental Studies 

John A. (]ommito, Department of Environmental 
Studies 

Coordinator of Dual-Degree Program in Nursing 

Ralph A. Sorensen, Department of Biology 

Coordinator of Dual-Degree Program in Optometry 

Ralph A. Sorensen, Department of Biology 

Coordinator of International Student Affairs 

Rebecca Bergren, Coordinator of OJf Campus 
Studies and International Student Affairs 

Coordinator of Off-Campus Programs 

Rebecca Bergren, Coordinator of Off-Campus 
Studies and International Student Affairs 

Coordinator of the Writing Center 

John E. Ryan, Department of English 

Internship Coordinator 

Deborah M. Wailes, Director of Internships 

Prehealth Professions Adviser 

Ralph A. Sorensen, Department of Biology 

Prelaw Adviser 

Kenneth F. Mott, Department of Political Science 

Students and Employees with Disabilities 
Coordinator of Access Policies 

Jane H. North, Director of Human Resources 
Perrin B. Reid, Director of Employment Equity iff 
Diversity 



Gettysburg College— Calendar for 2000-2001 



FALL SEMESTER, 2001 

August 23-26, Thursday-Sunday 

August 26, Sunday 

August 27, Monday 

September 28-30, Friday-Sunday 

October 8-9, Monday-Tuesday 

October 19, Friday 

October 19-21, Friday-Sunday 

October 1 9, Friday 

November 8, Thursday, 11:30 a.m. 

November 20, Tuesday, 5:00 p.m. 

Noxember 26, Monday, 8:00 a.m. 

December 7, Friday 

December 8-9, Saturday-Sunday 

December 9-14, Sunday p.m.-Friday 

December 17, Monday, 5:00 p.m. 



Orientation 
Registradon 
Classes begin 
Alumni Homecoming 
Reading days 
Fall Honors Day 
Family Weekend 
Mid-semester reports due 
Fall Convocation 
Thanksgiving recess begins 
Thanksgiving recess ends 
Last clay of classes 
Reading days 
Final examinations 
All grades due 



SPRING SEMESTER, 2002 

January 16, Wednesday 

January 17, Thmsday 

March 8, Friday 

March 8, Friday, 5:00 p.m. 

March 18, Monday, 8:00 a.m. 

March 28, Thiusday 

March 28. Thursday, 5:00 p.m. 

April 2, Tuesday, 8:00 a.m. 

April 20, Saturday 

May 3, Friday 

May 4-5, Satmclay-Sunday 

May .5-10, Simday p.m.-Friday 

May 13, Monday, 5:00 p.m. 

May 18, Saturday 

May 18-19, Saturday-Sunday 

May 30-June 2, Thursday-Simday 



Registration adjustments 
Classes begin 
Mid-semester reports due 
Spring recess begins 
Spring recess ends 

(Follow Monday schedule) 
Easter recess begins 
Easter recess ends 
Get-Acquainted Day 
Last day of classes 
Reading days 
Final examinations 
All grades due 
Spring Honors Day 
Baccalaureate and 

Commencement Weekend 
Alumni College and 

Reimion Weekend 



// is llif /jolicy of Gellysbiiig College not to diseriminrile improperly ngninsl any mnlriiiildled student, employee 
or prospective employee on account of age, race, color, religion, ethnic or national origin, gender, sexual orienta- 
lion, or being differently ahled. Such policy is in rompliance with the requirements of Title VII of the Civil 
Rights Act of 1964, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. the Rehahilitation Act oj 1973, and all 
other a pplic(d)le federal, slate, and local statutes, ordinances, and regulations. Inf/uiries concerning the appli- 
cation of any of these laws may be directed to the Afpnnative Action Officer at the College or to the Director of 
the Office p>r Civil Rights. Department of Education, Washington. D.C. for laws, such as 'title IX of the 
Education Amendments of 1972 and the Rehabilitaliini Act if 1973, administered by that departmoit. 



sbiirg College is accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools 






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